(17.4) Zhāng Hé 張郃 [Jùnyì 雋乂]

(last updated 2021-8-16)

Zhāng Hé appellation Jùnyì was a Héjiān Mò man. At Hàn’s end he answered recruitment to suppress Huángjīn, becoming an Army Major, subordinate to Hán Fù. [Hán] Fù was defeated, and with his troops [Zhāng Hé] joined Yuán Shào. [Yuán] Shào appointed Hé as a Colonel, sending him to resist Gōngsūn Zàn. [Gōngsūn] Zàn was defeated, Hé’s achievements were many, promoted to Pacifying the State Internal Cadet General.

張郃字雋乂,河間鄚人也。漢末應募討黃巾,為軍司馬,屬韓馥。馥敗,以兵歸袁紹。紹以郃為校尉,使拒公孫瓚。瓚破,郃功多,遷寧國中郎將。

Tàizǔ with Yuán Shào mutually resisted at Guāndù, (1) Shào sent officers Chúnyú Qióng and others to command transports garrisoning Wūcháo, Tàizǔ personally commanded an urgent strike against it. Hé advised [Yuán] Shào saying: “Excellency Cáo’s troops are elite, going he will certainly defeat [Chúnyú] Qióng and the rest; [if Chúnyú] Qióng and the rest are defeated, then General your affairs will be lost; it is appropriate to urgently draw troops to rescue them.” Guō Tú said: “Hé’s plan is wrong. It is not as good as attacking their base camp, in that situation they will certainly return, this is to without rescuing have itself resolve.” Hé said: “Excellency Cáo’s camp is firm, attacking it, it will certainly not be taken, if [Chúnyú] Qióng and the rest meet with capture, we subordinates will completely become prisoners.” [Yuán] Shào only sent light cavalry to rescue [Chúnyú] Qióng, and with heavy troops attacked Tàizǔ’s camp, [but] could not take it. Tàizǔ indeed defeated [Chúnyú] Qióng and the rest, Shào’s army dispersed, [Guō] Tú was ashamed, and also further slandered Hé saying: “Hé was pleased the army was defeated, letting out words that were not humble.” Hé was afraid, and therefore joined Tàizǔ. (2)

太祖與袁紹相拒於官渡,〔一〕紹遣將淳于瓊等督運屯烏巢,太祖自將急擊之。郃說紹曰:「曹公兵精,往必破瓊等;瓊等破,則將軍事去矣,宜急引兵救之。」郭圖曰:「郃計非也。不如攻其本營,勢必還,此為不救而自解也。」郃曰:「曹公營固,攻之必不拔,若瓊等見禽,吾屬盡為虜矣。」紹但遣輕騎救瓊,而以重兵攻太祖營,不能下。太祖果破瓊等,紹軍潰。圖慚,又更譖郃曰:「郃快軍敗,出言不遜。」郃懼,乃歸太祖。〔二〕

  • (1) Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: Hé advised [Yuán] Shào saying: “Though your Excellency is repeatedly victorious, however do not with Excellency Cáo battle, secretly send light cavalry to plunder their south, then their troops will on their own be defeated.” [Yuán] Shào did not follow this.

〔一〕 漢晉春秋曰:郃說紹曰:「公雖連勝,然勿與曹公戰也,密遣輕騎鈔絕其南,則兵自敗矣。」紹不從之。

  • (2) Your Servant Sōngzhī notes: Wǔ-jì and Yuán Shào’s biography both say Yuán Shào sent Zhāng Hé and Gāo Lǎn to attack Tàizǔ’s camp, Hé and the rest heard Chúnyú Qióng was defeated, and therefore came to surrender, and [Yuán] Shào’s forces therefore greatly dispersed. In that case then it was originally Hé and the rest surrendering and afterward [Yuán] Shào’s army collapsed. As for this biography, it is [Yuán] Shào’s army first dispersing, fearing Guō Tú’s slander, and then afterward joining Tàizǔ, it is confused and mistaken and not the same.

〔二〕 臣松之案武紀及袁紹傳並云袁紹使張郃、高覽攻太祖營,郃等聞淳于瓊破,遂來降,紹眾於是大潰。是則緣郃等降而後紹軍壞也。至如此傳,為紹軍先潰,懼郭圖之譖,然後歸太祖,為參錯不同矣。


Tàizǔ obtained Hé and was extremely pleased, saying: “In the past Zǐxū did not early become aware, personally causing himself to be endangered, how can it compare to Wēi-zǐ leaving Yīn or Hán Xìn joining Hàn?” Appointed Hé Supporting General, enfeoffed as a capital precinct Marquis. Given armies, followed in attacking Yè, took it. Also followed in striking Yuán Tán at Bóhǎi, separately commanding army to besiege Yōng Nú, greatly defeating him. Followed in suppressing Liǔchéng, with Zhāng Liáo both as the army’s front, for achievements promoted to Pacifying Dí General. Separately campaigned against Dōnglái, suppressed Guǎn Chéng, also with Zhāng Liáo suppressed Chén Lán and Mé Chéng and others, defeating them. Followed in defeating Mǎ Chāo and Hán Suì at Wèinán. Besieged Āndìng, forcing surrendering of Yáng Qiū. With Xiàhóu Yuān suppressed Fū rebel Liáng Xīng and the Wǔdū Dī. Again defeated Mǎ Chāo, pacified Sòng Jiàn. Tàizǔ campaigned against Zhāng Lǔ, first sending Hé to command the various armies to suppress Xīnghé’s Dī king Dòumào. Tàizǔ from Sàn pass entered Hànzhōng, again first sending Hé to command infantry of 5000 at the front to connect roads. Reached Yángpíng, [Zhāng] Lǔ surrendered, Tàizǔ returned, leaving Hé with Xiàhóu Yuān and others to defend Hànzhōng and resist Liú Bèi. Hé separately commanded various armies, forcing surrender of Bādōng and Bāxī two prefectures, moving its people to Hànzhōng. Advanced army to Dàngqú, was by [Liú] Bèi’s officer Zhāng Fēi resisted, drew back to Nánzhèng. Appointed Washing Away Bandits General.

太祖得郃甚喜,謂曰:「昔子胥不早寤,自使身危,豈若微子去殷、韓信歸漢邪?」拜郃偏將軍,封都亭侯。授以眾,從攻鄴,拔之。又從擊袁譚於渤海,別將軍圍雍奴,大破之。從討柳城,與張遼俱為軍鋒,以功遷平狄將軍。別征東萊,討管承,又與張遼討陳蘭、梅成等,破之。從破馬超、韓遂於渭南。圍安定,降楊秋。與夏侯淵討鄜賊梁興及武都氐。又破馬超,平宋建。太祖征張魯,先遣郃督諸軍討興和氐王竇茂。太祖從散關入漢中,又先遣郃督步卒五千於前通路。至陽平,魯降,太祖還,留郃與夏侯淵等守漢中,拒劉備。郃別督諸軍,降巴東、巴西二郡,徙其民於漢中。進軍宕渠,為備將張飛所拒,引還南鄭。拜盪寇將軍。

Liú Bèi garrisoned Yángpíng, Hé garrisoned Guǎngshí. Bèi with elite troops of over ten thousand, divided into ten divisions, in the night urgently attacked Hé. Hé led close troops to fight battle, [Liú] Bèi could not overcome. Afterward [Liú] Bèi at Zǒumǎ valley burned the barricades, [Xiàhóu] Yuān fought the fire, from another road with [Liú] Bèi mutually encountered, met in battle, short weapons joining blades. [Xiàhóu] Yuān thus died, Hé returned to Yángpíng. (1) At that time, they had newly lost their primary commander, feared that [Liú] Bèi would follow up, and the Three Armies all lost color. [Xiàhóu] Yuān’s Major Guō Huái then ordered the masses saying: “General Zhāng is the state’s famed general, one Liú Bèi fears. Today the situation is desperate, if it is not General Zhāng, it cannot be safe.” Therefore they elected Hé as the army commander. Hé set out, reined in the troops and secured the lines, the various officers all received Hé’s regulations, and the armies’ hearts were thus settled. Tàizǔ was at Cháng’ān, and sent envoy to Lend Hé Staff. Tàizǔ then personally reached Hànzhōng, Liú Bèi protected high mountains and did not dare battle. Tàizǔ thus drew out Hànzhōng’s various armies, Hé returned to garrison Chéncāng.

劉備屯陽平,郃屯廣石。備以精卒萬餘,分為十部,夜急攻郃。郃率親兵搏戰,備不能克。其後備於走馬谷燒都圍,淵救火,從他道與備相遇,交戰,短兵接刃。淵遂沒,郃還陽平。〔一〕當是時,新失元帥,恐為備所乘,三軍皆失色。淵司馬郭淮乃令眾曰:「張將軍,國家名將,劉備所憚;今日事急,非張將軍不能安也。」遂推郃為軍主。郃出,勒兵安陳,諸將皆受郃節度,眾心乃定。太祖在長安,遣使假郃節。太祖遂自至漢中,劉備保高山不敢戰。太祖乃引出漢中諸軍,郃還屯陳倉。

  • (1) Wèilüè states: [Xiàhóu] Yuān though was the chief commander, Liú Bèi feared Hé and thought little of Yuān. At the killing of Yuān, Bèi said: “In obtaining this head, what use it?”

〔一〕 魏略曰:淵雖為都督,劉備憚郃而易淵。及殺淵,備曰:「當得其魁,用此何為邪!」


Emperor Wén succeeded the King’s throne, appointed Hé as Left General, advanced noble rank to a capital village Marquis. Reaching the Ascension, advanced fief to Mò Marquis. Imperial Order on Hé with Cáo Zhēn to suppress Āndìng Lúshuǐ’s Hú and eastern Qiāng, summoned Hé with [Cáo] Zhēn both to attend Court at Xǔ Palace, sending them south with Xiàhóu Shàng to strike Jiānglíng. Hé separately commanded various armies to cross the Jiāng, capturing garrisons and docks on the islets.

文帝即王位,以郃為左將軍,進爵都鄉侯。及踐阼,進封鄚侯。詔郃與曹真討安定盧水胡及東羌,召郃與真並朝許宮,遣南與夏侯尚擊江陵。郃別督諸軍渡江,取洲上屯塢。

Emperor Míng succeeded the throne, sent south to garrison Jīng Province, with Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng striking Sūn Quán’s separate officer Liú Ē and others, pursuing to reach Qíkǒu, met in battle, defeated them. Zhūgě Liàng set out against Qíshān. Added Hé rank as Specially advanced, sent to command various armies, resisted [Zhūgě] Liáng’s officer Mǎ Sù at Jiētíng. [Mǎ] Sù depended on obstructing Nán mountain, did not go down to occupy the city. Hé cut off their water supply route, struck, greatly defeated them. Nán’ān, Tiānshuǐ, and Āndìng prefectures all rebelled to answer [Zhūgě] Liàng, Hé all defeated and pacified them. Imperial Order said: “Rebel [Zhūgě] Liàng with Bāshǔ’s armies, opposed our roaring tiger armies. You General held firm and wielded blade, wherever you headed you overcame and settled, We extremely commend this. Increase fief by 1000 households, adding to the previous to 4300 households.”

明帝即位,遣南屯荊州,與司馬宣王擊孫權別將劉阿等,追至祁口,交戰,破之。諸葛亮出祁山。加郃位特進,遣督諸軍,拒亮將馬謖於街亭。謖依阻南山,不下據城。郃絕其汲道,擊,大破之。南安、天水、安定郡反應亮,郃皆破平之。詔曰:「賊亮以巴蜀之眾,當虓虎之師。將軍被堅執銳,所向克定,朕甚嘉之。益邑千戶,并前四千三百戶。」

Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng built navy at Jīng Province, wishing to follow the Miǎn to enter the Jiāng to attack Wú, Imperial Order had Hé command Guānzhōng’s various armies go receive their commands. Reached Jīng Province, it happened that the winter waters were shallow, the large ships could not go, thus returned to garrison Fāngchéng.

司馬宣王治水軍於荊州,欲順沔入江伐吳,詔郃督關中諸軍往受節度。至荊州,會冬水淺,大船不得行,乃還屯方城。

Zhūgě Liàng again set out, urgently attacking Chéncāng, the Emperor with relay horse summoned Hé to the capital. The Emperor personally visited Hénán city, setting liquor to send off Hé, sending south and north army troops of thirty thousand and divided and sent Martial Guard and Tiger Elite to escort and guard Hé, and therefore asked Hé: “When at last you General arrive, [Zhūgě] Liàng would not have already obtained Chéncāng?” Hé knew [Zhūgě] Liàng’s local armies were without grain, and were not able to for long attack, and replied: “More likely when I your servant have not yet arrived, [Zhūgě] Liàng will have already fled. Counting on fingers one can calculate that [Zhūgě] Liàng’s provisions will not last ten days.” Hé morning and night advanced to Nánzhèng, [Zhūgě] Liàng retreated. Imperial Order on Hé to return to the capital, appointed him Campaigning West Chariots and Cavalry General.

諸葛亮復出,急攻陳倉,帝驛馬召郃到京都。帝自幸河南城,置酒送郃,遣南北軍士三萬及分遣武衛、虎賁使衛郃,因問郃曰:「遲將軍到,亮得無已得陳倉乎!」郃知亮縣軍無穀,不能久攻,對曰:「比臣未到,亮已走矣;屈指計亮糧不至十日。」郃晨夜進至南鄭,亮退。詔郃還京都,拜征西車騎將軍。


Hé understood changing calculations, was good as organizing camps and battle lines, anticipating battle situations and terrain, nothing he did not calculate, so that Zhūgě Liàng all feared him. Hé though was a military officer yet loved and enjoyed classicist scholars, once recommended his same hometown’s Bēi Zhàn as understanding the classics and enacting cultivation, Imperial Order said: “In the past Zhài Zūn was an officer, memorialized to install Five Classics Grandees, to reside in the army, and with the various students enjoy songs and throw darts. Now you General outside rein in weapons and brigades, inside think of state and court. We commend your intentions General, and now promote [Bēi] Zhàn as an Academic Scholar.”

郃識變數,善處營陳,料戰勢地形,無不如計,自諸葛亮皆憚之。郃雖武將而愛樂儒士,嘗薦同鄉卑湛經明行修,詔曰:「昔祭遵為將,奏置五經大夫,居軍中,與諸生雅歌投壺。今將軍外勒戎旅,內存國朝。朕嘉將軍之意,今擢湛為博士。」


Zhūgě Liàng again set out against Qíshān, Imperial Order on Hé to command the various officers west to Lüèyáng, [Zhūgě] Liàng returned to protect Qíshān, Hé pursued to reach Mùmén, with [Zhūgě] Liàng’s army met in battle, flying arrow struck Hé’s right knee, he died. (1) Posthumous name Zhuàng-hóu “Strong Marquis.” His son Xióng succeeded. Hé beginning to end on campaign had achievements, Emperor Míng divided Hé’s fief, to enfeoff Hé’s four sons as Ranked Marquis, bestowed on youngest son noble rank as Marquis Within the Passes.

諸葛亮復出祁山,詔郃督諸將西至略陽,亮還保祁山,郃追至木門,與亮軍交戰,飛矢中郃右膝,薨,〔一〕諡曰壯侯。子雄嗣。郃前後征伐有功,明帝分郃戶,封郃四子列侯。賜小子爵關內侯。

  • (1) Wèilüè states: [Zhūgě] Liàng’s army retreated, Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng sent Hé to pursue them, Hé said: “In army methods, in besieging cities one must open an exit road, a returning army is not pursued.” [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng did not listen. Hé had no choice, and therefore advanced. The Shǔ army climbed high and spread ambush, bows and crossbows chaotically shooting, arrow struck Hé’s thigh.

〔一〕 魏略曰:亮軍退,司馬宣王使郃追之,郃曰:「軍法,圍城必開出路,歸軍勿追。」宣王不聽。郃不得已,遂進。蜀軍乘高布伏,弓弩亂發,矢中郃髀。

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