(last updated 2021-8-16)
Zhāng Hé appellation Jùnyì was a Héjiān Mò man. At Hàn’s end he answered recruitment to suppress Huángjīn, becoming an Army Major, subordinate to Hán Fù. [Hán] Fù was defeated, and with his troops [Zhāng Hé] joined Yuán Shào. [Yuán] Shào appointed Hé as a Colonel, sending him to resist Gōngsūn Zàn. [Gōngsūn] Zàn was defeated, Hé’s achievements were many, promoted to Pacifying the State Internal Cadet General.
Tàizǔ with Yuán Shào mutually resisted at Guāndù, (1) Shào sent officers Chúnyú Qióng and others to command transports garrisoning Wūcháo, Tàizǔ personally commanded an urgent strike against it. Hé advised [Yuán] Shào saying: “Excellency Cáo’s troops are elite, going he will certainly defeat [Chúnyú] Qióng and the rest; [if Chúnyú] Qióng and the rest are defeated, then General your affairs will be lost; it is appropriate to urgently draw troops to rescue them.” Guō Tú said: “Hé’s plan is wrong. It is not as good as attacking their base camp, in that situation they will certainly return, this is to without rescuing have itself resolve.” Hé said: “Excellency Cáo’s camp is firm, attacking it, it will certainly not be taken, if [Chúnyú] Qióng and the rest meet with capture, we subordinates will completely become prisoners.” [Yuán] Shào only sent light cavalry to rescue [Chúnyú] Qióng, and with heavy troops attacked Tàizǔ’s camp, [but] could not take it. Tàizǔ indeed defeated [Chúnyú] Qióng and the rest, Shào’s army dispersed, [Guō] Tú was ashamed, and also further slandered Hé saying: “Hé was pleased the army was defeated, letting out words that were not humble.” Hé was afraid, and therefore joined Tàizǔ. (2)
- (1) Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: Hé advised [Yuán] Shào saying: “Though your Excellency is repeatedly victorious, however do not with Excellency Cáo battle, secretly send light cavalry to plunder their south, then their troops will on their own be defeated.” [Yuán] Shào did not follow this.
- (2) Your Servant Sōngzhī notes: Wǔ-jì and Yuán Shào’s biography both say Yuán Shào sent Zhāng Hé and Gāo Lǎn to attack Tàizǔ’s camp, Hé and the rest heard Chúnyú Qióng was defeated, and therefore came to surrender, and [Yuán] Shào’s forces therefore greatly dispersed. In that case then it was originally Hé and the rest surrendering and afterward [Yuán] Shào’s army collapsed. As for this biography, it is [Yuán] Shào’s army first dispersing, fearing Guō Tú’s slander, and then afterward joining Tàizǔ, it is confused and mistaken and not the same.
Tàizǔ obtained Hé and was extremely pleased, saying: “In the past Zǐxū did not early become aware, personally causing himself to be endangered, how can it compare to Wēi-zǐ leaving Yīn or Hán Xìn joining Hàn?” Appointed Hé Supporting General, enfeoffed as a capital precinct Marquis. Given armies, followed in attacking Yè, took it. Also followed in striking Yuán Tán at Bóhǎi, separately commanding army to besiege Yōng Nú, greatly defeating him. Followed in suppressing Liǔchéng, with Zhāng Liáo both as the army’s front, for achievements promoted to Pacifying Dí General. Separately campaigned against Dōnglái, suppressed Guǎn Chéng, also with Zhāng Liáo suppressed Chén Lán and Mé Chéng and others, defeating them. Followed in defeating Mǎ Chāo and Hán Suì at Wèinán. Besieged Āndìng, forcing surrendering of Yáng Qiū. With Xiàhóu Yuān suppressed Fū rebel Liáng Xīng and the Wǔdū Dī. Again defeated Mǎ Chāo, pacified Sòng Jiàn. Tàizǔ campaigned against Zhāng Lǔ, first sending Hé to command the various armies to suppress Xīnghé’s Dī king Dòumào. Tàizǔ from Sàn pass entered Hànzhōng, again first sending Hé to command infantry of 5000 at the front to connect roads. Reached Yángpíng, [Zhāng] Lǔ surrendered, Tàizǔ returned, leaving Hé with Xiàhóu Yuān and others to defend Hànzhōng and resist Liú Bèi. Hé separately commanded various armies, forcing surrender of Bādōng and Bāxī two prefectures, moving its people to Hànzhōng. Advanced army to Dàngqú, was by [Liú] Bèi’s officer Zhāng Fēi resisted, drew back to Nánzhèng. Appointed Washing Away Bandits General.
Liú Bèi garrisoned Yángpíng, Hé garrisoned Guǎngshí. Bèi with elite troops of over ten thousand, divided into ten divisions, in the night urgently attacked Hé. Hé led close troops to fight battle, [Liú] Bèi could not overcome. Afterward [Liú] Bèi at Zǒumǎ valley burned the barricades, [Xiàhóu] Yuān fought the fire, from another road with [Liú] Bèi mutually encountered, met in battle, short weapons joining blades. [Xiàhóu] Yuān thus died, Hé returned to Yángpíng. (1) At that time, they had newly lost their primary commander, feared that [Liú] Bèi would follow up, and the Three Armies all lost color. [Xiàhóu] Yuān’s Major Guō Huái then ordered the masses saying: “General Zhāng is the state’s famed general, one Liú Bèi fears. Today the situation is desperate, if it is not General Zhāng, it cannot be safe.” Therefore they elected Hé as the army commander. Hé set out, reined in the troops and secured the lines, the various officers all received Hé’s regulations, and the armies’ hearts were thus settled. Tàizǔ was at Cháng’ān, and sent envoy to Lend Hé Staff. Tàizǔ then personally reached Hànzhōng, Liú Bèi protected high mountains and did not dare battle. Tàizǔ thus drew out Hànzhōng’s various armies, Hé returned to garrison Chéncāng.
- (1) Wèilüè states: [Xiàhóu] Yuān though was the chief commander, Liú Bèi feared Hé and thought little of Yuān. At the killing of Yuān, Bèi said: “In obtaining this head, what use it?”
Emperor Wén succeeded the King’s throne, appointed Hé as Left General, advanced noble rank to a capital village Marquis. Reaching the Ascension, advanced fief to Mò Marquis. Imperial Order on Hé with Cáo Zhēn to suppress Āndìng Lúshuǐ’s Hú and eastern Qiāng, summoned Hé with [Cáo] Zhēn both to attend Court at Xǔ Palace, sending them south with Xiàhóu Shàng to strike Jiānglíng. Hé separately commanded various armies to cross the Jiāng, capturing garrisons and docks on the islets.
Emperor Míng succeeded the throne, sent south to garrison Jīng Province, with Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng striking Sūn Quán’s separate officer Liú Ē and others, pursuing to reach Qíkǒu, met in battle, defeated them. Zhūgě Liàng set out against Qíshān. Added Hé rank as Specially advanced, sent to command various armies, resisted [Zhūgě] Liáng’s officer Mǎ Sù at Jiētíng. [Mǎ] Sù depended on obstructing Nán mountain, did not go down to occupy the city. Hé cut off their water supply route, struck, greatly defeated them. Nán’ān, Tiānshuǐ, and Āndìng prefectures all rebelled to answer [Zhūgě] Liàng, Hé all defeated and pacified them. Imperial Order said: “Rebel [Zhūgě] Liàng with Bāshǔ’s armies, opposed our roaring tiger armies. You General held firm and wielded blade, wherever you headed you overcame and settled, We extremely commend this. Increase fief by 1000 households, adding to the previous to 4300 households.”
Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng built navy at Jīng Province, wishing to follow the Miǎn to enter the Jiāng to attack Wú, Imperial Order had Hé command Guānzhōng’s various armies go receive their commands. Reached Jīng Province, it happened that the winter waters were shallow, the large ships could not go, thus returned to garrison Fāngchéng.
Zhūgě Liàng again set out, urgently attacking Chéncāng, the Emperor with relay horse summoned Hé to the capital. The Emperor personally visited Hénán city, setting liquor to send off Hé, sending south and north army troops of thirty thousand and divided and sent Martial Guard and Tiger Elite to escort and guard Hé, and therefore asked Hé: “When at last you General arrive, [Zhūgě] Liàng would not have already obtained Chéncāng?” Hé knew [Zhūgě] Liàng’s local armies were without grain, and were not able to for long attack, and replied: “More likely when I your servant have not yet arrived, [Zhūgě] Liàng will have already fled. Counting on fingers one can calculate that [Zhūgě] Liàng’s provisions will not last ten days.” Hé morning and night advanced to Nánzhèng, [Zhūgě] Liàng retreated. Imperial Order on Hé to return to the capital, appointed him Campaigning West Chariots and Cavalry General.
Hé understood changing calculations, was good as organizing camps and battle lines, anticipating battle situations and terrain, nothing he did not calculate, so that Zhūgě Liàng all feared him. Hé though was a military officer yet loved and enjoyed classicist scholars, once recommended his same hometown’s Bēi Zhàn as understanding the classics and enacting cultivation, Imperial Order said: “In the past Zhài Zūn was an officer, memorialized to install Five Classics Grandees, to reside in the army, and with the various students enjoy songs and throw darts. Now you General outside rein in weapons and brigades, inside think of state and court. We commend your intentions General, and now promote [Bēi] Zhàn as an Academic Scholar.”
Zhūgě Liàng again set out against Qíshān, Imperial Order on Hé to command the various officers west to Lüèyáng, [Zhūgě] Liàng returned to protect Qíshān, Hé pursued to reach Mùmén, with [Zhūgě] Liàng’s army met in battle, flying arrow struck Hé’s right knee, he died. (1) Posthumous name Zhuàng-hóu “Strong Marquis.” His son Xióng succeeded. Hé beginning to end on campaign had achievements, Emperor Míng divided Hé’s fief, to enfeoff Hé’s four sons as Ranked Marquis, bestowed on youngest son noble rank as Marquis Within the Passes.
- (1) Wèilüè states: [Zhūgě] Liàng’s army retreated, Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng sent Hé to pursue them, Hé said: “In army methods, in besieging cities one must open an exit road, a returning army is not pursued.” [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng did not listen. Hé had no choice, and therefore advanced. The Shǔ army climbed high and spread ambush, bows and crossbows chaotically shooting, arrow struck Hé’s thigh.