(42.9) Qiáo Zhōu 譙周 [Yǔnnán 允南]

Qiáo Zhōu appellation Yǔnnán was a Bāxī Xīyǔn man. His father Pīn appellation Róngshǐ studied the Shàng shū and also read the various classics and the and Wěi. The province and prefecture recruited and invited him, but all he did not answer, the province accepted him as temporary Teacher Friend Attending Official. Zhōu when young was fatherless, with his mother’s elder brother together resided. When grown, he focused on ancient diligent study, his family was poor but he did not once investigate business, recited and read books, happy to laugh alone, forgetting to rest and eat. He researched the Six Classics, and was exceptionally good at calligraphy. He somewhat understood Heaven’s Signs [astrology], but did not leave attention to it. The written works of the various masters were not where his heart was, so he did not completely read them. His height was eight chǐ, his appearance unadorned, his nature focused on sincerity and was not decorated. He was without skill in fast debate, but he was secretly knowledgeable and inwardly clever.

譙周字允南,巴西西充國人也。父〈山幷〉,字榮始,治尚書,兼通諸經及圖、緯。州郡辟請,皆不應,州就假師友從事。周幼孤,與母兄同居。既長,耽古篤學,家貧未嘗問產業,誦讀典籍,欣然獨笑,以忘寢食。研精六經,尤善書札。頗曉天文,而不以留意;諸子文章非心所存,不悉遍視也。身長八尺,體貌素朴,性推誠不飾,無造次辯論之才,然潛識內敏。


During Jiànxīng, Chancellor [Zhūgě] Liàng was designate Yì province Governor, ordering Zhōu as Urging Study Attending Official. (1) [Zhūgě] Liàng died on the battle field, Zhōu was at home and heard, and at once hurried to go, soon there was Imperial Order forbidding this, only Zhōu due to the speed of his travels was able to arrive. General-in-Chief Jiǎng Wǎn as designate Inspector transferred him to Standard Study Attending Official, managing the province’s scholars.

建興中,丞相亮領益州牧,命周為勸學從事。〔一〕亮卒於敵庭,周在家聞問,即便奔赴,尋有詔書禁斷,惟周以速行得達。大將軍蔣琬領刺史,徙為典學從事,總州之學者。

  • (1) Shǔjì states: When Zhōu first met [Zhūgě] Liàng, [Zhūgě Liàng’s] left and right attendants all laughed. After he went out, managers requested to identify those that laughed. [Zhūgě] Liàng said: “Even I could not bear it, all the more for my left and right!”

〔一〕 蜀記曰:周初見亮,左右皆笑。既出,有司請推笑者,亮曰:「孤尚不能忍,況左右乎!」


When Hòuzhǔ [Liú Shàn] enthroned an Heir-Apparent [Liú Xuán], appointed Zhōu as [Heir-Apparent’s] Charioteer, transferred to [Heir-Apparent’s] Household Director. At the time Hòuzhǔ tended to go out to tour and observe, and expanded music. Zhōu sent up memorial remonstrating that said:

“In the past at Wáng Mǎng’s defeat, towering figures all rose up, striding provinces and occupying prefectures, wishing to wield the Divine Vessels, and therefore the worthy talents and wise servicemen thought of and looked for where to submit, not necessarily by whether their power was wide or narrow, but whether their virtue was meager or thick. Therefore at the time Gēngshǐ [Liú Xuán] and Gōngsūn Shù and those with large forces were many and already wide-spread, however none of them did not indulge feelings and follow desires, negligent of doing good, traveling and hunting and drinking and eating, not sympathizing with the people. When Shìzǔ [Liú Xiù] first entered the Hé’s north, Féng Yì and the rest urged him saying: “You must do what others cannot do.” Therefore he attended to resolving injustices, was frugal in drink and food, his actions complied with law, and therefore the northern provinces sang and sighed, its sound spreading in four directions. Therefore Dèng Yǔ from Nányáng followed after him, Wú Hàn and Kòu Xún did not yet know Shìzǔ but from afar heard of his virtuous conduct, and therefore with expedient plans raised Yúyáng and Shànggǔ to rush cavalry to welcome him at Guǎng’ē. The rest watching for and admiring virtue Pī Róng, Gěng Chún, Liú Zhí and their sort, that went as far as to arrive with carriages of the sick and with coffins and carrying children on their backs, cannot be counted, and therefore he was able to turn the weak into the strong, slaughter Wáng Láng, absorb the Tóngmǎ, break the Chìméi, and achieve the Emperor’s enterprise. When at Luòyáng, he once wished to make a small excursion, the Carriage was already prepared, Yáo Qī remonstrated saying: “Heaven’s Under is not yet peaceful, I your servant truly do not wish for Your Majesty to repeatedly go out on trifling journeys.” Immediately he turned back the carriage. Reaching to the campaign against Wěi Āo, Yǐngchuān bandits rose up, Shìzǔ returned to Luòyáng, only sending Kòu Xún to go, [Kòu] Xún said: “Yǐngchuān because of Your Majesty’s distant campaign therefore had the treacherous and sly rise in rebellion, do not yet know Your Majesty has returned, and one fears they will not timely surrender. If Your Majesty personally faces them, the Yǐngchuān bandits will certainly at once surrender.” Therefore he arrived at Yǐngchuān, and indeed it was as [Kòu] Xún said. Therefore if it is not an urgent task, to wish for a small excursion and not dare to, and if it is an urgent task, to wish to be at ease and to not do so, is therefore an Emperor’s wish for the good like this. Therefore the Zhuàn saying: ‘The Hundred Surnames do not for no reason attach,” truly is virtue taking precedence. Now Hàn has encountered misfortune, Heaven’s Under divided in three, the time of imposing and wise servicemen thinking and watching. Your Majesty’s natural character is of utmost filial piety, mourned for over three years, speaking of the passing in tears, even Zēng Mǐn does not surpass it. You respect the worthy and appoint the talented, causing them to devote their strength, surpassing Chéng Kāng. Therefore the state’s interior is harmonious everywhere, large and small join strength, what your servant cannot describe. However your servant cannot bear but have a giant hope, hoping to again expand to what others cannot do. To pull the large heaviness, those using strength are unfortunately not many, to select out the large hardships, those with good techniques are unfortunately not widespread, and moreover to carry on the affairs of the Ancestral Temple, is not to seek fortune and blessings, it is how to lead the people to honor superiors. As for the four season sacrifices, there are some not overseen, but in the observing of ponds and parks, there are still excursions. I your servant am muddled and slow and privately am not at ease. One concerned with responsibility on oneself, does not have time to devote to exhaustive music. The Former Emperor’s ambition is formed but not yet completed, it truly is not the time for exhaustive music. One hopes for reduction of music offices and the additional work of the Rear Palace, to only focus on cultivating what the Former Emperor bequeathed, and be for descendants a lesson of frugality.”

Transferred to Internal Scattered Grandee, while remaining an attendant to the Heir-Apparent.

後主立太子,以周為僕,轉家令。時後主頗出游觀,增廣聲樂。周上疏諫曰:「昔王莽之敗,豪傑並起,跨州據郡,欲弄神器,於是賢才智士思望所歸,未必以其勢之廣狹,惟其德之薄厚也。是故於時更始、公孫述及諸有大眾者多已廣大,然莫不快情恣欲,怠於為善,游獵飲食,不恤民物。世祖初入河北,馮異等勸之曰:『當行人所不能為。』遂務理冤獄,節儉飲食,動遵法度,故北州歌歎,聲布四遠。於是鄧禹自南陽追之,吳漢、寇恂未識世祖,遙聞德行,遂以權計舉漁陽、上谷突騎迎于廣阿。其餘望風慕德者邳肜、耿純、劉植之徒,至于輿病齎棺,繈負而至者,不可勝數,故能以弱為彊,屠王郎,吞銅馬,折赤眉而成帝業也。及在洛陽,嘗欲小出,車駕已御,銚期諫曰:『天下未寧,臣誠不願陛下細行數出。』即時還車。及征隗囂,潁川盜起,世祖還洛陽,但遣寇恂往,恂曰:『潁川以陛下遠征,故姦猾起叛,未知陛下還,恐不時降;陛下自臨,潁川賊必即降。』遂至潁川,竟如恂言。故非急務,欲小出不敢,至於急務,欲自安不為,故帝者之欲善也如此!故傳曰『百姓不徒附』,誠以德先之也。今漢遭厄運,天下三分,雄哲之士思望之時也。陛下天姿至孝,喪踰三年,言及隕涕,雖曾閔不過也。敬賢任才,使之盡力,有踰成康。故國內和一,大小戮力,臣所不能陳。然臣不勝大願,願復廣人所不能者。夫輓大重者,其用力苦不眾,拔大艱者,其善術苦不廣,且承事宗廟者,非徒求福祐,所以率民尊上也。至於四時之祀,或有不臨,池苑之觀,或有仍出,臣之愚滯,私不自安。夫憂責在身者,不暇盡樂,先帝之志,堂構未成,誠非盡樂之時。願省減樂官、後宮所增造,但奉脩先帝所施,下為子孫節儉之教。」徙為中散大夫,猶侍太子。


At the time the armies repeatedly set out, the Hundred Surnames were conscripted and worn, Zhōu with Secretariat Documents Director Chén Zhī discussed its benefits and harms, withdrew and wrote it, calling it Chóu Guó lùn [Discussion on Enemy States]. Its words said:

“Yīnyú state was small, and Zhàojiàn state was large, they battled at the time and became enemies. Yīnyú state’s Gāo Xiánqīng asked Fú Yúzǐ saying: ‘Now the state’s affairs are not yet settled, high and low labor hearts, in the ancient past’s affairs, those able to use the weak to overcome the strong, what were their methods?’ Fú Yúzǐ said: ‘I have heard of it, the residing large and without suffering are often sluggish, the residing small and with worries consider the good; often sluggish then produces chaos, considering the good then produces governance, a constant of reasoning. Therefore Zhōu Wén cared for the people, with a few taking the many, Gōujiàn sympathized with the masses, with the weak killing the strong, this is the method.’ Xiánqīng said: ‘In former times Xiàng was strong and Hàn was weak, they met in battle, without a day of rest, however Xiàng Yǔ with Hàn made treaty to divide with Hónggōu as border, each wishing to return to rest the people; Zhāng Liáng believed the people’s wills were already settled, and so difficult to move, and commanded pursuit of [Xiàng] Yǔ, in the end killing Xiàng shì, how is it required to follow Wén-wáng’s example? Zhàojiàn state now has epidemic, if we take advantage of this opening, invade their border areas, we can add to their epidemic and kill them. Fú Yúzǐ said: “At the time of Yīn and Zhōu, the kings and lords were for generations honored, the ruler and ministers for a long time firm, the people accustomed to the government; deep roots are difficult to pull out, the residing in firmness are difficult to move. At this time, how could even Hàn Zǔ wield sword and whip horse to seize Heaven’s Under? Then after Qín abolished lords and installed administrators, the people wearied of Qín’s conscription, Under Heaven the lands collapsed, some years changing ruler, some moons changing lords, birds startled and beasts alarmed, none knowing who to follow, therefore the large and strong all fought, as tigers breaking and wolves dividing, the fast and extensive obtained much, the slow and late were swallowed. Now we with Zhàojiàn all have transferred states and changed generations, already not the time of boiling cauldron of Qín’s end, truly there is the situation of the Six States all residing, and therefore we can be Wén-wáng, and it is difficult to be Hàn Zǔ. If the people are weary then the omens of disturbance appear, if high is sluggish and low is violent then the appearances of collapse rise. Proverb states: ‘Shooting by fortune frequently failing, is not as good as carefully firing.’ Therefore the wise do not for small benefits shift eyes, do not for thinking of resemblance change step, when the timing is permittable then afterward move, the numbers coincide and afterward rise, and therefore the forces of Tāng and Wǔ did not twice battle and succeeded, it truly was valuing the people’s labors and judging timing carefully. If then maximizing warfare and constantly campaigning, the situation of lands collapsing appears, if in misfortune there is encountering of trouble, then even if there are sages they are not able to plan for it. If then there is one of strange changes weave and warp, going out and going in are without gap, charging waves cutting paths, crossing valleys passing mountains, not by boats and oars yet crossing Méngjīn, I Yúzǐ truly do not match.

[Translator’s note: Qiáo Zhōu in naming his hypothetical states and individuals uses satirical character choices. The characters in Yīnyú can be literally understood as ‘remnant,’ Zhàojiàn as ‘newly established,’ Gāo Xiánqīng as ‘high worthy minister,’ Fú Yúzǐ as ‘submitting foolish master.]

于時軍旅數出,百姓彫瘁,周與尚書令陳祗論其利害,退而書之,謂之仇國論。其辭曰:「因餘之國小,而肇建之國大,並爭於世而為仇敵。因餘之國有高賢卿者,問於伏愚子曰:『今國事未定,上下勞心,往古之事,能以弱勝彊者,其術何如?』伏愚子曰:『吾聞之,處大無患者恆多慢,處小有憂者恆思善;多慢則生亂,思善則生治,理之常也。故周文養民,以少取多,勾踐卹眾,以弱斃彊,此其術也。』賢卿曰:『曩者項彊漢弱,相與戰爭,無日寧息,然項羽與漢約分鴻溝為界,各欲歸息民;張良以為民志既定,則難動也,尋帥追羽,終斃項氏,豈必由文王之事乎?肇建之國方有疾疢,我因其隙,陷其邊陲,覬增其疾而斃之也。』伏愚子曰:『當殷、周之際,王侯世尊,君臣久固,民習所專;深根者難拔,據固者難遷。當此之時,雖漢祖安能杖劍鞭馬而取天下乎?當秦罷侯置守之後,民疲秦役,天下土崩,或歲改主,或月易公,鳥驚獸駭,莫知所從,於是豪彊並爭,虎裂狼分,疾博者獲多,遲後者見吞。今我與肇建皆傳國易世矣,既非秦末鼎沸之時,實有六國並據之勢,故可為文王,難為漢祖。夫民疲勞則騷擾之兆生,上慢下暴則瓦解之形起。諺曰:「射幸數跌,不如審發。」是故智者不為小利移目,不為意似改步,時可而後動,數合而後舉,故湯、武之師不再戰而克,誠重民勞而度時審也。如遂極武黷征,土崩勢生,不幸遇難,雖有智者將不能謀之矣。若乃奇變縱橫,出入無間,衝波截轍,超谷越山,不由舟楫而濟盟津者,我愚子也,實所不及。』」


Later promoted to Merit Grandee, rank second to the Nine Ministers. Zhōu though did not participate in government affairs, for his classicist conduct met with courtesy, at the time in inquiring on great discussions, at once according to the classics he answered, and so later those with good service also consulted and asked him about their doubts.

後遷光祿大夫,位亞九列。周雖不與政事,以儒行見禮,時訪大議,輒據經以對,而後生好事者亦咨問所疑焉。


Jǐngyào Sixth Year [263], Wèi Chief General Dèng Ài overcame Jiāngyóu, increasing speed and advancing. But Shǔ originally said the enemy would not arrive, did not build city fortifications and defending preparations, on hearing [Dèng] Ài had already entered Yīnpíng, the Hundred Surnames were disturbed, all fleeing into mountains and fields, and could not be restricted and controlled. Hòuzhǔ had the various ministers gather to discuss, not knowing what to do. Some believed Shǔ and Wú originally were allied states and they could flee to Wú; some believed Nánzhōng’s seven prefectures were rugged and cut off, easy to use for self defense, and they could flee south. Only Zhōu believed: “Since the ancients onward, there has never been one who took refuge in another state who was Heaven’s Son, now if we enter Wú, assuredly it would be to submit as a subject. Moreover when governments are not different, then the large is able to swallow the small, this calculation is self-evident. By this speaking of it, then that Wèi is able to conquer Wú and Wú unable to conquer Wèi is obvious. To declare oneself subject to the small, and to do so to the large, the shame of two disgraces, how does it compare to one disgrace? Moreover if one wishes to flee south, then it should have earlier been planned and afterward it could be realized; now the large enemy is near, disaster and defeat about to arrive, the hearts of the various subordinates, can every one be guaranteed? One fears that on the day of setting out, if there is a change unexpected, how could there be an arrival to the south?”

Of the various ministers some criticized Zhōu saying: “Now [Dèng] Ài is not far away, one fears he will not accept surrender, what then?”

Zhōu said: “Right now eastern Wú has not submitted, the situation is such that he cannot but accept, and after accepting it, he cannot but be respectful. If Your Majesty surrenders to Wèi, if Wèi does not divide territory to give fief to Your Majesty, I Zhōu will personally visit their capital, to with ancient principles argue it.” Of everyone none were able to change Zhōu’s reasoning.

景耀六年冬,魏大將軍鄧艾克江由,長驅而前。而蜀本謂敵不便至,不作城守調度,及聞艾已入陰平,百姓擾擾,皆迸山野,不可禁制。後主使群臣會議,計無所出。或以為蜀之與吳,本為和國,宜可奔吳;或以為南中七郡,阻險斗絕,易以自守,宜可奔南。惟周以為:「自古已來,無寄他國為天子者也,今若入吳,固當臣服。且政理不殊,則大能吞小,此數之自然也。由此言之,則魏能并吳,吳不能并魏明矣。等為小稱臣,孰與為大,再辱之恥,何與一辱?且若欲奔南,則當早為之計,然後可果;今大敵以近,禍敗將及,群小之心,無一可保?恐發足之日,其變不測,何至南之有乎!」群臣或難周曰:「今艾以不遠,恐不受降,如之何?」周曰:「方今東吳未賓,事勢不得不受,(之受)〔受之〕之後,不得不禮。若陛下降魏,魏不裂土以封陛下者,周請身詣京都,以古義爭之。」眾人無以易周之理。


Hòuzhǔ yet had doubts for fleeing south, Zhōu sent up memorial that said: “Some persuade Your Majesty that the northern troops penetrate deeply, and have wish for a plan to escape south, I your servant humbly believe it not secure. Why? The lands of the southern regions’ distant Yí have ordinarily been without giving offerings and service, and have yet repeatedly rebelled, from since Chancellor [Zhūgě] Liàng’s Southern Campaign, military power forced them, and in destitution they then submitted. Afterward in providing and sending out officials and taxes, in taking them to provide for the troops, they resent and complain, these are people that endanger the state. Now when destitute and oppressed, to wish to go depend on them, one fears they will certainly again rebel. This is first. The northern troop’s coming, is not only to take Shǔ and nothing more, if we flee to the south, they will certainly follow up on decline of our manpower, and at once pursue and chase. This is second. If we reach the south, outside opposing and resisting the enemy, inside collecting supplies and services, the costs will expand and spread, with nowhere else to obtain, the costs on the various Yí will certainly be extreme, in being extreme they will certainly quickly rebel. This is third. In the past Wáng Láng in Hándān usurped title, at the time Shìzǔ was at Xīndū, feared to be threatened by [Wáng] Láng, wished to abandon it and return to Guānzhōng, Pī Róng remonstrated stating: ‘If your enlightened excellency returns west, then Hándān city’s people will certainly not agree to abandon their fathers and mothers and abandon the city’s master and over a thousand lǐ escort your excellency; their desertion and rebellion could be certain.’ Shìzǔ followed this, and therefore defeated Hánsān. Now the northern troops arrive, Your Majesty goes south, one truly fears Pī Róng’s words will again be proven in the present. This is fourth. May Your Majesty early plan for this, and be able to obtain noble rank and land; if you then escape south, and when power is exhausted then submit, this disaster will certainly be deep. The states: ‘Overbearing as a word, is understanding gains but not understanding loss, understanding survival but not understanding destruction; those who understand gains and losses and survival and destruction and not losing their standards, this only is a sage!’ It says a sage understands fate but is not lax in certainty. Therefore Yáo and Shùn as their sons were not good, understood Heaven gave bestowal, and sought a bestowal to another; the sons though were not worthy, the disaster yet did not sprout, and to welcome the bestowal to another, all the more when disaster has arrived! Therefore Wēi-zǐ as the Yīn King’s kinsman, face bound and bearing annulus submitted to King Wǔ; how was he happy? He could not but do so.”

Therefore followed Zhōu’s plan. The Liú clan being without worry, the whole country obtaining reliance, was Zhōu’s plan. (1)

  • (1) Sūn Chuò’s Appraisal states: Qiáo Zhōu persuading Hòuzhǔ to surrender, was it permit able? Said: To from being Heaven’s Son and yet beg to surrender and plead for life, how deep the disgrace! To for the State Altars die then die for it, for the State Altars perish then perish for it. His late father corrected Wèi’s usurpation, to not with them share the sky. To push blame to his father, and bow head and serve the enemy, can be called pointlessly surviving, how is it the great path of residing in the correct?
  • Sūn Shèng states: By the Chūnqiū‘s meanings, the state’s rulers dies for the State Altars, the ministers and grandees die for the throne, all the more for one who claims to be Heaven’s Son and yet can be disgraced by another! Zhōu saying a lord of ten thousand chariots should pointlessly live and temporarily escape, abandons propriety to seek profit, hoping for minuscule glory, is baffling. Moreover discussing the situation, the reasoning is not yet exhaustive. Why? [Liú] Shàn though was a mediocre ruler, he truly was without the ruthlessness of Jié and Zhòu, battles though were repeatedly lost, there was yet no chaos of lands collapsing, even if they could not ruler and ministers firmly defend, with backs to the city walls all together, surely they could withdraw east to consider later plans. At the time Luó Xiàn with heavy troops occupied Báidì, Huò Yì with strong soldiers defended Yèláng. Shǔ’s lands were rugged and narrow, the mountains and rivers severe and dividing, cut off by peaks and rushing waters, not what infantry can wade. If they all fetched boats and oars, defending and occupying Jiāngzhōu, levying troops from Nánzhōng, begging for forces from the eastern state [Wú], like this then Jiāng [Wéi], Liào [Lì] five officers would naturally as clouds follow, Wú’s three armies would carrying command as lightning arrive, why claim there was nothing to be done and think of certain destruction? The coming of Wèi’s forces, had lifted the state in great mobilization, to wish to pursue then boats and oars were not supplied, to wish to remain then the forces would always have many worries. Moreover bending and stretching have opportunities, situation changes would rise, slowly in response using people thinking of exerting themselves, to attack arrogant and lazy troops, this was how the King of Yuè defeated Hélǘ, Tián Dān destroyed Jì Jié, why hurriedly rush to make oneself a prisoner, descend from firm ramparts to the enemy, to cause the utmost regret of chopping stone? [Jiāng Wéi’s troops reportedly chopped stones in frustration upon hearing of the surrender] Gě Shēng has a saying: “If the matter cannot be saved then it is finished, how can one again be a subordinate?” How strong these words, able to restore a coward’s will. Observing the ancient Yān, Qí, Jīng, Yuè defeats, some states overturned ruler and were destroyed, some as fish hung [on trees] and birds scuttled [on ground; idioms for exile], to in the end be able to establish achievement and set affairs, restore the State Altars, how is it said to be Heaven’s Assistance, it also was Man’s planning. Even if accepting the plan for pointless life, accepting Qiáo Zhōu’s words, how is it the state’s foundations being able to be established, good reputation being able to be obtained? Shàn was an ignorant ruler, Zhōu truly a worn out minister, compared to Shēn Bāo, Tián Dān, Fàn Lǐ, Dàifū Zhǒng, were they not also far!

後主猶疑於入南,周上疏曰:「或說陛下以北兵深入,有欲適南之計,臣愚以為不安。何者?南方遠夷之地,平常無所供為,猶數反叛,自丞相亮南征,兵勢偪之,窮乃幸從。是後供出官賦,取以給兵,以為愁怨,此患國之人也。今以窮迫,欲往依恃,恐必復反叛,一也。北兵之來,非但取蜀而已,若奔南方,必因人勢衰,及時赴追,二也。若至南方,外當拒敵,內供服御,費用張廣,他無所取,耗損諸夷必甚,甚必速叛,三也。昔王郎以邯鄲僭號,時世祖在信都,畏偪於郎,欲棄還關中。邳肜諫曰:『明公西還,則邯鄲城民不肯捐父母,背城主,而千里送公,其亡叛可必也。』世祖從之,遂破邯鄲。今北兵至,陛下南行,誠恐邳肜之言復信於今,四也。願陛下早為之圖,可獲爵土;若遂適南,勢窮乃服,其禍必深。易曰:『亢之為言,知得而不知喪,知存而不知亡;知得失存亡而不失其正者,其惟聖人乎!』言聖人知命而不苟必也。故堯、舜以子不善,知天有授,而求授人;子雖不肖,禍尚未萌,而迎授與人,況禍以至乎!故微子以殷王之昆,面縛銜璧而歸武王,豈所樂哉,不得已也。」於是遂從周策。劉氏無虞,一邦蒙賴,周之謀也。〔一〕

〔一〕 孫綽評曰:譙周說後主降魏,可乎?曰:自為天子而乞降請命,何恥之深乎!夫為社稷死則死之,為社稷亡則亡之。先君正魏之篡,不與同天矣。推過於其父,俛首而事讎,可謂苟存,豈大居正之道哉!孫盛曰:春秋之義,國君死社稷,卿大夫死位,況稱天子而可辱於人乎!周謂萬乘之君偷生苟免,亡禮希利,要冀微榮,惑矣。且以事勢言之,理有未盡。何者?禪雖庸主,實無桀、紂之酷,戰雖屢北,未有土崩之亂,縱不能君臣固守,背城借一,自可退次東鄙以思後圖。是時羅憲以重兵據白帝,霍弋以強卒鎮夜郎。蜀土險狹,山水峻隔,絕巘激湍,非步卒所涉。若悉取舟楫,保據江州,徵兵南中,乞師東國,如此則姜、廖五將自然雲從,吳之三師承命電赴,何投寄之無所而慮於必亡邪?魏師之來,褰國大舉,欲追則舟楫靡資,欲留則師老多虞。且屈伸有會,情勢代起,徐因思奮之民,以攻驕惰之卒,此越王所以敗闔閭,田單所以摧騎劫也,何為匆匆遽自囚虜,下堅壁於敵人,致斫石之至恨哉?葛生有云:「事之不濟則已耳,安能復為之下!」壯哉斯言,可以立懦夫之志矣。觀古燕、齊、荊、越之敗,或國覆主滅,或魚縣鳥竄,終能建功立事,康復社稷,豈曰天助,抑亦人謀也。向使懷苟存之計,納譙周之言,何邦基之能構,令名之可獲哉?禪既闇主,周實駑臣,方之申包、田單、范蠡、大夫種,不亦遠乎!


At the time Jìn King Wén [Sīmǎ Zhāo] was Wèi’s Chancellor of State, as Zhōu had the achievement of preserving state, enfeoffed him as Yángchéng precinct Marquis. Also sent down letter to recruit Zhōu, Zhōu set out and reached Hànzhōng, was severely ill and did not advance. Xiánxī Second Year [265] Summer, Bā prefecture’s Wén Lì from Luòyáng returned to Shǔ, passed and met Zhōu. Zhōu spoke with him, then wrote register to show to [Wén] Lì that said: “Managing Wǔ neglected! Moon Yǒu Lost!” Managing Wǔ is to say (‘Directing Horse’) Sīmǎ, Moon Yǒu is to say Eighth Moon. [Wǔ and Yǒu are two of the Twelve Earthly Branches. In the mapping to the twelve animals, Wǔ corresponds to the Horse. In mapping to the months, Yǒu corresponds to the eighth month of the calendar system.] Reaching the Eighth Moon King Wén indeed died. (1) The Jìn House ascended the throne, repeatedly sent down Imperial Order to where he was to send Zhōu. Zhōu therefore on carriage hurriedly visited Luò, Tàishǐ Third Year [267] arrived. Due to illness he could not rise, was appointed Cavalry Commandant, Zhōu then himself explained he was without achievement and yet enfeoffed, requested to return his noble rank and land, all were not permitted.

時晉文王為魏相國,以周有全國之功,封陽城亭侯。又下書辟周,周發至漢中,困疾不進。咸熙二年夏,巴郡文立從洛陽還蜀,過見周。周語次,因書版示立曰:「典午忽兮,月酉沒兮。」典午者謂司馬也,月酉者謂八月也,至八月而文王果崩。〔一〕晉室踐阼,累下詔所在發遣周。周遂輿疾詣洛,泰始三年至。以疾不起,就拜騎都尉,周乃自陳無功而封,求還爵土,皆不聽許。

  • (1) Huàyáng Guózhì states: Wén Lì appellation Guǎngxiū, when young studied the Máo shī, Sān Lǐ, also read the various books. Inspector Fèi Yī ordered him to be Attendant Official, entered to be Secretariat Documents Cadet, again was recruited to be [Fèi] Yī’s General-in-Chief’s East Department Official, gradually promoted to Secretariat Documenter. When Shǔ was conquered by Wèi, Liáng province was established, he first became Separate Harness Attending Official, nominated as Exceptional Talent. Jìn Tàishǐ Second Year [266], appointed Jǐyīn Administrator, promoted to Heir-Apparent’s Internal Resident. Lì sent up word: “The descendants of Shǔ’s great officials and utmost loyalty to the death in service, though they serve in prefectures and states, if some are not talented, they must be treated the same as the common people. Also Zhūgě Liàng, Jiǎng Wǎn, Fèi Yī and the rest’s descendants have relocated to the central capital region, each should be judged in talent and in order employed, to comfort the hearts of Bā and Shǔ, and overturn the expectations of the Wú men.” The matters were all put into effect. Transferred to Cavalier Regular Attendant, presented any good and replaced any evil, and had many patching accepted. Gradually promoted to Minister of the Guard, the Central Court acknowledged his worthy elegance, and was the time’s famed Minister. At Xiánníng’s end died. Lì’s memorials and poems and rhapsodies and discussions and eulogies altogether were several tens of piān.

〔一〕 華陽國志曰:文立字廣休,少治毛詩、三禮,兼通群書。刺史費禕命為從事,入為尚書郎,復辟禕大將軍東曹掾,稍遷尚書。蜀并于魏,梁州建,首為別駕從事,舉秀才。晉泰始二年,拜濟陰太守,遷太子中庶子。立上言:「故蜀大官及盡忠死事者子孫,雖仕郡國,或有不才,同之齊民為劇;又諸葛亮、蔣琬、費禕等子孫流徙中畿,各宜量才敘用,以慰巴、蜀之心,傾吳人之望。」事皆施行。轉散騎常侍,獻可替否,多所補納。稍遷衛尉,中朝服其賢雅,為時名卿。咸寧末卒。立章奏詩詩賦論頌凡數十篇。


Fifth Year, I [Chén Shòu] once was my home prefecture’s Central Rectifier, the purifying settling matters finished, and I requested rest and to return home, and went to with Zhōu take leave. Zhōu said to me: “In the past Kǒng-zǐ was seventy-two, Liú Xiàng and Yáng Xióng were seventy-one and died, now my years pass seventy, all admire Kǒng-zǐ’s legacy air, and can with Liú and Yáng be of the same course, I fear I will not go out to the later year, and certainly will forever pass, and not see you again.” One suspects Zhōu used a technique to know this, and feigned this to speak. Sixth Year Autumn, became Cavalier Regular Attendant, his illness was serious and he did not accept, reaching winter he died. (1) Altogether his writings, compiled and settled laws and teachings, discussions on the five classics, ancient history examinations are over a hundred piān. (2) Zhōu’s three sons were Xī, Xián, Tóng. The youngest son Tóng enjoyed Zhōu’s enterprise, also took loyal sincerity and quality as conduct, was nominated filial and incorruptable, sent out as Xī Magistrate, East Palace Herald, summoned but did not accept. (3)

五年,予嘗為本郡中正,清定事訖,求休還家,往與周別。周語予曰:「昔孔子七十二、劉向、揚雄七十一而沒,今吾年過七十,庶慕孔子遺風,可與劉、揚同軌,恐不出後歲,必便長逝,不復相見矣。」疑周以術知之,假此而言也。六年秋,為散騎常侍,疾篤不拜,至冬卒。〔一〕凡所著述,撰定法訓、五經論、古史考(書)之屬百餘篇。〔二〕周三子,熙、賢、同。少子同頗好周業,亦以忠篤質素為行,舉孝廉,除錫令、東宮洗馬,召不就。〔三〕

  • (1) Jìn Yángqiū records Imperial Order stating: “We extremely mourn him, bestow Court dress of one set, robe of one suit, cash of one hundred fifty thousand.” Zhōu’s son Xī sent up word, that Zhōu on facing the end entrusted Xī stating: “[I have] for a long time been bound by illness, have not once in Court met, if the state graciously bestows Court dress and clothes, do not apply it to my body. [I am] about to return to the old [family] graves, the roads are rugged and paths difficult, in advance make a light coffin. When the encoffining is already finished, send up and return what is bestowed.” Imperial Order recalled the clothes and gave coffin supplies.

〔一〕 晉陽秋載詔曰:「朕甚悼之,賜朝服一具,衣一襲,錢十五萬。」周息熙上言,周臨終屬熙曰:「久抱疾,未曾朝見,若國恩賜朝服衣物者,勿以加身。當還舊墓,道險行難,豫作輕棺。殯斂已畢,上還所賜。」詔還衣服,給棺直。

  • (2) Yìbù Qíjiù zhuàn states: Yì Province Inspector Dǒng Róng painted Zhōu’s portrait at the provincial academy, ordering Attending Official Lǐ Tōng to eulogize him, stating: [Omitted for now, I can’t do it justice.]

〔二〕 益部耆舊傳曰:益州刺史董榮圖畫周像於州學,命從事李通頌之曰:「抑抑譙侯,好古述儒,寶道懷真,鑒世盈虛,雅名美跡,終始是書。我后欽賢,無言不譽,攀諸前哲,丹青是圖。嗟爾來葉,鋻茲顯模。」

  • (3) Zhōu’s eldest son Xī. Xī’s son Xiù, appellation Yuányán.
  • Jìn Yángqiū states: Xiù by nature was pure and calm, did not interact in worldly affairs, knew there was about to be great chaos, in advance cut off from human affairs, not meeting together with his cousins and various kin. The province and prefecture summoned him, when Lǐ Xióng plundered Shǔ, a small chariot summoned Xiù, also [Lǐ] Xióng’s father’s younger brother [Lǐ] Xiāng and Xiāng’s son Shòu summoned him, all did not answer. He always wore deer skin cap, personally plowing mountains and marshes. Yǒnghé Third Year [347], Securing West General Huán Wēn pacified Shǔ, memorialized and recommended Xiù stating: [Omitted for now]. When Xiāo Jìng rebelled, he fled the troubles into Dàngqú rivers, his townsmen and clansmen that hurried to depend on him were in the hundreds. Xiù was aged eighty, everyone believed him old, and wished to take his place in bearing burdens, Xiù refused saying: “Each have their old and young, and should first rescue them. My vigor is sufficient to endure this, and not in declining years bind you sirs.” After over ten years he died at home.

〔三〕 周長子熙。熙子秀,字元彥。晉陽秋曰:秀性清靜,不交於世,知將大亂,豫絕人事,從兄弟及諸親里不與相見。州郡辟命,及李雄盜蜀,安車徵秀,又雄叔父驤、驤子壽辟命,皆不應。常冠鹿皮,躬耕山藪。永和三年,安西將軍桓溫平蜀,表薦秀曰:「臣聞大朴既虧,則高尚之標顯;道喪時昏,則忠貞之義彰。故有洗耳投淵以振玄邈之風,亦有秉心矯跡以惇在三之節。是以上代之君,莫不崇重斯軌,所以篤俗訓民,靜一流競。伏惟大晉應符御世,運無常通,時有屯蹇,神州丘墟,三方圮裂,兔罝絕響於中林,白駒無聞於空谷,斯有識之所悼心,大雅之所歎息者也。陛下聖德嗣興,方恢天緒。臣昔奉役,有事西土,鯨鯢既縣,思宣大化;訪諸故老,搜楊潛逸,庶武羅於羿、浞之墟,想王蠋於亡齊之境。竊聞巴西譙秀,植操貞固,抱德肥遁,揚清渭波。于時皇極遘道消之會,群黎蹈顛沛之艱,中華有顧瞻之哀,幽谷無遷喬之望;凶命屢招,姦威仍偪,身寄虎吻,危同朝露,而能抗節玉立,誓不降辱,杜門絕跡,不面偽庭,進免龔勝亡身之禍,退無薛方詭對之譏;雖園、綺之棲商、洛,管寧之默遼海,方之於秀,殆無以過。于今西土,以為美談。夫旌德禮賢,化道之所先,崇表殊節,聖哲之上務。方今六合未康,豺狼當路,遺黎偷薄,義聲弗聞,益宜振起道義之徒,以敦流遁之弊。若秀蒙薄帛之徵,足以鎮靜頹風,軌訓囂俗;幽遐仰流,九服知化矣。」及蕭敬叛亂,避難宕渠川中,鄉人宗族馮依者以百數。秀年八十,眾人以其薦老,欲代之負擔,秀拒曰:「各有老弱,當先營救。吾氣力自足堪此,不以垂朽之年累諸君也。」後十餘年,卒於家。

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