(14.3) Dǒng Zhāo 董昭 [Gōngrén 公仁]

Dǒng Zhāo appellation Gōngrén was a Jǐyīn Dìngtáo man. Nominated filial and incorrupt, sent out as Yíngtáo Chief, Bǎirén Magistrate, Yuán Shào appointed him to Advisor to the Army affairs. [Yuán] Shào opposed Gōngsūn Zàn at Jièqiáo. Jùlù Administrator Lǐ Shào and the prefectural dominant figures, as [Gōngsūn] Zàn’s troops were strong, all wished to subordinate to [Gōngsūn] Zàn. [Yuán] Shào heard this, and sent Zhāo to manage Jùlù, asking: “[You will] Resist them with what methods?” Replied saying: “One man’s minuteness is unable to extinguish the multitudes’ plans, [I] wish to entice and deliver their hearts, to call out with the same discussions, and obtain their feelings, and so wield power to regulate them and that is all. Plans are [made] at the facing the timing, and cannot yet be spoken of.” At the time the prefecture’s dominant clans of Sūn Kàng and others of several tens of men served as planners, disturbing the officials and people. Zhāo arrived at the prefecture, falsely made [Yuán] Shào’s orders announcing to the prefecture saying: “Obtaining bandit scout Ānpíng’s Zhāng Jí’s words, they will attack Jùlù, bandits former Filial and Incorrupt candidate Sūn Kàng and others will answer [as inside support], dispatches arrive to arrest and enact military law, the crime stopping at their persons, wives and children not connected.” Zhāo cited the dispatch and announced orders, and all at once beheaded them. The whole prefecture was terrified, and so he then secured and comforted, and therefore all pacified and gathered. The matter was finished and reported to [Yuán] Shào, [Yuán] Shào praised it good. It happened that Wèi prefecture Administrator Lì Pān was by troops harmed, [Yuán] Shào appointed Zhāo as designate Wèi prefecture Administrator. At the time the prefecture borders were in great chaos, bandits in the tens of thousands, sending messengers back and forth, meeting and exchanging in markets and purchasing. Zhāo generously treated them, and so used them for news, took advantage of weakness in surprise suppression, and at once greatly overcame and defeated. Within two days, feather dispatches thrice arrived.

董昭字公仁,濟陰定陶人也。舉孝廉,除廮陶長、柏人令,袁紹以為參軍事。紹逆公孫瓚于界橋,鉅鹿太守李邵及郡冠蓋,以瓚兵彊,皆欲屬瓚。紹聞之,使昭領鉅鹿。問:「禦以何術?」對曰:「一人之微,不能消眾謀,欲誘致其心,唱與同議,及得其情,乃當權以制之耳。計在臨時,未可得言。」時郡右姓孫伉等數十人專為謀主,驚動吏民。昭至郡,偽作紹檄告郡云:「得賊羅候安平張吉辭,當攻鉅鹿,賊故孝廉孫伉等為應,檄到收行軍法,惡止其身,妻子勿坐。」昭案檄告令,皆即斬之。一郡惶恐,乃以次安慰,遂皆平集。事訖白紹,紹稱善。會魏郡太守栗攀為兵所害,紹以昭領魏郡太守。時郡界大亂,賊以萬數,遣使往來,交易市買。昭厚待之,因用為間,乘虛掩討,輒大克破。二日之中,羽檄三至。


Zhāo’s younger brother Fǎng was in Zhāng Miǎo’s army. [Zhāng] Miǎo with [Yuán] Shào had discord, [Yuán] Shào accepted slander and was about to apply guilt on Zhāo. Zhāo wished to visit Hàn Xiàn-dì, reached Hénèi, and was by Zhāng Yáng detained. Through [Zhāng] Yáng he sent up and returned seal and ribbon, and was appointed Cavalry Commandant. At the time Tàizǔ was designated Yǎn Province, sent envoy to visit [Zhāng] Yáng, wishing to have communication west to Cháng’ān, [Zhāng] Yáng did not listen. Zhāo persuaded [Zhāng] Yáng saying: “Though Yuán and Cáo are of one party, the situation is [for them to] not long be united. Cáo now although is weak, however in fact he is Under Heaven’s outstanding hero, and [you] should therefore ally with him. Moreover now there is an opportunity, and it is appropriate to connect his sent-up affairs, and also memorialize and recommend him; if the matter is successful, it will ever have deep allocations.” [Zhāng] Yáng therefore connected Tàizǔ’s sent up matters, and memorialized and recommended Tàizǔ. Zhāo for Tàizǔ made a letter to Cháng’ān’s various officers Lǐ Jué, Guō Sì and others, each following lightness or heaviness delivering politeness. [Zhāng] Yáng also sent envoy to visit Tàizǔ. Tàizǔ gifted to [Zhāng] Yáng dogs and horses and gold and silk, and therefore with the western areas had dealings. [When] Heaven’s Son was at Ānyì, Zhāo from Hénèi went, Imperial Order appointed him Consultant Cadet.

昭弟訪,在張邈軍中。邈與紹有隙,紹受讒將致罪於昭。昭欲詣漢獻帝,至河內,為張楊所留。因楊上還印綬,拜騎都尉。時太祖領兗州,遣使詣楊,欲令假塗西至長安,楊不聽。昭說楊曰:「袁、曹雖為一家,勢不久群。曹今雖弱,然實天下之英雄也,當故結之。況今有緣,宜通其上事,并表薦之;若事有成,永為深分。」楊於是通太祖上事,表薦太祖。昭為太祖作書與長安諸將李傕、郭汜等,各隨輕重致殷勤。楊亦遣使詣太祖。太祖遺楊犬馬金帛,遂與西方往來。天子在安邑,昭從河內往,詔拜議郎。


Jiàn’ān Inaugural Year [196], Tàizǔ settled Huángjīn at Xǔ, sent envoy to visit Hédōng. It happened Heaven’s Son returned to Luòyáng, Hán Xiān, Yáng Fèng, Dǒng Chéng and [Zhāng] Yáng were each at odds and not at peace. Zhāo as [Yáng] Fèng’s troops and horses were the strongest but had few supporters, for Tàizǔ made a letter to [Yáng] Fèng stating: “I have heard of your reputation and admire your righteousness General, and so show my red heart. Now you General have rescued the Ten Thousand Chariots [the Emperor] from trouble, returning it to the old capital, your achievement of assistance, surpasses the age without peer, how can you stop? Right now crowds of the vicious endanger the heartlands, the Four Seas are not yet pacified, the divine vessels are of utmost heaviness, service is in maintaining assistance; one must amass worthies to purify the ruler’s course, it truly is not what one man alone can establish. Heart and lungs and the four limbs, in truth rely on each other, if one thing is not prepared, then there is deficiency. You General will be inner master, I will be outside support. Now I have provisions, you General have troops, what we have and lack mutually complement, sufficient to rescue one another, death or life or fortune or toil, we will share it.”

[Yáng] Fèng obtained the letter and was pleased, and said to the various Generals: “Yǎn province’s various armies are nearby at Xǔ, have troops and have provisions, what the country should turn to depend on.” Therefore they together memorialized Tàizǔ as Defending East General and to succeed his father’s noble rank as Fèi precinct marquis; Zhāo was promoted to Fúfjié Magistrate.

建安元年,太祖定黃巾于許,遣使詣河東。會天子還洛陽,韓暹、楊奉、董承及楊各違戾不和。昭以奉兵馬最彊而少黨援,作太祖書與奉曰:「吾與將軍聞名慕義,便推赤心。今將軍拔萬乘之艱難,反之舊都,翼佐之功,超世無疇,何其休哉!方今群凶猾夏,四海未寧,神器至重,事在維輔;必須眾賢以清王軌,誠非一人所能獨建。心腹四支,實相恃賴,一物不備,則有闕焉。將軍當為內主,吾為外援。今吾有糧,將軍有兵,有無相通,足以相濟,死生契闊,相與共之。」奉得書喜悅,語諸將軍曰:「兗州諸軍近在許耳,有兵有糧,國家所當依仰也。」遂共表太祖為鎮東將軍,襲父爵費亭侯;昭遷符節令。


Tàizǔ attended Court of Heaven’s Son at Luòyáng, summoned Zhāo to together sit, and asked him: “Now I have come like this, what plan should I use?” Zhāo said: “General you have raised righteous troops to punish the rebellious, entering Court of Heaven’s Son, assisting the Ruling House, this is the achievement of the Five Hegemons. These various officers below, they are separated and their intentions different, will not necessarily submit and follow [each other], now to remain and rectify and assist, the situation is not convenient, there is only to move the Chariot [the Emperor] to visit Xǔ and that is all. However the Court is scattered about, newly returned to the old capital, far and near stand to watch, hoping for the whole Court to obtain calm. Now to again relocate the Chariot, does not accord with the masses’ hearts. The enacting of extraordinary affairs, then is to have extraordinary achievement, may you General calculate its value.”

Tàizǔ said: “This was my original intention, only Yáng Féng is nearby at Liáng, one hears his troops are elite, will he not restrain me?”

Zhāo said: “[Yáng] Féng has few associates and assistance, and will alone entrust himself [to you]. The matters of [granting you titles in] Defending East and Fèitíng were all by [Yáng] Féng settled, and also to read the letters and investigate the orders is sufficient to see his trust. It is appropriate to timely send envoy to generously express thanks, to calm his intentions. Say ‘The capital is without provisions, one wishes the Chariot to temporarily visit Lǔyáng, Lǔyáng is near Xǔ, to make transports somewhat easier, to be without worry of shortages.’ [Yáng] Fèng as a man is valorous but with few considerations, and certainly will not be suspicious, sending envoys back and forth is sufficient to settle plans. How can [Yáng] Fèng be a restraint?”

Tàizǔ said: “Excellent.” At once he sent envoy to visit Fèng. Moved the Great Chariot to Xǔ.[Yáng] Fèng because of this lost hope, and with Hán Xiān and others arrived at Dìnglíng to plunder. Tàizǔ did not answer, and secretly went to attack their Liáng camp, subduing and executing and at once settling it. [Yáng] Fèng and [Hán] Xiān lost their forces, and went east to surrender to Yuán Shù.

Third Year [198], Zhāo was promoted to Hénán Intendant. At the time Zhāng Yáng was by his officer Yáng Chǒu killed, [Zhāng] Yáng’s Chief Clerk Xuē Hóng and Hénèi Administrator Miào Shàng defended the city to wait for [Yuán] Shào’s rescue. Tàizǔ ordered Zhāo to alone enter the city, explain the situation to [Xuē] Hóng and [Miào] Shàng and the rest, and that day they led their forces to surrender. Appointed Zhāo as Jì province Governor.

太祖朝天子於洛陽,引昭並坐,問曰:「今孤來此,當施何計?」昭曰:「將軍興義兵以誅暴亂,入朝天子,輔翼王室,此五伯之功也。此下諸將,人殊意異,未必服從,今留匡弼,事勢不便,惟有移駕幸許耳。然朝廷播越,新還舊京,遠近跂望,冀一朝獲安。今復徙駕,不厭眾心。夫行非常之事,乃有非常之功,願將軍算其多者。」太祖曰:「此孤本志也。楊奉近在梁耳,聞其兵精,得無為孤累乎?」昭曰:「奉少黨援,將獨委質。鎮東、費亭之事,皆奉所定,又聞書命申束,足以見信。宜時遣使厚遺答謝,以安其意。說『京都無糧,欲車駕暫幸魯陽,魯陽近許,轉運稍易,可無縣乏之憂』。奉為人勇而寡慮,必不見疑,比使往來,足以定計。奉何能為累!」太祖曰:「善。」即遣使詣奉。徙大駕至許。奉由是失望,與韓暹等到定陵鈔暴。太祖不應,密往攻其梁營,降誅即定。奉、暹失眾,東降袁術。三年,昭遷河南尹。時張楊為其將楊醜所殺,楊長史薛洪、河內太守繆尚城守待紹救。太祖令昭單身入城,告喻洪、尚等,即日舉眾降。以昭為冀州牧。


Tàizǔ ordered Liú Bèi to resist Yuán Shù, Zhāo said: [Liú] Bèi is valorous and his ambitions large, Guān Yǔ and Zhāng Fēi are his wing assistants, one fears [Liú] Bèi’s heart cannot yet be discussed!” Tàizǔ said: “I have already permitted it.” [Liú] Bèi arrived at Xiàpī, killed Xú province Inspector Chē Zhòu and rebelled. Tàizǔ personally campaigned against [Liú] Bèi, transferring Zhāo to Xú province Governor.

Yuán Shào sent officer Yán Liáng to attack Dōng prefecture, again transferred Zhāo to be Wèi prefecture Adminsitrator, accompanying in suppressing [Yán] Liáng. After [Yán] Liáng died, advanced to besiege Yèchéng. Yuán Shào’s same clan’s [Yuán] Chūnqīng was [the Yuán’s appointed] Wèi prefecture Administrator, was inside the city, his father Yuángcháng was in Yáng province, and Tàizǔ sent someone to welcome him. Zhāo wrote letter to Chūnqīng saying: “Overall one hears that the filial do not turn back on parents to seek benefit, the benevolent do not forget master to pursue selfishness, the ambitious servicemen does not enter chaos for luck, the wise do not take unsure ways to endanger themselves. You are a great lord, in the past escaped inner troubles, to the south traveling the hundred Yuè, not to neglect bone and flesh [kin] or take pleasure in Wú and Kuài, the wise deeply noted this, alone saying it appropriate. Excellency Cáo sympathized with your holding to will and pure scrupulousness, leaving the masses with few companions, and therefore specially sent envoy to the Jiāng’s east, to welcome and to deliver, and now they arrive. Supposing if that you occupied secure ground, depended on a virtuous and righteous master, your residence having Tài mountain’s firmness, our body having Qiáo Sōng’s form, if using righteousness to speak of it, yet it would be appropriate to turn back on the other to head toward this, and given up the people to join your father. Moreover when Zhū Yífù at first with Duke Yǐn allied, the Lǔ people commended this, and did not write of nobility, as the king had not yet commanded it, the nobility and honor was not achieved, this was the Chūnqiū’s meaning. All the more when you today have entrusted in an endangered and disordered state, and have received command of false accusations? If you do not show this to the masses, and toward your father show no concern, it cannot be said to be filial. To forget that one’s ancestors resided in the current Court, and calmly occupy incorrect and treacherous office, is difficulty to call loyal. Loyalty and filial peity both abandoned, is difficult to call wise. Also you in former days were by Excellency Cáo with courtesy recruited, to grieve clansmen and neglect birth parents, to take residence inside and treat external the Ruling House, to harbor evil salary and betray those who understand you, to be distant from fortune and blessing and draw near danger and destruction, to abandon enlightened righteousness and accept great disgrace, is it not a pity! If you are able to suddenly and completely change to integrity, serve the Emperor and care for your father, entrust yourself to Excellency Cáo, loyalty and filial peity will not fall, and glorious reputation will be clear. It is appropriate to deeply consider this, and early decide on a good plan.”

When Yè was setted, appointed Zhāo to be Remonstrant Consultant Grandee. Later Yuán Shàng relied on the Wūhuán Tàdùn, Tàizǔ was about to campaign against them. Worrying that military provisions were difficult to send, boring the Pínglǔ and Quánzhōu two canals to enter the sea and connect shipments, was by Zhāo established. Tàizǔ memorialized to enfeoff him as Qiānqiū precinct Marquis, transferred appointment to Excellency of Work’s Military Libationer.

太祖令劉備拒袁術,昭曰:「備勇而志大,關羽、張飛為之羽翼,恐備之心未可得論也!」太祖曰:「吾已許之矣。」備到下邳,殺徐州刺史車冑,反。太祖自征備,徙昭為徐州牧。袁紹遣將顏良攻東郡,又徙昭為魏郡太守,從討良。良死後,進圍鄴城。袁紹同族春卿為魏郡太守,在城中,其父元長在揚州,太祖遣人迎之。昭書與春卿曰:「蓋聞孝者不背親以要利,仁者不忘君以徇私,志士不探亂以徼幸,智者不詭道以自危。足下大君,昔避內難,南游百越,非疏骨肉,樂彼吳會,智者深識,獨或宜然。曹公愍其守志清恪,離群寡儔,故特遣使江東,或迎或送,今將至矣。就令足下處偏平之地,依德義之主,居有泰山之固,身為喬松之偶,以義言之,猶宜背彼向此,舍民趣父也。且邾儀父始與隱公盟,魯人嘉之,而不書爵,然則王所未命,爵尊不成,春秋之義也。況足下今日之所託者乃危亂之國,所受者乃矯誣之命乎?苟不逞之與群,而厥父之不恤,不可以言孝。忘祖宗所居之本朝,安非正之奸職,難可以言忠。忠孝並替,難以言智。又足下昔日為曹公所禮辟,夫戚族人而疏所生,內所寓而外王室,懷邪祿而叛知己,遠福祚而近危亡,棄明義而收大恥,不亦可惜邪!若能翻然易節,奉帝養父,委身曹公,忠孝不墜,榮名彰矣。宜深留計,早決良圖。」鄴既定,以昭為諫議大夫。後袁尚依烏丸蹋頓,太祖將征之。患軍糧難致,鑿平虜、泉州二渠入海通運,昭所建也。太祖表封千秋亭侯,轉拜司空軍祭酒。


Later Zhāo established recommendation: “It is appropriate to restore establishment of enfeoffment in Five Ranks.”

Tàizǔ said: “One to establish the Five Ranks is a sagely man, and also not what a servant of men regulates, how can I bear it?”

Zhāo said: “From since the ancients onward, of a servant of men rectify the world, there has never yet been today’s achievement. In having today’s achievement, there has never yet been one who long occupied the position of a servant of men. Now your enlightened excellency is shamed to have disgraced virtue and not yet be exhaustively good, are pleased to protect name and integrity and be without great reproach, virtue and beauty surpassing Yī and Zhōu, this is the extremity of utmost virtue. However Tàijiǎ and Chéng-wáng were not necessarily able to meet them by chance, now the people are in trouble, extremely in Yīn and Zhōu occupying a great minister’s position, to cause people to due to major events doubt you, this truly cannot be not heavily considered. Your enlightened excellency though strides authority and virtue, enlightened law and technique, but have not settled its foundation, to be a plan for ten thousand ages, yet it is not yet reached. The root of settling foundation, is in land and people, it is appropriately to gradually establish it, to be one’s screen defense. Your enlightened excellency’s loyal integrity is outstandingly revealed, heaven’s authority is in your face, the report of Gěng Yǎn below the bed, the discussion of Zhū Yīng being without absurdity, are not able to surpass it. I Zhāo have received favor out of the ordinary, and do not dare not explain it.” (1)

Later Tàizǔ therefore accepted the Duke of Wèi and King of Wèi titles, both were by Zhāo initiated.

後昭建議:「宜脩古建封五等。」太祖曰:「建設五等者,聖人也,又非人臣所制,吾何以堪之?」昭曰:「自古以來,人臣匡世,未有今日之功。有今日之功,未有久處人臣之勢者也。今明公恥有慚德而未盡善,樂保名節而無大責,德美過於伊、周,此至德之所極也。然太甲、成王未必可遭,今民難化,甚於殷、周,處大臣之勢,使人以大事疑己,誠不可不重慮也。明公雖邁威德,明法術,而不定其基,為萬世計,猶未至也。定基之本,在地與人,宜稍建立,以自藩衛。明公忠節穎露,天威在顏,耿弇床下之言,朱英無妄之論,不得過耳。昭受恩非凡,不敢不陳。」〔一〕後太祖遂受魏公、魏王之號,皆昭所創。

  • (1) Xiàn-dì Chūnqiū states: Zhāo with the Ranked Marquis and various officers discussed, believing the Chancellor should be advanced in noble rank to a state Duke, the Nine Bestowments prepared, to make clear his special merits; letter with Xún Yù said: “In the past Zhōu Dàn and Lǚ Wàng, at the Jī clan’s flourishing, caused the enterprise of the two sages, assisted Chéng-wáng’s youth, achievements and merits resembling his, and yet received the upper nobility ranks, bestowed territory and opening a realm. In later ages Tián Dān, drove strong Qí’s forces, repaying weak Yān’s complaint, captured cities of seventy, welcomed and restored Xiāng-wáng, Xiāng-wáng applied rewards to Dān, having the east to have Yèyì’s enfoeffment, the west to have Zīshàng’s worry. The former age’s recorded achievements, are as generous as these. Now Excellency Cáo encountered Within the Seas overturned, the Ancestral Temples burned, himself wore armor and helmet, traveling all around on campaign, combing with wind and washing in rain, for almost thirty years, cutting down the various evils, to for the Hundred Surnames remove harm, to cause the Hàn House to again be preserved, the Liú clan to maintain its sacrifices. Comparing to the the former time’s various dukes, is like Tài mountain compared to an anthill, how can they in the same day be discussed? Now he is the same as the ranked officers and accomplished ministers, all Marquis of one county, how is this what Heaven’s Under hopes for?”

〔一〕 獻帝春秋曰:昭與列侯諸將議,以丞相宜進爵國公,九錫備物,以彰殊勳;書與荀彧曰:「昔周旦、呂望,當姬氏之盛,因二聖之業,輔翼成王之幼,功勳若彼,猶受上爵,錫土開宇。末世田單,驅彊齊之眾,報弱燕之怨,收城七十,迎復襄王;襄王加賞于單,使東有掖邑之封,西有菑上之虞。前世錄功,濃厚如此。今曹公遭海內傾覆,宗廟焚滅,躬擐甲冑,周旋征伐,櫛風沐雨,且三十年,芟夷群凶,為百姓除害,使漢室復存,劉氏奉祀。方之曩者數公,若太山之與丘垤,豈同日而論乎?今徒與列將功臣,並侯一縣,此豈天下所望哉!」


When Guān Yǔ besieged Cáo Rén at Fán, Sūn Quán sent envoy to say: “Sending troops west upstream, wishing to surprise attack [Guān] Yǔ. Jiānglíng and Gōng’ān are incredibly important, [Guān] Yǔ losing the two cities, is certain to on his own flee, the besieging of Fán’s army, without rescue on its own resolve. Please keep confidential and not divulge, to cause [Guān] Yǔ to have preparations.” Tàizǔ asked the various ministers, the various ministers all said it was appropriate to keep it confidential. Zhāo said: “Military affairs esteem expedience, scheduling by appropriateness. It is appropriate to respond to [Sūn] Quán saying it is confidential, but to inwardly reveal it. [Guān] Yǔ on hearing [Sūn] Quán is going upstream, if he returns to protect himself, the siege will then be quickly resolved, and then quickly take this advantage. It can cause the two rebels to hold together in opposition, and sit and wait for their exhaustion. To keep it confidential and not reveal it, is to cause [Sūn] Quán to obtain his wishes, and not the best strategy. Also, the officers and officials in the siege do not know there is rescue, in calculating provisions are afraid, if unexpectedly there are ulterior ideas, the disaster would not be small. Revealing it to them is appropriate. Moreover [Guān] Yǔ as a man is strong and proud, he will be self-confident that the two cities’ defenses are firm, and certainly will not quickly withdraw.” Tàizǔ said: “Excellent.” At once ordered rescuing officer Xú Huǎng to shoot [Sūn] Quán’s letter into the siege and [Guān] Yǔ’s garrisons. Those inside the siege hearing of it, their resolve increased a hundredfold. [Guān] Yǔ indeed hesitated. [Sūn] Quán’s army arrived, captured his two cities, and [Guān] Yǔ was then defeated.

及關羽圍曹仁於樊,孫權遣使辭以「遣兵西上,欲掩取羽。江陵、公安累重,羽失二城,必自奔走,樊軍之圍,不救自解。乞密不漏,令羽有備。」太祖詰群臣,群臣咸言宜當密之。昭曰:「軍事尚權,期於合宜。宜應權以密,而內露之。羽聞權上,若還自護,圍則速解,便獲其利。可使兩賊相對銜持,坐待其弊。祕而不露,使權得志,非計之上。又,圍中將吏不知有救,計糧怖懼,儻有他意,為難不小。露之為便。且羽為人彊梁,自恃二城守固,必不速退。」太祖曰:「善。」即敕救將徐晃以權書射著圍裏及羽屯中,圍裏聞之,志氣百倍。羽果猶豫。權軍至,得其二城,羽乃破敗。


When Emperor Wén succeeded the king’s throne [220], appointed Zhāo as General Architect. Reaching the Ascension, promoted to Minister Herald, advanced enfeoffment to Yòuxiāng Marquis. Second Year [221], divided from fief one hundred households to bestow on Zhāo’s younger brother Fǎng noble rank as Marquis Within the Passes. Transferred Zhāo to Attendant Internal. Third Year [222], Campaigning East General-in-Chief Cáo Xiū overlooked the Jiāng at Dòngpǔkǒu, personally memorializing: “I wish to command elite troops and tiger infantry to the Jiāng’s south, to answer the enemy and take their resources, the matter is certain to succeed. If I your servant am no more, there is no need to mourn.”

The Emperor feared Xiū would then cross the Jiāng, and with relay horse sent Imperial Order to stop. At the time Zhāo was in attendance at the side, and therefore said: “I humbly observe Your Majesty has worried expression, is it only because [Cáo] Xiū may cross the Jiāng? Now to cross the Jiāng, human relationships are the difficulty, even if [Cáo] Xiū has this ambition, he must wait for the various officers. Zāng Bà and the rest are wealthy and noble, without other expectations, only wishing to finish their natural years, guarding their salaries and blessings and nothing more, why would they agree to ride into danger and throw themselves onto death ground, to seek to rely on luck? If [Zāng] Bà and the rest do not advance, [Cáo] Xiū’s intentions will surely be blocked. I your servant fear even if Your Majesty had Imperial Order commanding a crossing, yet they would certainly mutter in indecision, and not follow command.”

After that very soon violent wind blew the rebel ships, sending all below [Cáo] Xiū’s camps, beheaded and captured alive, and the rebels therefore fled and scattered. Imperial Order commanded the various armies to hurriedly cross. The army did not timely advance, the rebels rescued the ships and so escaped.

文帝即王位,拜昭將作大匠。及踐阼,遷大鴻臚,進封右鄉侯。二年,分邑百戶,賜昭弟訪爵關內侯,徙昭為侍中。三年,征東大將軍曹休臨江在洞浦口,自表:「願將銳卒虎步江南,因敵取資,事必克捷;若其無臣,不須為念。」帝恐休便渡江,驛馬詔止。時昭侍側,因曰:「竊見陛下有憂色,獨以休濟江故乎?今者渡江,人情所難,就休有此志,勢不獨行,當須諸將。臧霸等既富且貴,無復他望,但欲終其天年,保守祿祚而已,何肯乘危自投死地,以求徼倖?苟霸等不進,休意自沮。臣恐陛下雖有敕渡之詔,猶必沉吟,未便從命也。」是後無幾,暴風吹賊船,悉詣休等營下,斬首獲生,賊遂迸散。詔敕諸軍促渡。軍未時進,賊救船遂至。


The Great Chariot visited Wǎn, Campaigning South General-in-Chief Xiàhóu Shàng and others attacked Jiānglíng and had not taken it. At the time the Jiāng’s waters were shallow, [Xiàhóu] Shàng wished to ride boats to command infantry and cavalry to enter the islets and secure garrisons, build pontoon bridges, to have the south and north connect, of commentators many believed the city certainly could be taken. Zhāo sent up memorial stating: “Imperial Emperor Wǔ’s wisdom and valor surpassed men, but in employing troops he feared the enemy, not daring to be reckless of them like this. That troops enjoy advancing and hate retreating, is normal in its commonality. Flat ground without ruggedness, yet is still dangerous, so to penetrate deeply, the return road should be easy, or troops having advance or retreat cannot be as wished for. Now to garrison the islets is the utmost of deepness. To use pontoon bridges to cross is the utmost of danger. On one road advancing is the utmost of narrowness. These three are what military schools dread, and yet now they are enacted. The rebels repeatedly attack the bridges, if there is leakage, the elite on the islets would no longer be Wèi’s, and transform into Wú’s. I your servant privately worry of this, forgetting to rest and eat, and yet the commentators are happy and do not worry, how is this not foolishness? Moreover the Jiāng waters are long, if in one morning they suddenly increase, how can it be withstood? Even without defeating the bandits, [Xiàhóu] Shàng would on his own be finished. How can one ride into danger and not be afraid? The situation is about to be endangered, may Your Majesty investigate it!”

The Emperor became aware of Zhāo’s report, and at once sent Imperial Order on [Xiàhóu] Shàng and the rest to hurriedly leave. The rebel two ends together advanced, the official troops on one road withdrew and left, did not timely obtain flow, Generals Shí Jiàn and Gāo Qiān barely were able to themselves escape. The army set out for ten days, the Jiāng’s waters suddenly grew. The Emperor said: “Your discussion of these affairs, what carefulness! Even if Zhāng [Liáng] or Chén [Píng] were to do it, what could they add?”

Fifth Year [224], transferred fief to Chéngdū village Marquis, appointed Minsiter of Ceremonies. That year, transferred to Minsiter of Merits, Giving Affairs Internal. Accompanied the Great Chariot on eastern campaign, Seventh Year returned, appointed Minster Charioteer.

When Emperor Míng succeeded the throne, increased fief to Lèpíng Marquis, fief of a thousand households, transferred to Minister of the Guard. Divided fief one hundred households to bestow on one son noble rank as Marquis Within the Passes.

大駕幸宛,征南大將軍夏侯尚等攻江陵,未拔。時江水淺狹,尚欲乘船將步騎入渚中安屯,作浮橋,南北往來,議者多以為城必可拔。昭上疏曰:「武皇帝智勇過人,而用兵畏敵,不敢輕之若此也。夫兵好進惡退,常然之數。平地無險,猶尚艱難,就當深入,還道宜利,兵有進退,不可如意。今屯渚中,至深也;浮橋而濟,至危也;一道而行,至狹也:三者兵家所忌,而今行之。賊頻攻橋,誤有漏失,渚中精銳,非魏之有,將轉化為吳矣。臣私慼之,忘寢與食,而議者怡然不以為憂,豈不惑哉!加江水向長,一旦暴增,何以防禦?就不破賊,尚當自完。奈何乘危,不以為懼?事將危矣,惟陛下察之!」帝悟昭言,即詔尚等促出。賊兩頭並前,官兵一道引去,不時得泄,將軍石建、高遷僅得自免。軍出旬日,江水暴長。帝曰:「君論此事,何其審也!正使張、陳當之,何以復加。」五年,徙封成都鄉侯,拜太常。其年,徙光祿大夫、給事中。從大駕東征,七年還,拜太僕。明帝即位,進爵樂平侯,邑千戶,轉衛尉。分邑百戶,賜一子爵關內侯。


Tàihé Fouth Year, Acting Excellency over the Masses affairs. Sixth Year, appointed true. Zhāo sent up memorial explaining the harms of degeneracy stating: “Overall of those possessing Heaven’s Under, none do not honor and esteem kind and plain and loyal and faithful servicemen, and deeply hate empty and false and untrue men, because they destroy teaching and disorder government, damage custom and injure cultivation. Recently Wèi Fěng then was submitted to execution at Jiàn’ān’s end, Cáo Wěi then was beheaded and killed at Huángchū’s beginning. In prostration to your beginning to end sagely Imperial Orders, they deeply hate the superficial and false, wishing to destroy and scatter evil factions, always using gnashing of teeth [in anger]; and yet officials of enforcing law all fear their power and influence, none are able to investigate and expose, and the destruction of social custom and infringing desires grow extreme. I humbly observe that the present youths no longer take scholarly learning as their foundation, and focus instead on making connections as their enterprise; the state’s servicemen do not take filial and fraternal duty and pure cultivation as head, and then take following trends to chase benefit as first. Gathering factions and linking groups, mutually praising and sighing, taking defamation and slander as punishing and killing, using faction reputation as noble rank and reward, those that attach to them they then sigh with overflowing praise, those that do not attach they then criticize and quarrel. It has reached to them mutually saying: ‘In the present age why worry of not succeeding? It is only seeking human relations not being constant, and gatherings not being plentiful. Also what misfortune is it to not be understood, merely swallow it with drugs and relax.’ Also one hears that some have caused slave retainers to be called as household employees, covering up their going out and going in, dealing in forbidden secrets, communicating letters and reports, and making inquiries. Overall these various affairs, are all what in applying law there is no acceptance, in punishing them there is no pardon. Even the crimes of [Wèi] Fěng and [Cáo] Wěi have nothing to add.”

The Emperor therefore issued cutting Imperial Order reprimanding and dismissing Zhūgě Dàn and Dèng Yáng and others.

Zhāo at eighty one years died, posthumous name Dìng-hóu. His son Zhòu succeeded. Zhòu successively held ranks as a prefecture administrator and in the Nine Ministers.

太和四年,行司徒事,六年,拜真。昭上疏陳末流之弊曰:「凡有天下者,莫不貴尚敦樸忠信之士,深疾虛偽不真之人者,以其毀教亂治,敗俗傷化也。近魏諷則伏誅建安之末,曹偉則斬戮黃初之始。伏惟前後聖詔,深疾浮偽,欲以破散邪黨,常用切齒;而執法之吏皆畏其權勢,莫能糾擿,毀壞風俗,侵欲滋甚。竊見當今年少,不復以學問為本,專更以交游為業;國士不以孝悌清脩為首,乃以趨勢游利為先。合黨連群,互相褒歎,以毀訾為罰戮,用黨譽為爵賞,附己者則歎之盈言,不附者則為作瑕釁。至乃相謂『今世何憂不度邪,但求人道不勤,羅之不博耳;又何患其不知己矣,但當吞之以藥而柔調耳。』又聞或有使奴客名作在職家人,冒之出入,往來禁奧,交通書疏,有所探問。凡此諸事,皆法之所不取,刑之所不赦,雖諷、偉之罪,無以加也。」帝於是發切詔,斥免諸葛誕、鄧颺等。昭年八十一薨,諡曰定侯。子冑嗣。冑歷位郡守、九卿。

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