(30.5) Fūyú 夫餘

Fūyú (Buyeo) is to the Long Fortress’s north, from Xuántù by a thousand lǐ, to the south with Gāogōulí, to the east with Yìlóu, to the west with Xiānbēi bordering, the north has the Ruò river, its perimeter is about two thousand lǐ, households are eighty thousand, its people are local to the land, and have palaces and residences, storehouses, and prisons. There are many mountains and hills, wide pools, of the Dōngyí’s regions it is the most level and spacious. The soil is suitable for the five grains, but does not produce the five fruits. Its people are coarse and big, by nature are strong and valorous and careful and generous, they do not plunder and rob. The state has a king, and all uses the six livestock animals to name government offices, having a Horse Applier, Ox Applier, Hog Applier, Dog Applier, and Great Envoy. The Great Envoy is an emissary. The villages have dominant people, under their names the households are all servants. The various Appliers have separate managers all about, the large managing several thousand families, the small several hundred families. Food and drink all use Zǔdòu, huìtóng, bàijué, xǐjué, saluting and yielding rising and falling. In Yīn’s standard moon they sacrifice to heaven, in the state there is a great gathering, for continuous days drinking and eating and singing and dancing, named as “Yínggǔ,” and at this time they break off punishments and imprisonment, releasing prisoners. In the state the clothes esteem white, white cloth large sleeves, gowns, trousers, treading leather shoes. Leaving the state then they esteem silk fabric embroidery and brocade and wool, the chieftains adding fox, white mink, and black sable fur coats, with gold and silver ornamented caps. The translators in passing on words all kneel, hands on the ground and quietly speaking. In employing punishments they are strict and fast, those that kill someone die, and reduce their family to slave servants. Thieves are charged twelve times the stolen. Men and women that are lewd, married women that are jealous, are all killed. The exceptionally hateful and jealous after being killed, the bodies are put atop the state’s south mountains to rot. The women’s family that wish to obtain them, donate oxen and horses and then it is given to them. When an elder brother dies then they take as wife the sister-in-law, with the Xiōngnú having the same customs. This state is good at raising livestock, producing famed horses, red jade, sable mink, beautiful pearls. The large pearls are as big as sour dates. The use bows and arrows and sabers and lances as weapons, each family having their own armor and weapons. The state’s elders themselves say they are ancient exiles. In building city wall fences all are round, resembling prisons. When walking on the roads day and night whether old or young they all sing, through the day the sound does not stop. If there is a military affair they also sacrifice to heaven, kill an ox and observe hooves to divine good or bad luck, hooves divided is bad fortune, united is good fortune. If there is an enemy, the various Appliers personally battle, the subordinate households all carrying provisions to give drink and food to them. At death, in summer months they all use ice [to preserve the body]. They kill people to accompany the burial, the many being several hundred. They generously bury, having outer coffin but no [inner] coffin. (1)


  • (1) Wèilüè states: Their custom is to stop mourning in five moons, as going for a long time is an honor. Their sacrifices to the gone, have some raw and have some cooked. The mourning host does not wish to be quick but other people force them, always arguing about this to be economical. In their observation of mourning, the males and females all are in pure white, the married women wears cloth face clothes, remove rings and girdle ornaments, the overall form with the central states resembling one another.

  〔一〕 魏略曰:其俗停喪五月,以久為榮。其祭亡者,有生有熟。喪主不欲速而他人彊之,常諍引以此為節。其居喪,男女皆純白,婦人著布面衣,去環珮,大體與中國相彷彿也。

Fūyú originally was subordinate to Xuántù, at Hàn’s end, Gōngsūn Dù’s power spread to the sea’s east, his authority subduing the outer Yí, the Fūyú king Wèi Qiútái then became subordinate to Liáodōng. At the time Gōulí and Xiānbēi were strong, [Gōngsūn] Dù because Fūyú was between the two caitiffs, married off his clan’s daughter [to Fūyú]. Wèi Qiútái died, Jiǎn Wèijū was enthroned. There was no successor son, there was a concubine-born son Máyú. Wèijū died, the various Appliers together enthroned Máyú. The Ox Applier’s elder brother’s son was named Wèijū, became Great Envoy, thought little of wealth and enjoyed giving out, the state’s people attached to him, and year after year he sent envoys to visit the capital to present tribute. During Zhèngshǐ, Yōu province Inspector Guànqiū Jiǎn suppressed Gōulí, sent Xuántù Administrator Wáng Qí to tempt Fūyú, Wèijū sent the Great Applier to the suburbs to welcome, providing military provisions. His uncle the Ox Applier had ulterior intentions, Wèijū killed his uncle, father and sons, confiscating their property, sending envoy to give out the registered property to the officials. By old Fūyú customs, if flood and drought were not prevented, or the five grains did not ripen, then at once blame was placed on the king, some saying he should be changed, some saying he should be killed. Máyú died, his son Yīlǜ was aged six years, enthroned as king. In Hàn’s time, the Fūyú king was buried in a jade box, which was always sent to Xuántù prefecture to wait, and when the king died then it was welcomed back for burial. When Gōngsūn Yuān was submitted to execution, Xuántù storehouse still had a jade box of one. Now Fūyú storehouses have jade annulus, tablet, libation cups of several dynasties of objects, passed through the ages as treasures, the elders say they were in former dynasties bestowed. (1) Their seal’s engraving says: “Huì king’s seal.” The state has a former city named Huì city, probably it was originally Huìmò’s territory, and the Fūyú kings being among them, calling themselves “exiles,” probably is due to this. (2)


  • (1) Wèi lüè states: Their state is prosperous and wealthy, from the former generations onward, it has never once been destroyed.

      〔一〕 魏略曰:其國殷富,自先世以來,未嘗破壞。

  • (2) Wèilüè states: The old records also say, in the past the north had a Gāolí state, their king had an attendant slave girl who was pregnant, the king wished to kill her, the slave girl said: “There was an aura like a bird that came down, and I therefore became pregnant.” Later she bore a son, the king abandoned it in the pigsty, the pigs with their snouts breathed on it, moved to the horse stables, the horses with their breath breathed on it, and it did not die. The king suspected it was Heaven’s Son, and so ordered its mother to collect and raise it, naming it Dōngmíng, always ordered to herd horses. Dōngmíng was good at shooting, the king feared he would steal his state, and wished to kill him. Dōngmíng fled, to the south reaching Shīyǎn river, with a bow struck the river, and the fish and turtles floated to become a bridge, Dōngmíng was able to cross, the fish and turtles than dispersed, and the pursuing troops could not cross. Dōngmíng therefore set capital as king in Fūyú’s lands.

      〔二〕 魏略曰:舊志又言,昔北方有高離之國者,其王者侍婢有身,王欲殺之,婢云:「有氣如雞子來下,我故有身。」後生子,王捐之於溷中,豬以喙噓之,徙至馬閑,馬以氣噓之,不死。王疑以為天子也,乃令其母收畜之,名曰東明,常令牧馬。東明善射,王恐奪其國也,欲殺之。東明走,南至施掩水,以弓擊水,魚鱉浮為橋,東明得度,魚鱉乃解散,追兵不得渡。東明因都王夫餘之地。



Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s