(30.5) Fūyú 夫餘

Fūyú (Buyeo) is to the Long Fortress’s north, from Xuántù by a thousand lǐ, to the south with Gāogōulí, to the east with Yìlóu, to the west with Xiānbēi bordering, the north has the Ruò river, its perimeter is about two thousand lǐ, households are eighty thousand, its people are local to the land, and have palaces and residences, storehouses, and prisons. There are many mountains and hills, wide pools, of the Dōngyí’s regions it is the most level and spacious. The soil is suitable for the five grains, but does not produce the five fruits. Its people are coarse and big, by nature are strong and valorous and careful and generous, they do not plunder and rob. The state has a king, and all uses the six livestock animals to name government offices, having a Horse Applier, Ox Applier, Hog Applier, Dog Applier, and Great Envoy. The Great Envoy is an emissary. The villages have dominant people, under their names the households are all servants. The various Appliers have separate managers all about, the large managing several thousand families, the small several hundred families. Food and drink all use Zǔdòu, huìtóng, bàijué, xǐjué, saluting and yielding rising and falling. In Yīn’s standard moon they sacrifice to heaven, in the state there is a great gathering, for continuous days drinking and eating and singing and dancing, named as “Yínggǔ,” and at this time they break off punishments and imprisonment, releasing prisoners. In the state the clothes esteem white, white cloth large sleeves, gowns, trousers, treading leather shoes. Leaving the state then they esteem silk fabric embroidery and brocade and wool, the chieftains adding fox, white mink, and black sable fur coats, with gold and silver ornamented caps. The translators in passing on words all kneel, hands on the ground and quietly speaking. In employing punishments they are strict and fast, those that kill someone die, and reduce their family to slave servants. Thieves are charged twelve times the stolen. Men and women that are lewd, married women that are jealous, are all killed. The exceptionally hateful and jealous after being killed, the bodies are put atop the state’s south mountains to rot. The women’s family that wish to obtain them, donate oxen and horses and then it is given to them. When an elder brother dies then they take as wife the sister-in-law, with the Xiōngnú having the same customs. This state is good at raising livestock, producing famed horses, red jade, sable mink, beautiful pearls. The large pearls are as big as sour dates. The use bows and arrows and sabers and lances as weapons, each family having their own armor and weapons. The state’s elders themselves say they are ancient exiles. In building city wall fences all are round, resembling prisons. When walking on the roads day and night whether old or young they all sing, through the day the sound does not stop. If there is a military affair they also sacrifice to heaven, kill an ox and observe hooves to divine good or bad luck, hooves divided is bad fortune, united is good fortune. If there is an enemy, the various Appliers personally battle, the subordinate households all carrying provisions to give drink and food to them. At death, in summer months they all use ice [to preserve the body]. They kill people to accompany the burial, the many being several hundred. They generously bury, having outer coffin but no [inner] coffin. (1)

  夫餘在長城之北,去玄菟千里,南與高句麗,東與挹婁,西與鮮卑接,北有弱水,方可二千里。戶八萬,其民土著,有宮室、倉庫、牢獄。多山陵、廣澤,於東夷之域最平敞。土地宜五穀,不生五果。其人麤大,性彊勇謹厚,不寇鈔。國有君王,皆以六畜名官,有馬加、牛加、豬加、狗加、大使、大使者、使者。邑落有豪民,名下戶皆為奴僕。諸加別主四出,道大者主數千家,小者數百家。食飲皆用俎豆,會同、拜爵、洗爵,揖讓升降。以殷正月祭天,國中大會,連日飲食歌舞,名曰迎鼓,於是時斷刑獄,解囚徒。在國衣尚白,白布大袂,袍、蔥,履革鞜。出國則尚繒繡錦罽,大人加狐狸、狖白、黑貂之裘,以金銀飾帽。譯人傳辭,皆跪,手據地竊語。用刑嚴急,殺人者死,沒其家人為奴婢。竊盜一責十二。男女淫,婦人妒,皆殺之。尤憎妒,已殺,尸之國南山上,至腐爛。女家欲得,輸牛馬乃與之。兄死妻嫂,與匈奴同俗。其國善養牲,出名馬、赤玉、貂狖、美珠。珠大者如酸棗。以弓矢刀矛為兵,家家自有鎧仗。國之耆老自說古之亡人。作城柵皆員,有似牢獄。行道晝夜無老幼皆歌,通日聲不絕。有軍事亦祭天,殺牛觀蹄以占吉凶,蹄解者為凶,合者為吉。有敵,諸加自戰,下戶俱擔糧飲食之。其死,夏月皆用冰。殺人徇葬,多者百數。厚葬,有槨無棺。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèilüè states: Their custom is to stop mourning in five moons, as going for a long time is an honor. Their sacrifices to the gone, have some raw and have some cooked. The mourning host does not wish to be quick but other people force them, always arguing about this to be economical. In their observation of mourning, the males and females all are in pure white, the married women wears cloth face clothes, remove rings and girdle ornaments, the overall form with the central states resembling one another.

  〔一〕 魏略曰:其俗停喪五月,以久為榮。其祭亡者,有生有熟。喪主不欲速而他人彊之,常諍引以此為節。其居喪,男女皆純白,婦人著布面衣,去環珮,大體與中國相彷彿也。


Fūyú originally was subordinate to Xuántù, at Hàn’s end, Gōngsūn Dù’s power spread to the sea’s east, his authority subduing the outer Yí, the Fūyú king Wèi Qiútái then became subordinate to Liáodōng. At the time Gōulí and Xiānbēi were strong, [Gōngsūn] Dù because Fūyú was between the two caitiffs, married off his clan’s daughter [to Fūyú]. Wèi Qiútái died, Jiǎn Wèijū was enthroned. There was no successor son, there was a concubine-born son Máyú. Wèijū died, the various Appliers together enthroned Máyú. The Ox Applier’s elder brother’s son was named Wèijū, became Great Envoy, thought little of wealth and enjoyed giving out, the state’s people attached to him, and year after year he sent envoys to visit the capital to present tribute. During Zhèngshǐ, Yōu province Inspector Guànqiū Jiǎn suppressed Gōulí, sent Xuántù Administrator Wáng Qí to tempt Fūyú, Wèijū sent the Great Applier to the suburbs to welcome, providing military provisions. His uncle the Ox Applier had ulterior intentions, Wèijū killed his uncle, father and sons, confiscating their property, sending envoy to give out the registered property to the officials. By old Fūyú customs, if flood and drought were not prevented, or the five grains did not ripen, then at once blame was placed on the king, some saying he should be changed, some saying he should be killed. Máyú died, his son Yīlǜ was aged six years, enthroned as king. In Hàn’s time, the Fūyú king was buried in a jade box, which was always sent to Xuántù prefecture to wait, and when the king died then it was welcomed back for burial. When Gōngsūn Yuān was submitted to execution, Xuántù storehouse still had a jade box of one. Now Fūyú storehouses have jade annulus, tablet, libation cups of several dynasties of objects, passed through the ages as treasures, the elders say they were in former dynasties bestowed. (1) Their seal’s engraving says: “Huì king’s seal.” The state has a former city named Huì city, probably it was originally Huìmò’s territory, and the Fūyú kings being among them, calling themselves “exiles,” probably is due to this. (2)

  夫餘本屬玄菟。漢末,公孫度雄張海東,威服外夷,夫餘王尉仇台更屬遼東。時句麗、鮮卑彊,度以夫餘在二虜之間,妻以宗女。尉仇台死,簡位居立。無適子,有孽子麻余。位居死,諸加共立麻余。牛加兄子名位居,為大使,輕財善施,國人附之,歲歲遣使詣京都貢獻。正始中,幽州刺史毌丘儉討句麗,遣玄菟太守王頎詣夫餘,位居遣大加郊迎,供軍糧。季父牛加有二心,位居殺季父父子,籍沒財物,遣使簿斂送官。舊夫餘俗,水旱不調,五穀不熟,輒歸咎於王,或言當易,或言當殺。麻余死,其子依慮年六歲,立以為王。漢時,夫餘王葬用玉匣,常豫以付玄菟郡,王死則迎取以葬。公孫淵伏誅,玄菟庫猶有玉匣一具。今夫餘庫有玉璧、珪、瓚數代之物,傳世以為寶,耆老言先代之所賜也。〔一〕其印文言「濊王之印」,國有故城名濊城,蓋本濊貊之地,而夫餘王其中,自謂「亡人」,抑有(似)〔以〕也。〔二〕

  • (1) Wèi lüè states: Their state is prosperous and wealthy, from the former generations onward, it has never once been destroyed.

      〔一〕 魏略曰:其國殷富,自先世以來,未嘗破壞。

  • (2) Wèilüè states: The old records also say, in the past the north had a Gāolí state, their king had an attendant slave girl who was pregnant, the king wished to kill her, the slave girl said: “There was an aura like a bird that came down, and I therefore became pregnant.” Later she bore a son, the king abandoned it in the pigsty, the pigs with their snouts breathed on it, moved to the horse stables, the horses with their breath breathed on it, and it did not die. The king suspected it was Heaven’s Son, and so ordered its mother to collect and raise it, naming it Dōngmíng, always ordered to herd horses. Dōngmíng was good at shooting, the king feared he would steal his state, and wished to kill him. Dōngmíng fled, to the south reaching Shīyǎn river, with a bow struck the river, and the fish and turtles floated to become a bridge, Dōngmíng was able to cross, the fish and turtles than dispersed, and the pursuing troops could not cross. Dōngmíng therefore set capital as king in Fūyú’s lands.

      〔二〕 魏略曰:舊志又言,昔北方有高離之國者,其王者侍婢有身,王欲殺之,婢云:「有氣如雞子來下,我故有身。」後生子,王捐之於溷中,豬以喙噓之,徙至馬閑,馬以氣噓之,不死。王疑以為天子也,乃令其母收畜之,名曰東明,常令牧馬。東明善射,王恐奪其國也,欲殺之。東明走,南至施掩水,以弓擊水,魚鱉浮為橋,東明得度,魚鱉乃解散,追兵不得渡。東明因都王夫餘之地。

     

     

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