(30.6) Gāogōulí 高句麗

Gāogōulí is to Liáodōng’s east by a thousand lǐ, the south with Cháoxiǎn and Huìmò, the east with Wòjǔ, the north with Fūyú bordering. The capital is below Wándū. Its perimeter is about two thousand lǐ, households are thirty thousand. It has many large mountains and deep valleys, and is without plains and ponds. Following the mountains and valleys they make residences, feeding on mountain streams. They are without good farm fields, and though they labor in farming, it is not enough to eat to fill. Their customs are to be economical in food, they enjoy building palaces and residences, where they reside to the left and right they establish large rooms, sacrifice to ghosts and spirits, and also sacrifice to divine stars and state altars. Their people are by nature vicious and rash, and they are good at robbing and plunder. Their state has a king, their government offices have a minister applier, facing vessel, provider, ancient fledgling applier, registrar, exceptional terrace deputy, envoy, black robe advancers, the superior and subordinate each have their ranks. The Dōngyí of old said they believed Fūyú was of a different kind, in language and various things, many are with Fūyú the same, but their nature and air and clothes have differences. Originally they had five clans, having Juānnú division, Juénú division, Shùnnú division, Guànnú division, Guìlóu division. Originally Juānnú division was the king, gradually they weakened, now Guìlóu division succeeded it. In Hàn’s time bestowed drums and horns and performers, always from Xuántù prefecture accepted court dress and robes and headscarves, Gāogōulí had them manage their name registers. Later gradually they became arrogant and unrestrained, and no longer visited the prefecture, on the east border building small fortresses, putting the court dress and robes and head-scarves in there, in time coming to take it, now the Hú still name these fortresses as head-scarves Gōulóu. Gōulóu is a Gōulí famed city. Their installed offices, if there is a matching vessel then they do not install a provider, if there is a provider then they do not install a matching vessel. The king’s clansmen, the great appliers are all called as ancient fledgling applier. Juānnú division was originally the state’s ruler, now though they are not the kings, they gather the chieftains, are able to be called ancient fledgling appliers, and also able to establish an ancestral temple, and sacrifice to the divine stars and state altars. Juénú division for generations with the kings intermarried, applied the ancient fledgling title. The various great appliers also themselves install envoys and black robe advancers, named all as communicating to the king, like a minister or grandee’s household subjects, in gatherings they together sit and rise, and cannot be with the king’s household envoys and black robe advancers share rank. In the state the great families do not farm, the sitting and eating are over ten thousand, the subordinate households from afar carry rice and provisions and fish and salt to provide for them. Their people enjoy singing and dances, the state’s villages in evening and night have males and females gather together, meeting in song and play. There are no large storehouses, each family has their own small storehouse, naming them as Fújīng. Their people in cleaning and purifying themselves are pleased, and they enjoy fermenting. In kneeling and bowing they extend one leg, different from Fūyú. In walking they all run.In the tenth moon they sacrifice to Heaven, in the state is a large gathering, named as Dōngméng. In this public gathering, the clothes all have brocade and gold and silver to ornament themselves. The great applier registrar heads wear head-scarves, like head-scarves but without excess, their small appliers wear a folded style, shaped like a cap. Their state’s east has large caves, named as tunnel caves, in the tenth moon in the state’s great assembly, they welcome tunnel spirits’ return in the state’s east and sacrifice to them, installing wooden tunnels for spirit seats. They are without prisons, for the guilty the various appliers discuss and then kill them, confiscating their wives and children to be slave servants. Their customs in marriage, are to discuss and once decided, the girl’s family makes a small room to the large room’s rear, named a son-in-law room, the son-in-law at evening reaches outside the girl’s family’s door, names himself and kneels and bows, and begs to be able to join the girl’s lodging, it is like this twice and thrice, the daughter’s father and mother then agree and have him enter the small room to lodge, nearby arranging money and silk, from begetting a child to growing up, then they take the wife and return home. Their customs are excessive. When males and females are already married, then they gradually make funeral clothes. They generously bury, with gold and silver and wealth and money, completely to send off at death, and amass stones to be the seal, and plant pines and cypresses. Their horses are all small, capable of climbing mountains. The state’s people have vigor, are accustomed to battle and fighting, Wòjǔ and Dōnghuì are all subordinate to them. Also there is Xiǎoshuǐmò. Gōulí in building state, according to large rivers reside, Xī’ānpíng county’s north has a small river, south flowing into the sea, Gōulí’s separate tribe along the small river made a state, and therefore named it as Xiǎoshuìmò [“Small River Mò”], it produces good bows, what are called Mò bows are these.


When Wáng Mǎng first mobilized Gāogōulí troops to attack the Hú, they did not wish to go, they were forcefully sent, and all deserted to go out the passes to be bandits and rob. Liáoxī Administrator Tián Tán pursued and struck them, and were by them killed. The provinces and prefectures and counties put the blame on Gōulí Marquis Táo. Yán Yóu memorialized report: “The Mò people violated law, the crime did not arise from Táo, moreover it is appropriate to comfort. Now if the humble are applied with great punishment, one fears they will therefore rebel.” [Wáng] Mǎng did not listen, Imperial Ordered [Yán] Yóu to strike them. [Yán] Yóu enticed the time’s Gōulí Marquis Táo to arrive and then beheaded him, sending the head to Cháng’ān. [Wáng] Mǎng was greatly pleased, spread announcement Under Heaven, changing name of Gāogōulí to Xiàgōulí. At this time they were a Marquisate state, Hàn Emperor Guāng-Wǔ’s eighth year [32], the Gāogōulí king sent envoy to present tribute, and first were titled kings.


Reaching to Shāng and Ān, Gōulí king Gōng repeatedly plundered Liáodōng, changed subordination to Xuántù. Liáodōng Administrator Cài Fēng, Xuántù Administrator Yáo Guāng because Gōng was a harm to the two prefectures, raised forces to attack him. Gōng feigned surrender and requested peace, and the two prefectures did not advance. Gōng secretly sent an army to attack Xuántù, burning the scout outposts, entered Liáosuì, killing officials and people. Later Gōng again invaded Liáodōng, Cài Fēng recklessly led officials and troops to pursue and suppress him, the army was defeated and lost.


Gōng died, his son Bógù was enthroned. During Shùn and Huán, again invaded Liáodōng, plundering Xīn’ān and Jūxiāng, again attacking Xī’ānpíng, on the road killing the Dàifāng Magistrate, plundering and capturing the Lèlàng Administrator’s wives and children. Emperor Líng’s Jiànníng Second Year [168], Xuántù Administrator Gěng Lín suppressed them, beheading caitiffs of several hundred, Bógù surrendered, subordinate to Liáodōng. During Xīpíng, Bógù begged to be subordinate to Xuántù. At Gōngsūn Dù’s dominating the sea’s east, Bógù sent great applier Yōujū and registrar Ránrén and others to assist [Gōngsūn] Dù in striking Fù mountain bandits, defeating them.


Bógù died, had two sons, the eldest son Báqí, the small son Yīyímó. Báqí was not worthy, the state’s people then together enthroned Yīyímó as king. From Bógù’s time, they repeatedly plundered Liáodōng, and also accepted deserting Hú of over five hundred families. During Jiàn’ān, Gōngsūn Kāng sent out army to strike them, defeating their state, burning their villages. Báqí complained he was the elder brother but not enthroned, and with Juānnú appliers each led their subordinate households of over thirty thousand to visit [Gōngsūn] Kāng to surrender, returning to station Fèiliú river. The surrendering Hú also rebelled against Yīyímó, Yīyímó then made a new state, today’s location is this. Báqí then went to Liáodōng, had a son that remained in Gōulí state, the present ancient fledgling applier Bó Wèijū is this. From this afterward they again struck Xuántù, Xuántù with Liáodōng together struck, greatly defeating them.


Yīyímó was without sons, was lewd with Guànnú division, begetting a son named Wèi Gōng. Yīyímó died, enthroned as king, now the Gōulí king Gōng was this. His great-grandfather was named Gōng, at birth he was able to open eyes and look, and his state’s people hated this, and when he was grown, he as indeed vicious and oppressive, repeatedly plundering and robbing, and the state met with ruin. Now the king was born and fell to ground, also able to open eyes and see people. Gōulí calls resembling as “Wèi,” he resembled his ancestor, and therefore they named him Wèi Gōng. Wèi Gōng had strength and valor, conveniently rode horse, good at hunting and shooting. Jǐngchū Second Year [238], Excellency Commandant Sīmǎ [Yì] Wáng led forces to suppress Gōngsūn Yuān, Gōng sent his registrar great applier to lead several thousands of men to assist the army. Zhèngshǐ Third Year [242], Gōng plundered Xī’ānpíng, that fifth Year [244], he was by Yōu province Inspector Guànqiū Jiǎn defeated. The story is in Jiǎn’s biography.


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