(30.6) Gāogōulí 高句麗

Gāogōulí is to Liáodōng’s east by a thousand lǐ, the south with Cháoxiǎn and Huìmò, the east with Wòjǔ, the north with Fūyú bordering. The capital is below Wándū. Its perimeter is about two thousand lǐ, households are thirty thousand. It has many large mountains and deep valleys, and is without plains and ponds. Following the mountains and valleys they make residences, feeding on mountain streams. They are without good farm fields, and though they labor in farming, it is not enough to eat to fill. Their customs are to be economical in food, they enjoy building palaces and residences, where they reside to the left and right they establish large rooms, sacrifice to ghosts and spirits, and also sacrifice to divine stars and state altars. Their people are by nature vicious and rash, and they are good at robbing and plunder. Their state has a king, their government offices have a minister applier, facing vessel, provider, ancient fledgling applier, registrar, exceptional terrace deputy, envoy, black robe advancers, the superior and subordinate each have their ranks. The Dōngyí of old said they believed Fūyú was of a different kind, in language and various things, many are with Fūyú the same, but their nature and air and clothes have differences. Originally they had five clans, having Juānnú division, Juénú division, Shùnnú division, Guànnú division, Guìlóu division. Originally Juānnú division was the king, gradually they weakened, now Guìlóu division succeeded it. In Hàn’s time bestowed drums and horns and performers, always from Xuántù prefecture accepted court dress and robes and headscarves, Gāogōulí had them manage their name registers. Later gradually they became arrogant and unrestrained, and no longer visited the prefecture, on the east border building small fortresses, putting the court dress and robes and head-scarves in there, in time coming to take it, now the Hú still name these fortresses as head-scarves Gōulóu. Gōulóu is a Gōulí famed city. Their installed offices, if there is a matching vessel then they do not install a provider, if there is a provider then they do not install a matching vessel. The king’s clansmen, the great appliers are all called as ancient fledgling applier. Juānnú division was originally the state’s ruler, now though they are not the kings, they gather the chieftains, are able to be called ancient fledgling appliers, and also able to establish an ancestral temple, and sacrifice to the divine stars and state altars. Juénú division for generations with the kings intermarried, applied the ancient fledgling title. The various great appliers also themselves install envoys and black robe advancers, named all as communicating to the king, like a minister or grandee’s household subjects, in gatherings they together sit and rise, and cannot be with the king’s household envoys and black robe advancers share rank. In the state the great families do not farm, the sitting and eating are over ten thousand, the subordinate households from afar carry rice and provisions and fish and salt to provide for them. Their people enjoy singing and dances, the state’s villages in evening and night have males and females gather together, meeting in song and play. There are no large storehouses, each family has their own small storehouse, naming them as Fújīng. Their people in cleaning and purifying themselves are pleased, and they enjoy fermenting. In kneeling and bowing they extend one leg, different from Fūyú. In walking they all run.In the tenth moon they sacrifice to Heaven, in the state is a large gathering, named as Dōngméng. In this public gathering, the clothes all have brocade and gold and silver to ornament themselves. The great applier registrar heads wear head-scarves, like head-scarves but without excess, their small appliers wear a folded style, shaped like a cap. Their state’s east has large caves, named as tunnel caves, in the tenth moon in the state’s great assembly, they welcome tunnel spirits’ return in the state’s east and sacrifice to them, installing wooden tunnels for spirit seats. They are without prisons, for the guilty the various appliers discuss and then kill them, confiscating their wives and children to be slave servants. Their customs in marriage, are to discuss and once decided, the girl’s family makes a small room to the large room’s rear, named a son-in-law room, the son-in-law at evening reaches outside the girl’s family’s door, names himself and kneels and bows, and begs to be able to join the girl’s lodging, it is like this twice and thrice, the daughter’s father and mother then agree and have him enter the small room to lodge, nearby arranging money and silk, from begetting a child to growing up, then they take the wife and return home. Their customs are excessive. When males and females are already married, then they gradually make funeral clothes. They generously bury, with gold and silver and wealth and money, completely to send off at death, and amass stones to be the seal, and plant pines and cypresses. Their horses are all small, capable of climbing mountains. The state’s people have vigor, are accustomed to battle and fighting, Wòjǔ and Dōnghuì are all subordinate to them. Also there is Xiǎoshuǐmò. Gōulí in building state, according to large rivers reside, Xī’ānpíng county’s north has a small river, south flowing into the sea, Gōulí’s separate tribe along the small river made a state, and therefore named it as Xiǎoshuìmò [“Small River Mò”], it produces good bows, what are called Mò bows are these.

高句麗在遼東之東千里,南與朝鮮、濊貊,東與沃沮,北與夫餘接。都於丸都之下,方可二千里,戶三萬。多大山深谷,無原澤。隨山谷以為居,食澗水。無良田,雖力佃作,不足以實口腹。其俗節食,好治宮室,於所居之左右立大屋,祭鬼神,又祀靈星、社稷。其人性凶急,善寇鈔。其國有王,其官有相加、對盧、沛者、古雛加、主簿、優台丞、使者、皁衣先人,尊卑各有等級。東夷舊語以為夫餘別種,言語諸事,多與夫餘同,其性氣衣服有異。本有五族,有涓奴部、絕奴部、順奴部、灌奴部、桂婁部。本涓奴部為王,稍微弱,今桂婁部代之。漢時賜鼓吹技人,常從玄菟郡受朝服衣幘,高句麗令主其名籍。後稍驕恣,不復詣郡,于東界築小城,置朝服衣幘其中,歲時來取之,今胡猶名此城為幘溝漊。溝漊者,句麗名城也。其置官,有對盧則不置沛者,有沛者則不置對盧。王之宗族,其大加皆稱古雛加。涓奴部本國主,今雖不為王,適統大人,得稱古雛加,亦得立宗廟,祠靈星、社稷。絕奴部世與王婚,加古雛之號。諸大加亦自置使者、皁衣先人,名皆達於王,如卿大夫之家臣,會同坐起,不得與王家使者、皁衣先人同列。其國中大家不佃作,坐食者萬餘口,下戶遠擔米糧魚鹽供給之。其民喜歌舞,國中邑落,暮夜男女群聚,相就歌戲。無大倉庫,家家自有小倉,名之為桴京。其人絜清自喜,喜藏釀。跪拜申一腳,與夫餘異,行步皆走。以十月祭天,國中大會,名曰東盟。其公會,衣服皆錦繡金銀以自飾。大加主簿頭著幘,如幘而無餘,其小加著折風,形如弁。其國東有大穴,名隧穴,十月國中大會,迎隧神還于國東上祭之,置木隧于神坐。無牢獄,有罪諸加評議,便殺之,沒入妻子為奴婢。其俗作婚姻,言語已定,女家作小屋於大屋後,名婿屋,婿暮至女家戶外,自名跪拜,乞得就女宿,如是者再三,女父母乃聽使就小屋中宿,傍頓錢帛,至生子已長大,乃將婦歸家。其俗淫。男女已嫁娶,便稍作送終之衣。厚葬,金銀財幣,盡於送死,積石為封,列種松柏。其馬皆小,便登山。國人有氣力,習戰鬥,沃沮、東濊皆屬焉。又有小水貊。句麗作國,依大水而居,西安平縣北有小水,南流入海,句麗別種依小水作國,因名之為小水貊,出好弓,所謂貊弓是也。


When Wáng Mǎng first mobilized Gāogōulí troops to attack the Hú, they did not wish to go, they were forcefully sent, and all deserted to go out the passes to be bandits and rob. Liáoxī Administrator Tián Tán pursued and struck them, and were by them killed. The provinces and prefectures and counties put the blame on Gōulí Marquis Táo. Yán Yóu memorialized report: “The Mò people violated law, the crime did not arise from Táo, moreover it is appropriate to comfort. Now if the humble are applied with great punishment, one fears they will therefore rebel.” [Wáng] Mǎng did not listen, Imperial Ordered [Yán] Yóu to strike them. [Yán] Yóu enticed the time’s Gōulí Marquis Táo to arrive and then beheaded him, sending the head to Cháng’ān. [Wáng] Mǎng was greatly pleased, spread announcement Under Heaven, changing name of Gāogōulí to Xiàgōulí. At this time they were a Marquisate state, Hàn Emperor Guāng-Wǔ’s eighth year [32], the Gāogōulí king sent envoy to present tribute, and first were titled kings.

  王莽初發高句麗兵以伐胡,不欲行,彊迫遣之,皆亡出塞為寇盜。遼西大尹田譚追擊之,為所殺。州郡縣歸咎于句麗侯騊,嚴尤奏言:「貊人犯法,罪不起于騊,且宜安慰。今猥被之大罪,恐其遂反。」莽不聽,詔尤擊之。尤誘期句麗侯騊至而斬之,傳送其首詣長安。莽大悅,布告天下,更名高句麗為下句麗。當此時為侯國,漢光武帝八年,高句麗王遣使朝貢,始見稱王。


Reaching to Shāng and Ān, Gōulí king Gōng repeatedly plundered Liáodōng, changed subordination to Xuántù. Liáodōng Administrator Cài Fēng, Xuántù Administrator Yáo Guāng because Gōng was a harm to the two prefectures, raised forces to attack him. Gōng feigned surrender and requested peace, and the two prefectures did not advance. Gōng secretly sent an army to attack Xuántù, burning the scout outposts, entered Liáosuì, killing officials and people. Later Gōng again invaded Liáodōng, Cài Fēng recklessly led officials and troops to pursue and suppress him, the army was defeated and lost.

  至殤、安之間,句麗王宮數寇遼東,更屬玄菟。遼東太守蔡風、玄菟太守姚光以宮為二郡害,興師伐之。宮詐降請和,二郡不進。宮密遣軍攻玄菟,焚燒候城,入遼隧,殺吏民。後宮復犯遼東,蔡風輕將吏士追討之,軍敗沒。


Gōng died, his son Bógù was enthroned. During Shùn and Huán, again invaded Liáodōng, plundering Xīn’ān and Jūxiāng, again attacking Xī’ānpíng, on the road killing the Dàifāng Magistrate, plundering and capturing the Lèlàng Administrator’s wives and children. Emperor Líng’s Jiànníng Second Year [168], Xuántù Administrator Gěng Lín suppressed them, beheading caitiffs of several hundred, Bógù surrendered, subordinate to Liáodōng. During Xīpíng, Bógù begged to be subordinate to Xuántù. At Gōngsūn Dù’s dominating the sea’s east, Bógù sent great applier Yōujū and registrar Ránrén and others to assist [Gōngsūn] Dù in striking Fù mountain bandits, defeating them.

  宮死,子伯固立。順、桓之間,復犯遼東,寇新安、居鄉,又攻西安平,于道上殺帶方令,略得樂浪太守妻子。靈帝建寧二年,玄菟太守耿臨討之,斬首虜數百級,伯固降,屬遼東。(嘉)〔熹〕平中,伯固乞屬玄菟。公孫度之雄海東也,伯固遣大加優居、主簿然人等助度擊富山賊,破之


Bógù died, had two sons, the eldest son Báqí, the small son Yīyímó. Báqí was not worthy, the state’s people then together enthroned Yīyímó as king. From Bógù’s time, they repeatedly plundered Liáodōng, and also accepted deserting Hú of over five hundred families. During Jiàn’ān, Gōngsūn Kāng sent out army to strike them, defeating their state, burning their villages. Báqí complained he was the elder brother but not enthroned, and with Juānnú appliers each led their subordinate households of over thirty thousand to visit [Gōngsūn] Kāng to surrender, returning to station Fèiliú river. The surrendering Hú also rebelled against Yīyímó, Yīyímó then made a new state, today’s location is this. Báqí then went to Liáodōng, had a son that remained in Gōulí state, the present ancient fledgling applier Bó Wèijū is this. From this afterward they again struck Xuántù, Xuántù with Liáodōng together struck, greatly defeating them.

  伯固死,有二子,長子拔奇,小子伊夷模。拔奇不肖,國人便共立伊夷模為王。自伯固時,數寇遼東,又受亡胡五百餘家。建安中,公孫康出軍擊之,破其國,焚燒邑落。拔奇怨為兄而不得立,與涓奴加各將下戶三萬餘口詣康降,還住沸流水。降胡亦叛伊夷模,伊夷模更作新國,今日所在是也。拔奇遂往遼東,有子留句麗國,今古雛加駮位居是也。其後復擊玄菟,玄菟與遼東合擊,大破之。


Yīyímó was without sons, was lewd with Guànnú division, begetting a son named Wèi Gōng. Yīyímó died, enthroned as king, now the Gōulí king Gōng was this. His great-grandfather was named Gōng, at birth he was able to open eyes and look, and his state’s people hated this, and when he was grown, he as indeed vicious and oppressive, repeatedly plundering and robbing, and the state met with ruin. Now the king was born and fell to ground, also able to open eyes and see people. Gōulí calls resembling as “Wèi,” he resembled his ancestor, and therefore they named him Wèi Gōng. Wèi Gōng had strength and valor, conveniently rode horse, good at hunting and shooting. Jǐngchū Second Year [238], Excellency Commandant Sīmǎ [Yì] Wáng led forces to suppress Gōngsūn Yuān, Gōng sent his registrar great applier to lead several thousands of men to assist the army. Zhèngshǐ Third Year [242], Gōng plundered Xī’ānpíng, that fifth Year [244], he was by Yōu province Inspector Guànqiū Jiǎn defeated. The story is in Jiǎn’s biography.

  伊夷模無子,淫灌奴部,生子名位宮。伊夷模死,立以為王,今句麗王宮是也。其曾祖名宮,生能開目視,其國人惡之,及長大,果凶虐,數寇鈔,國見殘破。今王生墮地,亦能開目視人。句麗呼相似為位,似其祖,故名之為位宮。位宮有力勇,便鞍馬,善獵射。景初二年,太尉司馬王率眾討公孫淵,宮遣主簿大加將數千人助軍。正始三年,宮寇西安平,其五年,為幽州刺吏毌丘儉所破。語在儉傳。

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