(28.2) Guànqiū Jiǎn 毌丘儉 [Zhònggōng 仲恭]

Wén Qīn 文欽 [Zhòngruò 仲若]

Guànqiū Jiǎn appellation Zhònggōng was a Hédōng Wénxǐ man.

His father Xīng, during Huángchū [220-226] became Wǔwēi Administrator, cut down rebelling Róufú, opened and connected the Hé’s right, his reputation next after Jīnchéng Administrator Sū Zé. He suppressed the rebel Zhāng Jìn and suppressed rebelling Hú and had achievements, given fief as Gāoyáng village Marquis. (1) He entered [Court] as General Craftsman.

Jiǎn succeeded his father’s noble rank, became the Marquis of Píngyuán’s [Cáo Ruì] Literary Scholar. Emperor Míng [Cáo Ruì] succeeded the throne, appointed him Secretariat Documents Cadet, promoted to Feather Forest Supervisor. As he was an old friend of the East Palace [Cáo Ruì as the heir], he deeply met with close treatment. He was sent out as Luòyáng Manager of Agriculture. At the time they obtained farmer peasants to repair Palace Residences, and Jiǎn sent up memorial that said: “I your servant humbly believe that Under Heaven what is urgent to eliminate is the two rebels, and what is urgent to attend to is clothes and food. Truly as the two rebels are not destroyed, the soldiers and people hungry and cold, even if the Palace Residences are more beautiful, yet it is of no benefit.” He was promoted to Jīng Province Inspector.


  • (1) Wèi Míngchén Zòu records Yōng Province Inspector Zhāng Jì’s memorial stating: “The Hé’s right is distant and far, tragically chaotic for a very long time. Wǔwēi and its nearby various prefectures are the road’s vital throat, additionally the people and foreigners are mixed together, and repeatedly there are warfare troubles. Designate Administrator Guànqiū Xīng arrived at office, inside succored the officials and people, outside cared for the Qiāng and Hú, in the end causing them to yield and attach, for the office effective. Huáng Huà and Zhāng Jìn first planned rebellion and chaos, instigating those left and right, Xīng’s will and aura loyal and ardent, faced danger without care, for the officers and people and foreigners explained disasters and fortunes, speaking and shedding tears. At the time men and women of ten thousand, all harbored gratitude, formed to destroy the chaos, pledging hearts to devote lives. He led elite troops directly to Zhāngyè, relieving and rescuing out its designate Administrator Dù Tōng and Xīhǎi Administrator Zhāng Mù. Zhāngyè’s Fānhé and Líjiān two counties officials and people and the prefecture’s various Hú abandoned evil to go to Xīng, Xīng all calmed and sympathized, having them use utmost strength in farming. Xīng in every experience, completely exhausted heart and strength, and truly is the state’s good official. Your Highness [King of Wèi, Cáo Pī] succeeded the throne, devoting heart to all affairs, if there is a fine hair’s of good, [you are] certain to give reward and note. I your servant in prostration comply with your sagely intent, and indicate and explain this matter.”

〔一〕 魏名臣奏載雍州刺史張既表曰:「河右遐遠,喪亂彌久,武威當諸郡路道喉轄之要,加民夷雜處,數有兵難。領太守毌丘興到官,內撫吏民,外懷羌、胡,卒使柔附,為官效用。黃華、張進初圖逆亂,扇動左右,興志氣忠烈,臨難不顧,為將校民夷陳說禍福,言則涕泣。于時男女萬口,咸懷感激,形毀髮亂,誓心致命。尋率精兵踧脅張掖,濟拔領太守杜通、西海太守張睦。張掖番和、驪靬二縣吏民及郡雜胡棄惡詣興,興皆安卹,使盡力田。興每所歷,盡竭心力,誠國之良吏。殿下即位,留心萬機,苟有毫毛之善,必有賞錄,臣伏緣聖旨,指陳其事。」

During Qīnglóng [233-237], the Emperor planned to suppress Liáodōng, as Jiǎn had ability and planning, transferred him to Yōu Province Inspector, added Crossing the Liáo General, Envoy Wielding Staff, Protecting the Wūhuán Colonel. He led Yōu Province’s various armies to reach Xiāngpíng, garrisoning Liáosuì. The Yòuběipíng Wūhuán Chányú Kòulóudūn and Liáoxī Wūhuán Regional Commander Leading Armies King Hùliú and others, in the past followed Yuán Shàng in fleeing to Liáodōng, and led their armies of over 5000 people to surrender. Kòulóudūn sent his younger brother Āluópán and others to visit the palace and present tribute, fief on their commanders of over twenty men as Marquis and Kings, bestowed carriage and horses and silk fabrics and cloth each on individual basis. Gōngsūn Yuān opposed and with Jiǎn battled, [Jiǎn] was unsuccessful, and withdrew back. The next year, the Emperor sent Excellency Commandant Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng to command the central armies and with Jiǎn and the rest’s armies of several tens of thousands suppress [Gōngsūn] Yuān, settling Liáodōng. Jiǎn for his achievements was advanced in fief to Ānyì Marquis, revenue of 3900 households.


During Zhèngshǐ [240-249], Jiǎn because Gāogōulí (Goguryeo) repeatedly invaded and rebelled, commanded the various armies infantry and cavalry of ten thousand men to set out Xuántù, following various roads to suppress them. Gōulí King Gōng commanded infantry and cavalry of twenty thousand men, advancing army to Fèiliú river upstream, greatly battling at Liángkǒu, Gōng was continuously defeated and fled. Jiǎn therefore bound horse drawn chariots, to climb up Wándū, slaughtering Gōulí’s capital, beheading and capturing caitiffs in the thousands. Gōulí Pèizhě named Délái, repeatedly remonstrated Gōng, (1) Gōng did not follow his words. Délái sighed and said: “Standing and watching [very soon] this land will be covered in weeds.” Therefore he did not eat and died, and the entire state honored him. Jiǎn ordered the various armies to not destroy his tomb, to not cut down its trees, captured his wives and children, and all released and sent them away. Gōng alone led his wives and children and fled away. Jiǎn led the armies back. Sixth Year [245], he again campaigned against them, Gōng therefore fled to Mǎigōu. Jiǎn sent Xuántù Administrator Wáng Qí to pursue him, (2) crossed Wòjǔ over a thousand lǐ, reached Sùshènshì’s south border, carved stone to record achievements, inscribing on Wándū’s mountain, engraving on Bùnài’s city walls. All together those executed or surrendered were over eight thousand, in the evaluation of achievements and giving of rewards, those made marquis were over a hundred men. He bore through mountains for irrigation, and the people depended on this benefit.


  • (1) Your Servant Sōngzhī cites Dōngyí zhuàn: Pèizhě is an government official title of Gōulí state.

〔一〕 臣松之按東夷傳:沛者,句驪國之官名。

  • (2) Shìyǔ states: Qí appellation Kǒngshuò was a Dōnglái man, during Jìn’s Yǒngjiā the great rebel Wáng Mí, was Qí’s grandson.

〔二〕 世語曰:頎字孔碩,東萊人,晉永嘉中大賊王彌,頎之孫。

Promoted to Left General, Lent Staff as Supervisor of Yù Province’s various military affairs, designate Yù Province Inspector, transferred to Defending South General. Zhūgě Dàn battled at Dōngguān, was unsuccessful, and therefore it was ordered that Dàn and Jiǎn exchange places. Dàn became Defending South, Regional Commander of Yù Province. Jiǎn became Defending East, Regional Commander of Yáng Province. Wú Grand Tutor Zhūgě Kè besieged Héféi Xīnchéng, Jiǎn with Wén Qīn resisted him, Excellency Commandant Sīmǎ Fú commanded the central armies east to relieve the siege, [Zhūgě] Kè retreated and returned.


Previously, Jiǎn with Xiàhóu Xuán, Lǐ Fēng, and others were deeply friendly. Yáng Province Inspector and Front General Wén Qīn was Cáo Shuǎng’s fellow townsman, brave and resolute and ferocious, repeatedly had battle achievements, enjoyed inflating capture counts, to seek favor and rewards, often did not meet with agreement, his resentment daily increased. Jiǎn by design generously treated Qīn, their feelings good and joys in accord. Qīn also was sincerely grateful, devoting heart without second thoughts. Zhèngyuán Second Year [255] Standard Moon, there was a comet of several tens of zhàng, northwest reaching Heaven, rising at the divide of Wú and Chǔ. Jiǎn and Qīn were pleased, believing it auspicious for themselves. Therefore they faked the Dowager-Empress’s Imperial Order, charging crimes on the General-in-Chief Sīmǎ [Shī] Jǐng-wáng, mobilized the various prefectures and states, raising troops to rebel. They coerced Huáinán’s officers defending various separate garrisons, and officials and people large and small, all to enter Shòuchūn city, made an altar at the city’s west, smearing blood and raising weapons to make oath, dividing the old and weak to defend the city, and Jiǎn and Qīn personally commanding a fifty to sixty thousand army to cross the Huái, west reaching Xiàng. Jiǎn firmly defended, Qīn was outside as the mobile troops. (1)


  • (1) Jiǎn and Qīn and the rest memorialized:
  • “Former Chancellor of State [Sīmǎ] Yì, rectified and supported the Wèi house, successively serving loyal and dependable, and therefore Lièzǔ Míng Huángdì [Cáo Ruì] awarded him an entrusting appointment. [Sīmǎ] Yì devoted strength and exhausted integrity, to pacify the heartlands. Also as the King of Qí was intelligent and enlightened, without any defilement in virtue, therefore [Sīmǎ Yì’s] heart was diligent and exhaustively loyal in assisting the Ascended, the realm Under Heaven depended on this. [Sīmǎ] Yì wished to suppress and destroy the two caitiffs to secure all within, began dividing military provisions, set time to together raising, it was not yet complete and he died. The King of Qí because [Sīmǎ] Yì in assisting him had great achievements, therefore had [Sīmǎ] Shī carry on [Sīmǎ] Yì’s enterprise, entrusted with great affairs. But [Sīmǎ] Shī in his flourishing years is in office, without disease claims illness, sitting and embracing strong troops, is without a subject’s respect, the court ministers oppose him, righteous elites ridicule him, Under Heaven has heard of this, this is crime one.
  • [Sīmǎ] Yì made calculations to take the rebels, greatly preparing army provisions, set a date to the day. [Sīmǎ] Shī is a chief minister, and should remove the state’s troubles, and also is a man’s son, and should finish his father’s enterprise. Mourning sound was not yet cut off and yet he immediately stopped cries, as a minister he is not loyal, as a son he is not filial, this is crime two.
  • The rebels retreated past Dōngguān, sitting himself he raised armies, three campaigns together advancing, ruined the armies in utter defeat, accumulated years of military power, in one morning was exhausted, so that the rebels came, Under Heaven was disturbed, dead and wounded flowing in exile, this is crime three.
  • The rebels raised their state all gathering, declaring five hundred thousand, coming toward Shòuchūn, planning to strike Luòyáng, it happened that Excellency Commandant [Sīmǎ] Fú with we your servants established plan, to then block the critical terrain, to not with them battle, returning to fortify Xīnchéng. Huáinán’s officers and soldiers, charged points and tread blades, day and night mutually defending, diligent and worn for a hundred days, the dead covered the ground, from since Wèi had an army onward, in extremity of hardship and bitterness, none surpassed this. But [Sīmǎ] Shī followed his intentions with himself, did not discuss fief or reward, his power with himself at ease, without taking note [of others], this is crime four.
  • Former Internal Documents Director Lǐ Fēng and others, because [Sīmǎ] Shī was without the integrity of a servant of another, wished to discuss dismissing him. [Sīmǎ] Shī knew and invited [Lǐ] Fēng, and that night killed him, sending corpse and coffin. [Lǐ] Fēng and the rest were chief ministers, the Emperor’s belly and heart, usurping authority and adding ruthless violence, the dead were without criminal charge, [Sīmǎ] Shī has heart to have no ruler, this is crime five.
  • [Sīmǎ] Yì always sighed and said the King of Qí naturally was a ruler of men, the meaning of ruler and subject was settled, he served matters onward for ten and five years, first wishing to return governance, citing use of military arsenal, Imperial Order said the Restricted Troops could not rashly set out. [Sīmǎ] Shī himself knew his treacherous evil, was what men and spirits will not bless, deposing his ruler, accusing him with crimes. [Sīmǎ] Fú, [Sīmǎ] Shī’s father’s younger brother, his nature deeply benevolent and filial, escorted the King of Qí, his grief uncontrollable. The various ministers were all furious but [Sīmǎ] Shī endured, did not consider great righteousness, this is crime six.
  • Also former Merit Grandee Zhāng Qī, without crime was executed, exterminating his wives and children, including even the Empress, oppressing and terrifying the utmost honored, strongly enforcing the sending, facing the time of grieving cry, none were not wounded and pained; but [Sīmǎ] Shī declared celebrations, and instead was joyous and pleased, this is crime seven.
  • Your Majesty ascended the steps [to the throne], intelligent and enlightened and divinely martial, attending to governance with sagely heart, wishing to value frugality, the realm Under Heaven heard this, and none did not celebrate; but [Sīmǎ] Shī did not mend his ways, or cultivate and return to a minister’s rituals, but levied soldiers and recruited troops, destroying the palace’s insides, lining up captains for his own defense. When Your Majesty first ascended, from the beginning he did not enter Court to meet. Your Majesty wished to personally visit [Sīmǎ] Shī’s residence to care for his illness, again he refused and it was not connected. Not observing law and order, this is crime eight.
  • Recently Manager of the Army Xǔ Yǔn was about to be Defending North [General], with treasury money he gave bestowment, and [Sīmǎ] Shī raised petition to apply punishment, and though it was said to be exile, on the road he was starved to death, the realm Under Heaven heard this, and none did not grieve in hurt, this is crime nine.
  • Three regions’ defenses, in one morning he abolished, to greatly select elite troops, to be his personal guard, the Five Regiments managed troops, are deficient with no reinforcement, there is much transport of weapons, to fill and amass his own camp, the realm Under Heaven has heard, men harbor indignant rage, false words fill the roads, thus deceiving those within the seas, this is crime ten.
  • He greatly rested defending troops, to occupy his high mansions, so emptying the four borders, wishing to monopolize strength and power, to indulge his treacherous heart, canvassing and taking from garrison farms, in order to add to his bestowed rewards, blocking troops how can it be tolerated, breaking and confusing old laws. He gathers together the various vassal Kings and Dukes to install in Yè, wishing to all execute them, in one morning raising matters to depose his ruler. Heaven does not long tolerate evil, causing his eye to swell and he be unsuccessful, this is crime eleven.
  • We your servant’s ancestors all accompanied Tàizǔ Wǔ Huángdì [Cáo Cāo] in campaigning and suppressing the vicious and brutal, capturing and accomplishing great achievements, with Gāozǔ Wén Huángdì [Cáo Pī] receiving Hàn’s abdication, to inaugurate the state and carry on house, yet like Yáo and Shùn passed down. We your servants with Ānfēng Protector of the Army Zhèng Yì, Lújiāng Protector of the Army Lǚ Xuān and Administrator Zhāng Xiū, Huáinán Administrator Dīng Zūn, Commander Administrator Héféi Protector of the Army Wáng Xiū and others discussed, as we each have for generations received favor, through a thousand years of wind and dust, think of devoting self and life, to protect the State Altars and secure the Ruler as recompense. This righteousness if established, though it burn our wives and children, swallowing coal and burying body, death would not be regretted. According to [Sīmǎ] Shī’s crimes, he should be greatly punished, to make known his treachery and evil.
  • In the Chūnqiū‘s meanings, if one generation is good, one generation forgives it. [Sīmǎ] Yì has great achievements, what within the seas has written, complying with ancient standards and discussions, depose [Sīmǎ] Shī and give his marquisate to his younger brother. His younger brother [Sīmǎ] Zhāo, loyal and solemn and generous and enlightened, pleases and befriends good people, has the capacity of a high age’s gentleman, loyal and true to the state, not with [Sīmǎ] Shī the same. We your servants break head as pledge, that he can replace [Sīmǎ] Shī in supporting and guiding your sagely self. Excellency Commandant [Sīmǎ] Fú, is loyal and filial and careful in heart, and should be closely favored, entrusted as Protector and Tutor. Protector of the Army Cavalier Regular Attendant [Sīmǎ] Wàng, is loyal and fair in close affairs, in office is praised as able, from afar welcomed carriage, has the achievement of night guard, and can be Central Manager of the Army. In the Chūnqiū‘s meaning, for great righteousness destroy kin, and therefore Zhōu-gōng executed his younger brother, Shí Què killed his son, Jìyǒu poisoned his elder brother, above for the state’s planning, below to preserve their clans. To execute Gǔn but employ Yǔ, is the sagely man’s enlightened standard, what the ancients to the present have praised. We beg Your Majesty to send down what we your servants have memorialized, for the Court Hall to extensively discuss. If what we your servants have said is true, then have [Sīmǎ] Shī resign his position and leave the worthies, dismiss troops and remove armaments, like the Three August’s old laws, then the realm Under Heaven will be harmonious. If [Sīmǎ] Shī carries on power and relies on his masses to not himself withdraw, we your servants will lead what we command, day and night both traveling, so that the order may be enforced. We your servants in what we have memorialized today, only wish to have Great Wèi forever endure, to have Your Majesty obtain and enact your ruling intention, distantly cut away the disaster of destruction, the common people to be safe and secure, the six directions be one body, to let the loyal ministers and righteous troops be worthy of the Three Augusts and Five Emperors and that is all. We your servants fear troops rising, the realm Under Heaven disturbed and chaotic, we your servants at once send up matters, moving Three Campaigns and provincial and prefectural and state managers of agriculture, each comforting their divisions of officials and people, to not rashly move, to thoroughly show the situation. May Your Majesty care for your vital spirit, wisely consider the dangers, and so calm within the seas. [Sīmǎ] Shī concentrates authority and uses power, rewards and punishments at his discretion, and hearing that we your servants have raised armies, will certainly send down Imperial Order to block the passes and crossings, so relay letters cannot be connected, without authority again conscript, and capture and seize. This then is [Sīmǎ] Shī’s Imperial Order, not Your Majesty’s Imperial Order letter, and all that cannot be again carried out and used. We your servants are far away, fear our written letters cannot all be received, at once facing the times reward and punish, by convenience follow affairs, and waiting for settlement will memorialize up.”

〔一〕 儉、欽等表曰:「故相國懿,匡輔魏室,歷事忠貞,故烈祖明皇帝授以寄託之任。懿戮力盡節,以寧華夏。又以齊王聰明,無有穢德,乃心勤盡忠以輔上,天下賴之。懿欲討滅二虜以安宇內,始分軍糧,克時同舉,未成而薨。齊王以懿有輔己大功,故遂使師承統懿業,委以大事。而師以盛年在職,無疾託病,坐擁彊兵,無有臣禮,朝臣非之,義士譏之,天下所聞,其罪一也。懿造計取賊,多舂軍糧,克期有日。師為大臣,當除國難,又為人子,當卒父業。哀聲未絕而便罷息,為臣不忠,為子不孝,其罪二也。賊退過東關,坐自起眾,三征同進,喪眾敗績,歷年軍實,一旦而盡,致使賊來,天下騷動,死傷流離,其罪三也。賊舉國悉眾,號五十萬,來向壽春,圖詣洛陽,會太尉孚與臣等建計,乃杜塞要險,不與爭鋒,還固新城。淮南將士,衝鋒履刃,晝夜相守,勤瘁百日,死者塗地,自魏有軍已來,為難苦甚,莫過於此。而師遂意自由,不論封賞,權勢自在,無所領錄,其罪四也。故中書令李豐等,以師無人臣節,欲議退之。師知而請豐,其夕拉殺,載尸埋棺。豐等為大臣,帝王腹心,擅加酷暴,死無罪名,師有無君之心,其罪五也。懿每歎說齊王自堪人主,君臣之義定。奉事以來十有五載,始欲歸政,按行武庫,詔問禁兵不得妄出。師自知姦慝,人神所不祐,矯廢君主,加之以罪。孚,師之叔父,性甚仁孝,追送齊王,悲不自勝。群臣皆怒而師懷忍,不顧大義,其罪六也。又故光祿大夫張緝,無罪而誅,夷其妻子,并及母后,逼恐至尊,彊催督遣,臨時哀愕,莫不傷痛;而師稱慶,反以歡喜,其罪七也。陛下踐阼,聰明神武,事經聖心,欲崇省約,天下聞之,莫不歡慶;而師不自改悔,脩復臣禮,而方徵兵募士,毀壞宮內,列侯自衛。陛下即阼,初不朝覲。陛下欲臨幸師舍以省其疾,復拒不通,不奉法度,其罪八也。近者領軍許允當為鎮北,以廚錢給賜,而師舉奏加辟,雖云流徙,道路餓殺,天下聞之,莫不哀傷,其罪九也。三方之守,一朝闕廢,多選精兵,以自營衛,五營領兵,闕而不補,多載器杖,充聚本營,天下所聞,人懷憤怨,訛言盈路,以疑海內,其罪十也。多休守兵,以占高第,以空虛四表,欲擅彊勢,以逞姦心,募取屯田,加其復賞,阻兵安忍,壞亂舊法。合聚諸藩王公以著鄴,欲悉誅之,一旦舉事廢主。天不長惡,使目腫不成,其罪十一也。臣等先人皆隨從太祖武皇帝征討凶暴,獲成大功,與高祖文皇帝即受漢禪,開國承家,猶堯舜相傳也。臣與安豐護軍鄭翼、廬江護軍呂宣、太守張休、淮南太守丁尊、督守合肥護軍王休等議,各以累世受恩,千載風塵,思盡軀命,以完全社稷安主為效。斯義苟立,雖焚妻子,吞炭漆身,死而不恨也。按師之罪,宜加大辟,以彰姦慝。春秋之義,一世為善,一世宥之。懿有大功,海內所書,依古典議,廢師以侯就弟。弟昭,忠肅寬明,樂善好士,有高世君子之度,忠誠為國,不與師同。臣等碎首所保,可以代師輔導聖躬。太尉孚,忠孝小心,所宜親寵,授以保傅。護軍散騎常侍望,忠公親事,當官稱能,遠迎乘輿,有宿衛之功,可為中領軍。春秋之義,大義滅親,故周公誅弟,石碏戮子,季友鴆兄,上為國計,下全宗族。殛鯀用禹,聖人明典,古今所稱。乞陛下下臣等所奏,朝堂博議。臣言當道,使師遜位避賢者,罷兵去備,如三皇舊法,則天下協同。若師負勢恃眾不自退者,臣等率將所領,晝夜兼行,惟命是授。臣等今日所奏,惟欲使大魏永存,使陛下得行君意,遠絕亡之禍,百姓安全,六合一體,使忠臣義士,不愧於三皇五帝耳。臣恐兵起,天下擾亂,臣輒上事,移三征及州郡國典農,各安慰所部吏民,不得妄動,謹具以狀聞。惟陛下愛養精神,明慮危害,以寧海內。師專權用勢,賞罰自由,聞臣等舉眾,必下詔禁絕關津,使驛書不通,擅復徵調,有所收捕。此乃師詔,非陛下詔書,在所皆不得復承用。臣等道遠,懼文書不得皆通,輒臨時賞罰,以便宜從事,須定表上也。」

The General-in-Chief gathered the central and outer armies to suppress them, separately sending Zhūgě Dàn to command Yù Province’s various armies to from Ānfēngjīn aim for Shòuchūn, Campaigning East General Hú Zūn to command Qīng and Xú’s various armies to set out between Qiáo and Sòng, to cut off their return route. The General-in-Chief garrisoned Rǔyáng, sending Supervisor of the Army Wáng Jī to command the vanguard’s various armies to occupy Nándùn to wait for them. He ordered the various armies to all hold to ramparts and do not with them battle. Jiǎn and Qīn advancing were not able to fight, withdrawing feared Shòuchūn would meet with attack, could not return, their calculations exhausted and not knowing what to do. Huáinán’s officers and soldiers, their families all were in the north, the armies’ hearts broke and scattered, the surrenders joined together, and only Huáinán’s newly attached farmer peasants could be by them used. The General-in-Chief sent Yǎn Province Inspector Dèng Ài to command Tàishān’s various armies of over ten thousand men to reach Lèjiā, to show weakness to entice them, the General-in-Chief going from Zhū arrived. Qīn did not know, and indeed in the night came wishing to attack [Dèng] Ài and the rest, reaching morning, he saw the main army’s troops and horses flourishing, and therefore withdrew and returned. (1) The General-in-Chief released valiant cavalry to pursue and strike, greatly defeating them, Qīn escaped and fled. That day, Jiǎn heard Qīn in battle was defeated, was afraid and in the night fled, the army dispersed. Near reaching Shèn county, his left and right men and troops gradually abandoned Jiǎn and fled, Jiǎn alone with his youngest brother Xiù and grandson Chóng hid among the grasses of the riverbank. Ānfēngjīn Commandant division’s commoner Zhāng Shǔ shot and killed Jiǎn, sending his head to the capital. [Zhāng] Shǔ was given fief as  Marquis. Xiù and Chóng fled and entered Wú. The officers and soldiers that had been by Jiǎn and Qīn coerced, all returned to surrender. (2)


  • (1) Wèishì Chūnqiū states: Qīn’s middle son Chù, childhood name Yāng. His years were yet in childhood, his valor and strength surpassed men, he said to Qīn: “As it is not yet settled, striking them they can be defeated.” Therefore they divided into two squads, in the night pincer attacked the army. Chù led strong soldiers to first arrive, greatly shouting for the General-in-Chief, the army inside was shaken and disturbed. Qīn was late and did not answer. Reaching morning, Chù retreated, Qīn also withdrew and returned.
  • Wèi mò zhuàn states: Palace internal man surnamed Yǐn, appellation Dàmù, as a child was the Cáo clan’s household slave, always attending at the Emperor’s side, the General-in-Chief had him together go. Dàmù knew the General-in-Chief’s one eye was already protruding out, and informed him saying: “Wén Qīn originally was your enlightened excellency’s belly and heart, but was by someone deceived and that is all, and he is also of Heaven’s Son’s home town. [I] Dàmù in the past was by Wén Qīn trusted, and beg to be able to pursue to explain and talk to him, to have him return to with your excellency restore friendship.” The General-in-Chief listened and sent Dàmù alone to go, he rode large horse, wore armor, pursued Wén Qīn, from afar with him talking. Dàmù in his heart truly wished for the Cáo clan’s security, mistakenly said: “Sir Marquis why be so bitter to not be able to again endure a few days!” He wished to have Qīn understand his meaning [that Sīmǎ Shī was critically ill]. Qīn did not understand, and therefore further with stern voice cursed Dàmù: “You were the former Emperor’s household man, do not ponder repaying kindness, but instead with Sīmǎ Shī create rebellion; regardless of Heaven Above, Heaven will not protect you!” Therefore he drew bow and notched arrow wishing to shoot Dàmù, Dàmù shed tears and said: “The world’s affairs are ruined, care for yourself well.”

〔一〕 魏氏春秋曰:欽中子俶,小名鴦。年尚幼,勇力絕人,謂欽曰:「及其未定,擊之可破也。」於是分為二隊,夜夾攻軍。俶率壯士先至,大呼大將軍,軍中震擾。欽後期不應。會明,俶退,欽亦引還。魏末傳曰:殿中人姓尹,字大目,小為曹氏家奴,常侍在帝側,大將軍將俱行。大目知大將軍一目已突出,啟云:「文欽本是明公腹心,但為人所誤耳,又天子鄉里。大目昔為文欽所信,乞得追解語之,令還與公復好。」大將軍聽遣大目單身往,乘大馬,被鎧甲,追文欽,遙相與語。大目心實欲曹氏安,謬言:「君侯何苦若不可復忍數日中也!」欲使欽解其旨。欽殊不悟,乃更厲聲罵大目:「汝先帝家人,不念報恩,而反與司馬師作逆;不顧上天,天不祐汝!」乃張弓傅矢欲射大目,大目涕泣曰:「世事敗矣,善自努力也。」

  • (2) Qīn’s letter to Guō Huái said: “General-in-Chief [Cáo Shuǎng] Zhāobó with the Grand Tutor [Sīmǎ Yì] together received entrusting command, ascending the bed to hold arm, entrusted and handed the realm Under Heaven, this far and near know. Later [Sīmǎ Yì] used power and advantage, to then cut off his [Cáo Shuǎng’s] sacrifices [succession line], and also his kin and comrades, all of an entire time’s eminents, it can pain the heart, but what can be done! Your Excellency Marquis with the Marshal-in-Chief [Cáo Shuǎng’s father Zhēn] received favor and closeness unique and outstanding, righteousness carved on metal and stone, so at this time, thinking of this increases pain, and cannot be endured. Excellency Commandant Wáng [Líng] resented his dominance of Court, secretly wished to raise troops, the matter indeed was not successful, and again there was execution and extermination, harm reaching the King of Chǔ [Cáo Biǎo], and thinking of this increases regret. When the Grand Tutor [Sīmǎ Yì] died, however his son [Sīmǎ] Shī carried on the father’s enterprise, unrestrained in his vicious brutality, days and moons increasingly extreme, deposing ruler and regiciding empress, massacring the loyal and good, harboring disastrous heart, and therefore it reached to regicide. If this can be tolerated, what cannot be tolerated? I Qīn for reputation and cause, served the ruler with integrity, loyally indignant at the inner removal, forgetting to sleep and eat, without any personal considerations. It happened that Guànqiū Zǐbāng in a letter to his father [Jiǎn], highly spoke of your excellency Marquis, exhaustively serving the ruler righteously, wishing to exert your white hairs, just like Tàigōng, only waiting to hear from the east, at the sound mutually answering, in listening for the day, can one not have fervor! Therefore without regard to the pains for wives and children, at once [I] with Guànqiū [General] Defending East raised righteous troops of over 30,000 men, to hurry west to the capital, wishing to rescue the Ruling House, sweep away the treacherous and rebellious, on tiptoe looking west [to you]. Lǔ looking out to Gāozǐ, is insufficient to be an analogy. For benevolence do not shirk responsibility, so all the more for the troubles of rescuing the ruler. It was that the roads were distant and hard, and therefore you did not timely arrive and that is all. However in the same boat together crossing, safety and danger are shared, disasters and pains are already connected, not what decorative words can resolve, and your excellency Marquis understands this. Together serving the Cáo clan, accumulating trust of the Wèi Court, men enacting the way, all know and see it. However the elites at Court, seeking profit and in vain living, are what righteous martyrs are disgusted by, what your excellency Marquis holds lowly, what Jiǎ Shǔ could not tolerate, so all the more for dirtied elites. The army garrisons at Xiàng, I your lesser man on the intercalary moon sixteenth day separately advanced troops, arriving at Lèjiā city to suppress [Sīmǎ] Shī, [Sīmǎ] Shī’s following armies, could not timely be broken and dispersed, and those beheaded, cannot again be pardoned, and so we should from Chángqū directly reach the capital, but false rumor first arrived, Guànqiū could not investigate it, and further said I your lesser man was deceived, and the various armies then thus collapsed. Guànqiū returned and fled, I pursued to explain, but could not reach [him]. I your lesser man returned to Xiàng, again encountered Wáng Jī and the rest of twelve armies, pursuing Guànqiū, advanced troops to suppress them, at at once overcame and defeated them, wherever we headed was total victory, but to our rear where was the support? The army was isolated at Liángchāng, advancing and retreating both lost, returned to occupy Shòuchūn, from Shòuchūn again driven, like a starved wolf trapped, without any other plan, only able to submit to the mandate of Great Wú, to borrow troops and beg for food, following the path of Wǔ Yuán and that is all. It is not as good as if I the servant scribe, how happy in heart, could take revenge on the ruler’s enemy, to forever have the Cáo clan enjoy succession sacrifices, this also is a great state’s blessing and care. Thinking that your excellency Marquis would have Chéng Yīng and [Gōngsūn] Chǔjiù alone have legacy from previous ages, is it that Great Wèi is without eagle raising soldiers? Now Great Wú generously esteems great righteousness, deeply observing pity and lamenting. However I the servant with the state greatly share and join together, distantly uniting one power, daily wishing to together rise, partition up the central states, not willing to on the side take anything for myself. Your excellency Marquis certainly wishes to together endure command in the chest, and should expand great power, one fears the Qín’s river’s soldiers cannot alone rise up. In the present plan, it is appropriate to humble self and extend to others, entrusting command to submit to [Shǔ] Hàn, east and west together rising thus, then we can settle [Sīmǎ] Shī’s faction and that is all. Deeply consider my rustic words, if my humble plan can be followed, it is appropriate to have [Shǔ] Hàn’s army occupy and control the critical points, to have the Six Directions managed and verified, with Zhōu and Shào have the same fief, to entrust to your descendants. This also is not a small matter, a great man calmly resides where he lands, and therefore distantly presents loyal heart, to timely look out for auspicious answers.”
  • At the time Guō Huái had already died, Qīn did not yet know, and therefore there was this letter.
  • Shìyǔ states: At Guànqiū Jiǎn’s punishment, his comrades were over 700 men, sent to Attendant Censor Dù Yǒu to manage prison, he only cited leaders of ten men, the rest he all memorialized to release. Yǒu appellation Jìzǐ was a Dōng prefecture man, served Jìn as Jì Province Inspector, Hénán Intendant. His son Mò, appellation Shìxuán, successively was Appointments Division Cadet, Minister of the Guard.

〔二〕 欽與郭淮書曰:「大將軍昭伯與太傅(伯)俱受顧命,登床把臂,託付天下,此遠近所知。後以勢利,乃絕其祀,及其親黨,皆一時之俊,可為痛心,奈何奈何!公侯恃與大司馬公恩親分著,義貫金石,當此之時,想益毒痛,有不可堪也。王太尉嫌其專朝,潛欲舉兵,事竟不捷,復受誅夷,害及楚王,想甚追恨。太傅既亡,然其子師繼承父業,肆其虐暴,日月滋甚,放主弒后,殘戮忠良,包藏禍心,遂至篡弒。此可忍也,孰不可忍?欽以名義大故,事君有節,忠憤內發,忘寢與食,無所吝顧也。會毌丘子邦自與父書,騰說公侯,盡事主之義,欲奮白髮,同符太公,惟須東問,影響相應,聞問之日,能不慷慨!是以不顧妻孥之痛,即與毌丘鎮東舉義兵三萬餘人,西趨京師,欲扶持王室,掃除姦逆,企踵西望,不得聲問,魯望高子,不足喻急。夫當仁不讓,況救君之難,度道遠艱,故不果期要耳。然同舟共濟,安危勢同,禍痛已連,非言飾所解,自公侯所明也。共事曹氏,積信魏朝,行道之人,皆所知見。然在朝之士,冒利偷生,烈士所恥,公侯所賤,賈豎所不忍為也,況當塗之士邪?軍屯住項,小人以閏月十六日別進兵,就于樂嘉城討師,師之徒眾,尋時崩潰,其所斬截,不復訾原,但當長驅徑至京師,而流言先至,毌丘不復詳之,更謂小人為誤,諸軍便爾瓦解。毌丘還走,追尋釋解,無所及。小人還項,復遇王基等十二軍,追尋毌丘,進兵討之,即時克破,所向全勝,要那後無繼何?孤軍梁昌,進退失所,還據壽春,壽春復走,狼狽躓閡,無復他計,惟當歸命大吳,借兵乞食,繼踵伍員耳。不若僕隸,如何快心,復君之讎,永使曹氏少享血食,此亦大國之所祐念也。想公侯不使程嬰、杵臼擅名於前代,而使大魏獨無鷹揚之士與?今大吳敦崇大義,深見愍悼。然僕於國大分連接,遠同一勢,日欲俱舉,瓜分中國,不願偏取以為己有。公侯必欲共忍帥胸懷,宜廣大勢,恐秦川之卒不可孤舉。今者之計,宜屈己伸人,託命歸漢,東西俱舉爾,乃可克定師黨耳。深思鄙言,若愚計可從,宜使漢軍克制期要,使六合校考,與周、召同封,以託付兒孫。此亦非小事也,大丈夫寧處其落落,是以遠呈忠心,時望嘉應。」時郭淮已卒,欽未知,故有此書。世語曰:毌丘儉之誅,黨與七百餘人,傳侍御史杜友治獄,惟舉首事十人,餘皆奏散。友字季子,東郡人,仕晉冀州刺史、河南尹。子默,字世玄,歷吏部郎,衛尉。

Jiǎn’s son Diàn was Managing Documents Attendant Censor, in previous times knew Jiǎn’s plan was about to set out, and privately went out to lead his family and dependents to flee to Xīn’ān’s Líng mountain top. Separately attacked and captured them, exterminating Jiǎn’s three clans. (1)


  • (1) Shìyǔ states: Diàn appellation Zǐbāng, had reputation in the capital city. At the King of Qí being deposed, Diàn said to Jiǎn: “[You] great man occupy a region with heavy responsibility, the state is overturned yet [you] quietly only defend yourself, and will receive the four seas’ reproach.” Jiǎn agreed with this. The General-in-Chief hated his conduct as a man. When Jiǎn raised troops, [Sīmǎ Shī] asked Qū Shùn where he was, saying he did not come as he had no ability. When Jiǎn first raised troops, he sent his sons Zōng four men to enter Wú. During Tàikāng, Wú was pacified, Zōng and his brothers all returned to the central states. Zōng appellation Zǐrén, had Jiǎn’s manner, reached Línglíng Administrator. Zōng’s son Ào, was Bādōng Supervisor of the Army and Yì Province Inspector.
  • Xí Zuòchǐ states: Guànqiū Jiǎn was moved by Míng-dì’s entrusting command [to care for Cáo Fāng], and therefore had this campaign. Gentlemen say that though Guànqiū Jiǎn’s matter was not successful, he could be called a loyal subject. To exhaust integrity and attend to righteousness is with us, to achieve it or be defeated is with the timing. If we are without timing, how can success be certain? To forget ourselves and not be certain, that then is how to be loyal. The ancient peoples had a saying: “The dead again live, the living are not shamed.” Like Guànqiū Jiǎn could be said to be not shamed.

〔一〕 世語曰:甸字子邦,有名京邑。齊王之廢也,甸謂儉曰:「大人居方獄重任,國傾覆而晏然自守,將受四海之責。」儉然之。大將軍惡其為人也。及儉起兵,問屈〈冉頁〉所在,云不來無能為也。儉初起兵,遣子宗四人入吳。太康中,吳平,宗兄弟皆還中國。宗字子仁,有儉風,至零陵太守。宗子奧,巴東監軍、益州刺史。習鑿齒曰:毌丘儉感明帝之顧命,故為此役。君子謂毌丘儉事雖不成,可謂忠臣矣。夫竭節而赴義者我也,成之與敗者時也,我苟無時,成何可必乎?忘我而不自必,乃所以為忠也。古人有言:「死者復生,生者不愧。」若毌丘儉可謂不愧也。

Qīn fled to enter Wú, Wú appointed Qīn as Regional Protector, Lent Staff, Defending North General-in-Chief, Yōu Province Governor, Qiáo Marquis. (1)


  • (1) Qīn’s surrender to Wú memorial states: “Reporting fate of misfortune, constant retainer of Wèi state, twice cut off from Heaven. Though leaning in prostration to [your] corner, I myself know I am without road. Sīmǎ Shī overturns Heaven and creates rebellion, deposing and harming two rulers [translator’s note: this anachronism of mentioning “two rulers” have led some to suspect the memorial is forgery, but perhaps he is counting the empress as the second?], Xīn [Zhòu of Shāng], Guǐ [Jiè of Xià], [Zhào] Gāo, [Wáng] Mǎng, their evils are not enough to describe him. [I] Qīn for accumulated reigns received Wèi’s favor, black bird’s feeling, I harbored indignant rising, all the more for my comrades. Previously [I] with Guànqiū Jiǎn and Guō Huái and others together raised righteous troops, about to together suppress [Sīmǎ] Shī, sweep away the vicious evils, and truly I your servant humbly sought to grasp. Wisdom and considerations too shallow, seeking integrity and not successful, advancing without anywhere to depend on, grieved and pained in heart. Retreating and unable to support and save my home Court, ashamed and looking about, with nowhere to inter myself. Following ancient principles, therefore I submit, serving Heavenly authority, obtaining prolongation ten thousand to one, for vengeance day, also is not a regret. At once leading officers, to submit to the mandate of your sagely influence, my shame of stealing temporary life, is not what words can explain. I solemnly send up my received Wèi Envoy Wielding Staff, General of the Front, and Marquis of Shānsāng seals and ribbons. Facing the border in anxiety and confusion, in prostration waiting for my crime’s punishment.”
  • Wèishū states: Qīn appellation Zhòngruò was a Qiáo prefecture man. His father Jì, during Jiàn’ān [196-220] was a cavalry officer, had valor and strength. Qīn when young as a famed officer’s son, for ability in warfare met with praise. Wèi Fěng rebelled, Qīn in connection to with Fěng speaking was implicated, and was sent down to prison, beaten several hundred strokes, was about to die, Tàizǔ for Jì therefore pardoned him. During Tàihé [227-233], he became Five Regiments Colonel Commander, sent out as Ivory Gate Officer. Qīn by nature was stubborn and violent and without respect, wherever he was he was arrogant, did not serve official laws, at at once met with memorial to send away, and Míng-dì demoted him. Later he again became Huáinán Ivory Gate officer, transferred to Lújiāng Administrator, Falcon Raising General. Wáng Líng memorialized that Qīn was corrupt and cruel, was not suitable for succoring the borders, and requested to dismiss him from office and punish his crimes, and therefore they summoned Qīn back. Cáo Shuǎng because Qīn was of the same hometown, generously cared for and treated him, and did not punish Qīn’s matters. Again he was sent back to Lújiāng, added Crowning Army General, his nobility and favor exceeded the past. Qīn therefore became increasingly arrogant, enjoyed boasting of attacks, to bolster as a valorous and high man, and somewhat obtained an empty reputation in the Three Armies. After Cáo Shuǎng was executed, advanced Qīn to Front General to calm his heart, later he succeeded Zhūgě Dàn as Yáng Province Inspector. From when Cáo Shuǎng was executed, Qīn always inside was afraid, with Zhūgě Dàn hated one another, never with him planning. It happened that [Zhūgě] Dàn left the troops, Guànqiū Jiǎn went, and therefore they secretly together joined plans. In battle he was defeated and fled, day and night going, the pursuers did not reach, and therefore he was able to enter Wú. Sūn Jùn generously treated him. Qīn though was in another state, he could not bend integrity to be a subordinate, from Lǚ Jù and Zhū Yì and the rest various chief officers all detested and hated him, only [Sūn] Jùn always kept him at his side.

〔一〕 欽降吳表曰:「稟命不幸,常隸魏國,兩絕於天。雖側伏隅都,自知無路。司馬師滔天作逆,廢害二主,辛、癸、高、莽,惡不足喻。欽累世受魏恩,烏鳥之情,竊懷憤踊,在三之義,期於弊仆。前與毌丘儉、郭淮等俱舉義兵,當共討師,掃除凶孽,誠臣慺慺愚管所執。智慮淺薄,微節不騁,進無所依,悲痛切心。退惟不能扶翼本朝,抱愧俛仰,靡所自厝。冒緣古義,固有所歸,庶假天威,得展萬一,僵仆之日,亦所不恨。輒相率將,歸命聖化,慚偷苟生,非辭所陳。謹上還所受魏使持節、前將軍、山桑侯印綬。臨表惶惑,伏須罪誅。」魏書曰:欽字仲若,譙郡人。父稷,建安中為騎將,有勇力。欽少以名將子,材武見稱。魏諷反,欽坐與諷辭語相連,及下獄,掠笞數百,當死,太祖以稷故赦之。太和中,為五營校督,出為牙門將。欽性剛暴無禮,所在倨傲陵上,不奉官法,輒見奏遣,明帝抑之。後復以為淮南牙門將,轉為廬江太守、鷹揚將軍。王淩奏欽貪殘,不宜撫邊,求免官治罪,由是徵欽還。曹爽以欽鄉里,厚養待之,不治欽事。復遣還廬江,加冠軍將軍,貴寵踰前。欽以故益驕,好自矜伐,以壯勇高人,頗得虛名於三軍。曹爽誅後,進欽為前將軍以安其心,後代諸葛誕為揚州刺史。自曹爽之誅,欽常內懼,與諸葛誕相惡,無所與謀。會誕去兵,毌丘儉往,乃陰共結謀。戰敗走,晝夜間行,追者不及,遂得入吳,孫峻厚待之。欽雖在他國,不能屈節下人,自呂據、朱異等諸大將皆憎疾之,惟峻常左右之。

1 thought on “(28.2) Guànqiū Jiǎn 毌丘儉 [Zhònggōng 仲恭]

  1. Pingback: (30.6) Gāogōulí 高句麗 | Three States Records

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