Wén Qīn 文欽 [Zhòngruò 仲若]
Guànqiū Jiǎn appellation Zhònggōng was a Hédōng Wénxǐ man.
His father Xīng, during Huángchū [220-226] became Wǔwēi Administrator, cut down rebelling Róufú, opened and connected the Hé’s right, his reputation next after Jīnchéng Administrator Sū Zé. He suppressed the rebel Zhāng Jìn and suppressed rebelling Hú and had achievements, given fief as Gāoyáng village Marquis. (1) He entered [Court] as General Craftsman.
Jiǎn succeeded his father’s noble rank, became the Marquis of Píngyuán’s [Cáo Ruì] Literary Scholar. Emperor Míng [Cáo Ruì] succeeded the throne, appointed him Secretariat Documents Cadet, promoted to Feather Forest Supervisor. As he was an old friend of the East Palace [Cáo Ruì as the heir], he deeply met with close treatment. He was sent out as Luòyáng Manager of Agriculture. At the time they obtained farmer peasants to repair Palace Residences, and Jiǎn sent up memorial that said: “I your servant humbly believe that Under Heaven what is urgent to eliminate is the two rebels, and what is urgent to attend to is clothes and food. Truly as the two rebels are not destroyed, the soldiers and people hungry and cold, even if the Palace Residences are more beautiful, yet it is of no benefit.” He was promoted to Jīng Province Inspector.
- (1) Wèi Míngchén Zòu records Yōng Province Inspector Zhāng Jì’s memorial stating: “The Hé’s right is distant and far, tragically chaotic for a very long time. Wǔwēi and its nearby various prefectures are the road’s vital throat, additionally the people and foreigners are mixed together, and repeatedly there are warfare troubles. Designate Administrator Guànqiū Xīng arrived at office, inside succored the officials and people, outside cared for the Qiāng and Hú, in the end causing them to yield and attach, for the office effective. Huáng Huà and Zhāng Jìn first planned rebellion and chaos, instigating those left and right, Xīng’s will and aura loyal and ardent, faced danger without care, for the officers and people and foreigners explained disasters and fortunes, speaking and shedding tears. At the time men and women of ten thousand, all harbored gratitude, formed to destroy the chaos, pledging hearts to devote lives. He led elite troops directly to Zhāngyè, relieving and rescuing out its designate Administrator Dù Tōng and Xīhǎi Administrator Zhāng Mù. Zhāngyè’s Fānhé and Líjiān two counties officials and people and the prefecture’s various Hú abandoned evil to go to Xīng, Xīng all calmed and sympathized, having them use utmost strength in farming. Xīng in every experience, completely exhausted heart and strength, and truly is the state’s good official. Your Highness [King of Wèi, Cáo Pī] succeeded the throne, devoting heart to all affairs, if there is a fine hair’s of good, [you are] certain to give reward and note. I your servant in prostration comply with your sagely intent, and indicate and explain this matter.”
During Qīnglóng [233-237], the Emperor planned to suppress Liáodōng, as Jiǎn had ability and planning, transferred him to Yōu Province Inspector, added Crossing the Liáo General, Envoy Wielding Staff, Protecting the Wūhuán Colonel. He led Yōu Province’s various armies to reach Xiāngpíng, garrisoning Liáosuì. The Yòuběipíng Wūhuán Chányú Kòulóudūn and Liáoxī Wūhuán Regional Commander Leading Armies King Hùliú and others, in the past followed Yuán Shàng in fleeing to Liáodōng, and led their armies of over 5000 people to surrender. Kòulóudūn sent his younger brother Āluópán and others to visit the palace and present tribute, fief on their commanders of over twenty men as Marquis and Kings, bestowed carriage and horses and silk fabrics and cloth each on individual basis. Gōngsūn Yuān opposed and with Jiǎn battled, [Jiǎn] was unsuccessful, and withdrew back. The next year, the Emperor sent Excellency Commandant Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng to command the central armies and with Jiǎn and the rest’s armies of several tens of thousands suppress [Gōngsūn] Yuān, settling Liáodōng. Jiǎn for his achievements was advanced in fief to Ānyì Marquis, revenue of 3900 households.
During Zhèngshǐ [240-249], Jiǎn because Gāogōulí (Goguryeo) repeatedly invaded and rebelled, commanded the various armies infantry and cavalry of ten thousand men to set out Xuántù, following various roads to suppress them. Gōulí King Gōng commanded infantry and cavalry of twenty thousand men, advancing army to Fèiliú river upstream, greatly battling at Liángkǒu, Gōng was continuously defeated and fled. Jiǎn therefore bound horse drawn chariots, to climb up Wándū, slaughtering Gōulí’s capital, beheading and capturing caitiffs in the thousands. Gōulí Pèizhě named Délái, repeatedly remonstrated Gōng, (1) Gōng did not follow his words. Délái sighed and said: “Standing and watching [very soon] this land will be covered in weeds.” Therefore he did not eat and died, and the entire state honored him. Jiǎn ordered the various armies to not destroy his tomb, to not cut down its trees, captured his wives and children, and all released and sent them away. Gōng alone led his wives and children and fled away. Jiǎn led the armies back. Sixth Year , he again campaigned against them, Gōng therefore fled to Mǎigōu. Jiǎn sent Xuántù Administrator Wáng Qí to pursue him, (2) crossed Wòjǔ over a thousand lǐ, reached Sùshènshì’s south border, carved stone to record achievements, inscribing on Wándū’s mountain, engraving on Bùnài’s city walls. All together those executed or surrendered were over eight thousand, in the evaluation of achievements and giving of rewards, those made marquis were over a hundred men. He bore through mountains for irrigation, and the people depended on this benefit.
- (1) Your Servant Sōngzhī cites Dōngyí zhuàn: Pèizhě is an government official title of Gōulí state.
- (2) Shìyǔ states: Qí appellation Kǒngshuò was a Dōnglái man, during Jìn’s Yǒngjiā the great rebel Wáng Mí, was Qí’s grandson.
Promoted to Left General, Lent Staff as Supervisor of Yù Province’s various military affairs, designate Yù Province Inspector, transferred to Defending South General. Zhūgě Dàn battled at Dōngguān, was unsuccessful, and therefore it was ordered that Dàn and Jiǎn exchange places. Dàn became Defending South, Regional Commander of Yù Province. Jiǎn became Defending East, Regional Commander of Yáng Province. Wú Grand Tutor Zhūgě Kè besieged Héféi Xīnchéng, Jiǎn with Wén Qīn resisted him, Excellency Commandant Sīmǎ Fú commanded the central armies east to relieve the siege, [Zhūgě] Kè retreated and returned.
Previously, Jiǎn with Xiàhóu Xuán, Lǐ Fēng, and others were deeply friendly. Yáng Province Inspector and Front General Wén Qīn was Cáo Shuǎng’s fellow townsman, brave and resolute and ferocious, repeatedly had battle achievements, enjoyed inflating capture counts, to seek favor and rewards, often did not meet with agreement, his resentment daily increased. Jiǎn by design generously treated Qīn, their feelings good and joys in accord. Qīn also was sincerely grateful, devoting heart without second thoughts. Zhèngyuán Second Year  Standard Moon, there was a comet of several tens of zhàng, northwest reaching Heaven, rising at the divide of Wú and Chǔ. Jiǎn and Qīn were pleased, believing it auspicious for themselves. Therefore they faked the Dowager-Empress’s Imperial Order, charging crimes on the General-in-Chief Sīmǎ [Shī] Jǐng-wáng, mobilized the various prefectures and states, raising troops to rebel. They coerced Huáinán’s officers defending various separate garrisons, and officials and people large and small, all to enter Shòuchūn city, made an altar at the city’s west, smearing blood and raising weapons to make oath, dividing the old and weak to defend the city, and Jiǎn and Qīn personally commanding a fifty to sixty thousand army to cross the Huái, west reaching Xiàng. Jiǎn firmly defended, Qīn was outside as the mobile troops. (1)
- (1) Jiǎn and Qīn and the rest memorialized:
- “Former Chancellor of State [Sīmǎ] Yì, rectified and supported the Wèi house, successively serving loyal and dependable, and therefore Lièzǔ Míng Huángdì [Cáo Ruì] awarded him an entrusting appointment. [Sīmǎ] Yì devoted strength and exhausted integrity, to pacify the heartlands. Also as the King of Qí was intelligent and enlightened, without any defilement in virtue, therefore [Sīmǎ Yì’s] heart was diligent and exhaustively loyal in assisting the Ascended, the realm Under Heaven depended on this. [Sīmǎ] Yì wished to suppress and destroy the two caitiffs to secure all within, began dividing military provisions, set time to together raising, it was not yet complete and he died. The King of Qí because [Sīmǎ] Yì in assisting him had great achievements, therefore had [Sīmǎ] Shī carry on [Sīmǎ] Yì’s enterprise, entrusted with great affairs. But [Sīmǎ] Shī in his flourishing years is in office, without disease claims illness, sitting and embracing strong troops, is without a subject’s respect, the court ministers oppose him, righteous elites ridicule him, Under Heaven has heard of this, this is crime one.
- [Sīmǎ] Yì made calculations to take the rebels, greatly preparing army provisions, set a date to the day. [Sīmǎ] Shī is a chief minister, and should remove the state’s troubles, and also is a man’s son, and should finish his father’s enterprise. Mourning sound was not yet cut off and yet he immediately stopped cries, as a minister he is not loyal, as a son he is not filial, this is crime two.
- The rebels retreated past Dōngguān, sitting himself he raised armies, three campaigns together advancing, ruined the armies in utter defeat, accumulated years of military power, in one morning was exhausted, so that the rebels came, Under Heaven was disturbed, dead and wounded flowing in exile, this is crime three.
- The rebels raised their state all gathering, declaring five hundred thousand, coming toward Shòuchūn, planning to strike Luòyáng, it happened that Excellency Commandant [Sīmǎ] Fú with we your servants established plan, to then block the critical terrain, to not with them battle, returning to fortify Xīnchéng. Huáinán’s officers and soldiers, charged points and tread blades, day and night mutually defending, diligent and worn for a hundred days, the dead covered the ground, from since Wèi had an army onward, in extremity of hardship and bitterness, none surpassed this. But [Sīmǎ] Shī followed his intentions with himself, did not discuss fief or reward, his power with himself at ease, without taking note [of others], this is crime four.
- Former Internal Documents Director Lǐ Fēng and others, because [Sīmǎ] Shī was without the integrity of a servant of another, wished to discuss dismissing him. [Sīmǎ] Shī knew and invited [Lǐ] Fēng, and that night killed him, sending corpse and coffin. [Lǐ] Fēng and the rest were chief ministers, the Emperor’s belly and heart, usurping authority and adding ruthless violence, the dead were without criminal charge, [Sīmǎ] Shī has heart to have no ruler, this is crime five.
- [Sīmǎ] Yì always sighed and said the King of Qí naturally was a ruler of men, the meaning of ruler and subject was settled, he served matters onward for ten and five years, first wishing to return governance, citing use of military arsenal, Imperial Order said the Restricted Troops could not rashly set out. [Sīmǎ] Shī himself knew his treacherous evil, was what men and spirits will not bless, deposing his ruler, accusing him with crimes. [Sīmǎ] Fú, [Sīmǎ] Shī’s father’s younger brother, his nature deeply benevolent and filial, escorted the King of Qí, his grief uncontrollable. The various ministers were all furious but [Sīmǎ] Shī endured, did not consider great righteousness, this is crime six.
- Also former Merit Grandee Zhāng Qī, without crime was executed, exterminating his wives and children, including even the Empress, oppressing and terrifying the utmost honored, strongly enforcing the sending, facing the time of grieving cry, none were not wounded and pained; but [Sīmǎ] Shī declared celebrations, and instead was joyous and pleased, this is crime seven.
- Your Majesty ascended the steps [to the throne], intelligent and enlightened and divinely martial, attending to governance with sagely heart, wishing to value frugality, the realm Under Heaven heard this, and none did not celebrate; but [Sīmǎ] Shī did not mend his ways, or cultivate and return to a minister’s rituals, but levied soldiers and recruited troops, destroying the palace’s insides, lining up captains for his own defense. When Your Majesty first ascended, from the beginning he did not enter Court to meet. Your Majesty wished to personally visit [Sīmǎ] Shī’s residence to care for his illness, again he refused and it was not connected. Not observing law and order, this is crime eight.
- Recently Manager of the Army Xǔ Yǔn was about to be Defending North [General], with treasury money he gave bestowment, and [Sīmǎ] Shī raised petition to apply punishment, and though it was said to be exile, on the road he was starved to death, the realm Under Heaven heard this, and none did not grieve in hurt, this is crime nine.
- Three regions’ defenses, in one morning he abolished, to greatly select elite troops, to be his personal guard, the Five Regiments managed troops, are deficient with no reinforcement, there is much transport of weapons, to fill and amass his own camp, the realm Under Heaven has heard, men harbor indignant rage, false words fill the roads, thus deceiving those within the seas, this is crime ten.
- He greatly rested defending troops, to occupy his high mansions, so emptying the four borders, wishing to monopolize strength and power, to indulge his treacherous heart, canvassing and taking from garrison farms, in order to add to his bestowed rewards, blocking troops how can it be tolerated, breaking and confusing old laws. He gathers together the various vassal Kings and Dukes to install in Yè, wishing to all execute them, in one morning raising matters to depose his ruler. Heaven does not long tolerate evil, causing his eye to swell and he be unsuccessful, this is crime eleven.
- We your servant’s ancestors all accompanied Tàizǔ Wǔ Huángdì [Cáo Cāo] in campaigning and suppressing the vicious and brutal, capturing and accomplishing great achievements, with Gāozǔ Wén Huángdì [Cáo Pī] receiving Hàn’s abdication, to inaugurate the state and carry on house, yet like Yáo and Shùn passed down. We your servants with Ānfēng Protector of the Army Zhèng Yì, Lújiāng Protector of the Army Lǚ Xuān and Administrator Zhāng Xiū, Huáinán Administrator Dīng Zūn, Commander Administrator Héféi Protector of the Army Wáng Xiū and others discussed, as we each have for generations received favor, through a thousand years of wind and dust, think of devoting self and life, to protect the State Altars and secure the Ruler as recompense. This righteousness if established, though it burn our wives and children, swallowing coal and burying body, death would not be regretted. According to [Sīmǎ] Shī’s crimes, he should be greatly punished, to make known his treachery and evil.
- In the Chūnqiū‘s meanings, if one generation is good, one generation forgives it. [Sīmǎ] Yì has great achievements, what within the seas has written, complying with ancient standards and discussions, depose [Sīmǎ] Shī and give his marquisate to his younger brother. His younger brother [Sīmǎ] Zhāo, loyal and solemn and generous and enlightened, pleases and befriends good people, has the capacity of a high age’s gentleman, loyal and true to the state, not with [Sīmǎ] Shī the same. We your servants break head as pledge, that he can replace [Sīmǎ] Shī in supporting and guiding your sagely self. Excellency Commandant [Sīmǎ] Fú, is loyal and filial and careful in heart, and should be closely favored, entrusted as Protector and Tutor. Protector of the Army Cavalier Regular Attendant [Sīmǎ] Wàng, is loyal and fair in close affairs, in office is praised as able, from afar welcomed carriage, has the achievement of night guard, and can be Central Manager of the Army. In the Chūnqiū‘s meaning, for great righteousness destroy kin, and therefore Zhōu-gōng executed his younger brother, Shí Què killed his son, Jìyǒu poisoned his elder brother, above for the state’s planning, below to preserve their clans. To execute Gǔn but employ Yǔ, is the sagely man’s enlightened standard, what the ancients to the present have praised. We beg Your Majesty to send down what we your servants have memorialized, for the Court Hall to extensively discuss. If what we your servants have said is true, then have [Sīmǎ] Shī resign his position and leave the worthies, dismiss troops and remove armaments, like the Three August’s old laws, then the realm Under Heaven will be harmonious. If [Sīmǎ] Shī carries on power and relies on his masses to not himself withdraw, we your servants will lead what we command, day and night both traveling, so that the order may be enforced. We your servants in what we have memorialized today, only wish to have Great Wèi forever endure, to have Your Majesty obtain and enact your ruling intention, distantly cut away the disaster of destruction, the common people to be safe and secure, the six directions be one body, to let the loyal ministers and righteous troops be worthy of the Three Augusts and Five Emperors and that is all. We your servants fear troops rising, the realm Under Heaven disturbed and chaotic, we your servants at once send up matters, moving Three Campaigns and provincial and prefectural and state managers of agriculture, each comforting their divisions of officials and people, to not rashly move, to thoroughly show the situation. May Your Majesty care for your vital spirit, wisely consider the dangers, and so calm within the seas. [Sīmǎ] Shī concentrates authority and uses power, rewards and punishments at his discretion, and hearing that we your servants have raised armies, will certainly send down Imperial Order to block the passes and crossings, so relay letters cannot be connected, without authority again conscript, and capture and seize. This then is [Sīmǎ] Shī’s Imperial Order, not Your Majesty’s Imperial Order letter, and all that cannot be again carried out and used. We your servants are far away, fear our written letters cannot all be received, at once facing the times reward and punish, by convenience follow affairs, and waiting for settlement will memorialize up.”
The General-in-Chief gathered the central and outer armies to suppress them, separately sending Zhūgě Dàn to command Yù Province’s various armies to from Ānfēngjīn aim for Shòuchūn, Campaigning East General Hú Zūn to command Qīng and Xú’s various armies to set out between Qiáo and Sòng, to cut off their return route. The General-in-Chief garrisoned Rǔyáng, sending Supervisor of the Army Wáng Jī to command the vanguard’s various armies to occupy Nándùn to wait for them. He ordered the various armies to all hold to ramparts and do not with them battle. Jiǎn and Qīn advancing were not able to fight, withdrawing feared Shòuchūn would meet with attack, could not return, their calculations exhausted and not knowing what to do. Huáinán’s officers and soldiers, their families all were in the north, the armies’ hearts broke and scattered, the surrenders joined together, and only Huáinán’s newly attached farmer peasants could be by them used. The General-in-Chief sent Yǎn Province Inspector Dèng Ài to command Tàishān’s various armies of over ten thousand men to reach Lèjiā, to show weakness to entice them, the General-in-Chief going from Zhū arrived. Qīn did not know, and indeed in the night came wishing to attack [Dèng] Ài and the rest, reaching morning, he saw the main army’s troops and horses flourishing, and therefore withdrew and returned. (1) The General-in-Chief released valiant cavalry to pursue and strike, greatly defeating them, Qīn escaped and fled. That day, Jiǎn heard Qīn in battle was defeated, was afraid and in the night fled, the army dispersed. Near reaching Shèn county, his left and right men and troops gradually abandoned Jiǎn and fled, Jiǎn alone with his youngest brother Xiù and grandson Chóng hid among the grasses of the riverbank. Ānfēngjīn Commandant division’s commoner Zhāng Shǔ shot and killed Jiǎn, sending his head to the capital. [Zhāng] Shǔ was given fief as Marquis. Xiù and Chóng fled and entered Wú. The officers and soldiers that had been by Jiǎn and Qīn coerced, all returned to surrender. (2)
- (1) Wèishì Chūnqiū states: Qīn’s middle son Chù, childhood name Yāng. His years were yet in childhood, his valor and strength surpassed men, he said to Qīn: “As it is not yet settled, striking them they can be defeated.” Therefore they divided into two squads, in the night pincer attacked the army. Chù led strong soldiers to first arrive, greatly shouting for the General-in-Chief, the army inside was shaken and disturbed. Qīn was late and did not answer. Reaching morning, Chù retreated, Qīn also withdrew and returned.
- Wèi mò zhuàn states: Palace internal man surnamed Yǐn, appellation Dàmù, as a child was the Cáo clan’s household slave, always attending at the Emperor’s side, the General-in-Chief had him together go. Dàmù knew the General-in-Chief’s one eye was already protruding out, and informed him saying: “Wén Qīn originally was your enlightened excellency’s belly and heart, but was by someone deceived and that is all, and he is also of Heaven’s Son’s home town. [I] Dàmù in the past was by Wén Qīn trusted, and beg to be able to pursue to explain and talk to him, to have him return to with your excellency restore friendship.” The General-in-Chief listened and sent Dàmù alone to go, he rode large horse, wore armor, pursued Wén Qīn, from afar with him talking. Dàmù in his heart truly wished for the Cáo clan’s security, mistakenly said: “Sir Marquis why be so bitter to not be able to again endure a few days!” He wished to have Qīn understand his meaning [that Sīmǎ Shī was critically ill]. Qīn did not understand, and therefore further with stern voice cursed Dàmù: “You were the former Emperor’s household man, do not ponder repaying kindness, but instead with Sīmǎ Shī create rebellion; regardless of Heaven Above, Heaven will not protect you!” Therefore he drew bow and notched arrow wishing to shoot Dàmù, Dàmù shed tears and said: “The world’s affairs are ruined, care for yourself well.”
- (2) Qīn’s letter to Guō Huái said: “General-in-Chief [Cáo Shuǎng] Zhāobó with the Grand Tutor [Sīmǎ Yì] together received entrusting command, ascending the bed to hold arm, entrusted and handed the realm Under Heaven, this far and near know. Later [Sīmǎ Yì] used power and advantage, to then cut off his [Cáo Shuǎng’s] sacrifices [succession line], and also his kin and comrades, all of an entire time’s eminents, it can pain the heart, but what can be done! Your Excellency Marquis with the Marshal-in-Chief [Cáo Shuǎng’s father Zhēn] received favor and closeness unique and outstanding, righteousness carved on metal and stone, so at this time, thinking of this increases pain, and cannot be endured. Excellency Commandant Wáng [Líng] resented his dominance of Court, secretly wished to raise troops, the matter indeed was not successful, and again there was execution and extermination, harm reaching the King of Chǔ [Cáo Biǎo], and thinking of this increases regret. When the Grand Tutor [Sīmǎ Yì] died, however his son [Sīmǎ] Shī carried on the father’s enterprise, unrestrained in his vicious brutality, days and moons increasingly extreme, deposing ruler and regiciding empress, massacring the loyal and good, harboring disastrous heart, and therefore it reached to regicide. If this can be tolerated, what cannot be tolerated? I Qīn for reputation and cause, served the ruler with integrity, loyally indignant at the inner removal, forgetting to sleep and eat, without any personal considerations. It happened that Guànqiū Zǐbāng in a letter to his father [Jiǎn], highly spoke of your excellency Marquis, exhaustively serving the ruler righteously, wishing to exert your white hairs, just like Tàigōng, only waiting to hear from the east, at the sound mutually answering, in listening for the day, can one not have fervor! Therefore without regard to the pains for wives and children, at once [I] with Guànqiū [General] Defending East raised righteous troops of over 30,000 men, to hurry west to the capital, wishing to rescue the Ruling House, sweep away the treacherous and rebellious, on tiptoe looking west [to you]. Lǔ looking out to Gāozǐ, is insufficient to be an analogy. For benevolence do not shirk responsibility, so all the more for the troubles of rescuing the ruler. It was that the roads were distant and hard, and therefore you did not timely arrive and that is all. However in the same boat together crossing, safety and danger are shared, disasters and pains are already connected, not what decorative words can resolve, and your excellency Marquis understands this. Together serving the Cáo clan, accumulating trust of the Wèi Court, men enacting the way, all know and see it. However the elites at Court, seeking profit and in vain living, are what righteous martyrs are disgusted by, what your excellency Marquis holds lowly, what Jiǎ Shǔ could not tolerate, so all the more for dirtied elites. The army garrisons at Xiàng, I your lesser man on the intercalary moon sixteenth day separately advanced troops, arriving at Lèjiā city to suppress [Sīmǎ] Shī, [Sīmǎ] Shī’s following armies, could not timely be broken and dispersed, and those beheaded, cannot again be pardoned, and so we should from Chángqū directly reach the capital, but false rumor first arrived, Guànqiū could not investigate it, and further said I your lesser man was deceived, and the various armies then thus collapsed. Guànqiū returned and fled, I pursued to explain, but could not reach [him]. I your lesser man returned to Xiàng, again encountered Wáng Jī and the rest of twelve armies, pursuing Guànqiū, advanced troops to suppress them, at at once overcame and defeated them, wherever we headed was total victory, but to our rear where was the support? The army was isolated at Liángchāng, advancing and retreating both lost, returned to occupy Shòuchūn, from Shòuchūn again driven, like a starved wolf trapped, without any other plan, only able to submit to the mandate of Great Wú, to borrow troops and beg for food, following the path of Wǔ Yuán and that is all. It is not as good as if I the servant scribe, how happy in heart, could take revenge on the ruler’s enemy, to forever have the Cáo clan enjoy succession sacrifices, this also is a great state’s blessing and care. Thinking that your excellency Marquis would have Chéng Yīng and [Gōngsūn] Chǔjiù alone have legacy from previous ages, is it that Great Wèi is without eagle raising soldiers? Now Great Wú generously esteems great righteousness, deeply observing pity and lamenting. However I the servant with the state greatly share and join together, distantly uniting one power, daily wishing to together rise, partition up the central states, not willing to on the side take anything for myself. Your excellency Marquis certainly wishes to together endure command in the chest, and should expand great power, one fears the Qín’s river’s soldiers cannot alone rise up. In the present plan, it is appropriate to humble self and extend to others, entrusting command to submit to [Shǔ] Hàn, east and west together rising thus, then we can settle [Sīmǎ] Shī’s faction and that is all. Deeply consider my rustic words, if my humble plan can be followed, it is appropriate to have [Shǔ] Hàn’s army occupy and control the critical points, to have the Six Directions managed and verified, with Zhōu and Shào have the same fief, to entrust to your descendants. This also is not a small matter, a great man calmly resides where he lands, and therefore distantly presents loyal heart, to timely look out for auspicious answers.”
- At the time Guō Huái had already died, Qīn did not yet know, and therefore there was this letter.
- Shìyǔ states: At Guànqiū Jiǎn’s punishment, his comrades were over 700 men, sent to Attendant Censor Dù Yǒu to manage prison, he only cited leaders of ten men, the rest he all memorialized to release. Yǒu appellation Jìzǐ was a Dōng prefecture man, served Jìn as Jì Province Inspector, Hénán Intendant. His son Mò, appellation Shìxuán, successively was Appointments Division Cadet, Minister of the Guard.
Jiǎn’s son Diàn was Managing Documents Attendant Censor, in previous times knew Jiǎn’s plan was about to set out, and privately went out to lead his family and dependents to flee to Xīn’ān’s Líng mountain top. Separately attacked and captured them, exterminating Jiǎn’s three clans. (1)
- (1) Shìyǔ states: Diàn appellation Zǐbāng, had reputation in the capital city. At the King of Qí being deposed, Diàn said to Jiǎn: “[You] great man occupy a region with heavy responsibility, the state is overturned yet [you] quietly only defend yourself, and will receive the four seas’ reproach.” Jiǎn agreed with this. The General-in-Chief hated his conduct as a man. When Jiǎn raised troops, [Sīmǎ Shī] asked Qū Shùn where he was, saying he did not come as he had no ability. When Jiǎn first raised troops, he sent his sons Zōng four men to enter Wú. During Tàikāng, Wú was pacified, Zōng and his brothers all returned to the central states. Zōng appellation Zǐrén, had Jiǎn’s manner, reached Línglíng Administrator. Zōng’s son Ào, was Bādōng Supervisor of the Army and Yì Province Inspector.
- Xí Zuòchǐ states: Guànqiū Jiǎn was moved by Míng-dì’s entrusting command [to care for Cáo Fāng], and therefore had this campaign. Gentlemen say that though Guànqiū Jiǎn’s matter was not successful, he could be called a loyal subject. To exhaust integrity and attend to righteousness is with us, to achieve it or be defeated is with the timing. If we are without timing, how can success be certain? To forget ourselves and not be certain, that then is how to be loyal. The ancient peoples had a saying: “The dead again live, the living are not shamed.” Like Guànqiū Jiǎn could be said to be not shamed.
Qīn fled to enter Wú, Wú appointed Qīn as Regional Protector, Lent Staff, Defending North General-in-Chief, Yōu Province Governor, Qiáo Marquis. (1)
- (1) Qīn’s surrender to Wú memorial states: “Reporting fate of misfortune, constant retainer of Wèi state, twice cut off from Heaven. Though leaning in prostration to [your] corner, I myself know I am without road. Sīmǎ Shī overturns Heaven and creates rebellion, deposing and harming two rulers [translator’s note: this anachronism of mentioning “two rulers” have led some to suspect the memorial is forgery, but perhaps he is counting the empress as the second?], Xīn [Zhòu of Shāng], Guǐ [Jiè of Xià], [Zhào] Gāo, [Wáng] Mǎng, their evils are not enough to describe him. [I] Qīn for accumulated reigns received Wèi’s favor, black bird’s feeling, I harbored indignant rising, all the more for my comrades. Previously [I] with Guànqiū Jiǎn and Guō Huái and others together raised righteous troops, about to together suppress [Sīmǎ] Shī, sweep away the vicious evils, and truly I your servant humbly sought to grasp. Wisdom and considerations too shallow, seeking integrity and not successful, advancing without anywhere to depend on, grieved and pained in heart. Retreating and unable to support and save my home Court, ashamed and looking about, with nowhere to inter myself. Following ancient principles, therefore I submit, serving Heavenly authority, obtaining prolongation ten thousand to one, for vengeance day, also is not a regret. At once leading officers, to submit to the mandate of your sagely influence, my shame of stealing temporary life, is not what words can explain. I solemnly send up my received Wèi Envoy Wielding Staff, General of the Front, and Marquis of Shānsāng seals and ribbons. Facing the border in anxiety and confusion, in prostration waiting for my crime’s punishment.”
- Wèishū states: Qīn appellation Zhòngruò was a Qiáo prefecture man. His father Jì, during Jiàn’ān [196-220] was a cavalry officer, had valor and strength. Qīn when young as a famed officer’s son, for ability in warfare met with praise. Wèi Fěng rebelled, Qīn in connection to with Fěng speaking was implicated, and was sent down to prison, beaten several hundred strokes, was about to die, Tàizǔ for Jì therefore pardoned him. During Tàihé [227-233], he became Five Regiments Colonel Commander, sent out as Ivory Gate Officer. Qīn by nature was stubborn and violent and without respect, wherever he was he was arrogant, did not serve official laws, at at once met with memorial to send away, and Míng-dì demoted him. Later he again became Huáinán Ivory Gate officer, transferred to Lújiāng Administrator, Falcon Raising General. Wáng Líng memorialized that Qīn was corrupt and cruel, was not suitable for succoring the borders, and requested to dismiss him from office and punish his crimes, and therefore they summoned Qīn back. Cáo Shuǎng because Qīn was of the same hometown, generously cared for and treated him, and did not punish Qīn’s matters. Again he was sent back to Lújiāng, added Crowning Army General, his nobility and favor exceeded the past. Qīn therefore became increasingly arrogant, enjoyed boasting of attacks, to bolster as a valorous and high man, and somewhat obtained an empty reputation in the Three Armies. After Cáo Shuǎng was executed, advanced Qīn to Front General to calm his heart, later he succeeded Zhūgě Dàn as Yáng Province Inspector. From when Cáo Shuǎng was executed, Qīn always inside was afraid, with Zhūgě Dàn hated one another, never with him planning. It happened that [Zhūgě] Dàn left the troops, Guànqiū Jiǎn went, and therefore they secretly together joined plans. In battle he was defeated and fled, day and night going, the pursuers did not reach, and therefore he was able to enter Wú. Sūn Jùn generously treated him. Qīn though was in another state, he could not bend integrity to be a subordinate, from Lǚ Jù and Zhū Yì and the rest various chief officers all detested and hated him, only [Sūn] Jùn always kept him at his side.
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