(42.10) Xì Zhèng 郤正 [Lìngxiān 令先]

Xì Zhèng appellation Lìngxiān was a Hénán Yǎnshī man. His grandfather Jiǎn at Emperor Líng’s end was Yì Province Inspector, and was by bandits killed. It happened that Heaven’s Under was in great chaos, and therefore Zhèng’s father Yī remained in Shǔ. Yī became General Mèng Dá’s camp regional commander, accompanied [Mèng] Dá in surrendering to Wèi, becoming Internal Documents Director Scribe. Zhèng was originally named Zuǎn. When young as his father died and his mother remarried, he was alone and independent, and he was poor and enjoyed study, extensively reading ancient books and records. When capped he was able to write prose, and entered as Confidential Documents Official, transferred to Director Scribe, promoted to Cadet, reached Director. By nature he was placid toward glory and profit, but exceptionally indulged thoughts in written works, from the remaining written works and rhapsodies of the class of Sīmǎ, Wáng, Yáng, Bān, Fù, Zhāng, Cài, to the present age’s beautiful documents and excellent discussions, those that Yì region had, then he drilled through and sought for, and overall he looked over them all. As he was in an inner office, he was near to the dealings of the eunuch Huáng Hào through thirty years. [Huáng] Hào from obscurity reached nobility, wielded authority and power, Zhèng both was not by [Huáng] Hào favored and also was not by [Huáng] Hào hated, and therefore his office did not pass six hundred dàn, and yet he escaped misfortune.

  郤正字令先,河南偃師人也。祖父儉,靈帝末為益州刺史,為盜賊所殺。會天下大亂,故正父揖因留蜀。揖為將軍孟達營都督,隨達降魏,為中書令史。正本名纂。少以父死母嫁,單煢隻立,而安貧好學,博覽墳籍。弱冠能屬文,入為祕書吏,轉為令史,遷郎,至令。性澹於榮利,而尤耽意文章,自司馬、王、揚、班、傅、張、蔡之儔遺文篇賦,及當世美書善論,益部有者,則鑽鑿推求,略皆寓目。自在內職,與宦人黃皓比屋周旋,經三十年,皓從微至貴,操弄威權,正既不為皓所愛,亦不為皓所憎,是以官不過六百石,而免於憂患。


In imitation of former classicists, he borrowed words to show his thoughts, naming it Shìjī “Resolving Ridicule,” its words continuing Cuī Yīn’s Dázhǐ “Communicating Purpose,” its text stating: [Translator’s Note: Warning, mistakes incoming! This is a very hard passage.]

  依則先儒,假文見意,號曰釋譏,其文繼於崔駰達旨。其辭曰:

Sometimes there are those who ridicule me saying: ‘Hearing of previous records, the matters and the times are together, the names and the achievements are in combination, that being the case naming things and matters are the former sage’s urgent task. Therefore beginning regulations and creating models, if it is not the time it is not established, transmitting praise and passing down name, if it is not achievement it is not recorded, names must have achievement and then be prominent, matters also must wait for timing to be put into effect, body lost and name exterminated, is what the gentleman is ashamed of. Therefore the expert in studying the way, explores the mysterious and searches the minute, observes the signs of heaven’s fortunes, examines the rise and fall of human affairs, debaters hurry to speak, the wise answer opportunities, planners develop strategies, warriors exert power, clouds join and fog collects, wind rises and lightning flies, estimating times and considering suitability, employing and taking the world’s resources, the small bend and the large extend, preserving the pubic and neglecting the private, though rulers are crooked yet they seek the straight, in the end raising light to shine out. Now the three regions stand as a tripod, nine [tenths] is not yet governed, the expansive four seas, infant and adult in disaster and destruction, alas the flow of righteousness is blocked, a pity the people are in destitution, this truly is the season for the sages to give rescue, the opportunity for ardent servicemen to cultivate achievement. You my good sir have high and bright talent, qualities of jade tablet, have extensively read and studied, given heart to principle and technique, no distant not reached, no obscurity not known; straighten body to seek command, work the mysterious, falter at the violent doors, throat and tongue are restrained, nine examinations without diverging, entering and not going out, (1) investigating the true and false of the ancient to present, calculating the gains and losses of the times and affairs. Though sometimes proffering one strategy, sometimes advancing one word, it explains other office duties, comforts these common dinners, assuredly it cannot give exhaustive loyal sincerity, completely drain chest and liver, in the rows entering straight, kindness to those multitudes of individuals, to enable we humble sorts to all have fame. Why not also loosen weights and slacken reins, return course to easy streets, carriage secure and harness released, think of horse so it serves, investigate severity and rising to cross river, seek large road’s dazzling regret, scattering autumn orchid to fragrant the world, complement our sort in unrolling map, is it not also magnificent?”

  或有譏余者曰:『聞之前記,夫事與時並,名與功偕,然則名之與事,前哲之急務也。是故創制作範,匪時不立,流稱垂名,匪功不記,名必須功而乃顯,事亦俟時以行止,身沒名滅,君子所恥。是以達人研道,探賾索微,觀天運之符表,考人事之盛衰,辯者馳說,智者應機,謀夫演略,武士奮威,雲合霧集,風激電飛,量時揆宜,用取世資,小屈大申,存公忽私,雖尺枉而尋直,終揚光以發輝也。今三方鼎跱,九有未乂,悠悠四海,嬰丁禍敗,嗟道義之沈塞,愍生民之顛沛,此誠聖賢拯救之秋,烈士樹功之會也。吾子以高朗之才,珪璋之質,兼覽博闚,留心道術,無遠不致,無幽不悉;挺身取命,幹茲奧祕,躊躇紫闥,喉舌是執,九考不移,有入無出,〔一〕究古今之真偽,計時務之得失。雖時獻一策,偶進一言,釋彼官責,慰此素飧,固未能輸竭忠款,盡瀝胸肝,排方入直,惠彼黎元,俾吾徒草鄙並有聞焉也。盍亦綏衡緩轡,回軌易塗,輿安駕肆,思馬斯徂,審厲揭以投濟,要夷庚之赫憮,播秋蘭以芳世,副吾徒之(彼)〔披〕圖,不亦盛與!』

I heard and sighed saying: “Alas, that there was speech like this! People’s hearts are not the same, just like their faces, though you are radiant and beautiful, both pretty and voluptuous, pipe peeking and basket raising, holding to what is seen, it cannot be said to be the form of the eight cords, trusted as the thoroughness of all things.”

  余聞而歎曰:「嗚呼,有若云乎邪!夫人心不同,實若其面,子雖光麗,既美且豔,管闚筐舉,守厥所見,未可以言八紘之形埒,信萬事之精練也。』

Someone recklessly pressed and raised expression saying: “What talk is this! What talk is this!”

  或人率爾,抑而揚衡曰:『是何言與!是何言與!』

I answered him saying: Yúdì believed acting obedient was to be admonished, Kǒng the sage believed pleasing oneself was a fault, things like what you say are very much what I ponder, and I will with you my good sir discuss and resolve it. In the past at Hónghuāng, the darkness of the first beginning, the Three Augusts answered prophecy, the Five Emperors carried on the signs, thus reaching to Xià and Shāng, the former canon and distant documents. The Jī [of Zhōu] declined and the way was deficient, the hegemons as wings supported, the Yíng clan [of Qín] was wretched and oppressive, swallowing and chewing eight regions, and therefore criss crossing the clouds rose, the treacherous and deceptive were like stars [in number], the exceptionally evil like wasps moving, intelligence problems sprouting; some ornamented the real to avenge the false, some grasped the evil to wield glory, some with crafty ways coerced superiors, some sold skills to boast of oneself; turning back on the correct to esteem the wrong, abandon the straight to join flattery, loyalty without settled share, righteousness without continuous application. Therefore when [Shāng] Yāng’s laws were exhausted and evil thoughts were created, when [Lǐ] Sī’s principles were defeated then treachery was achieved, the Lǚ family was great and yet the clan was exterminated, Hán [Fēi]’s debate was established and yet his body was punished. What was the reason? Profit took their hearts, favor dazzled their eyes, shining dragon seals, radiant chariots and carriages, improper intimacy temporarily gained, like a turn and like a tilt, depravity bewildering, reckless self-indulgence extreme, the carts were not inspected and yet their bodies were beside the cart shaft, the building’s stability was not yet fulfilled and yet the pillars broke and the rafters collapsed. Heaven collected its vitality, Earth withdrew its luster, Men lamented their bodies, ghosts reaped their foreheads. In the beginning ascending high ridge, in the end falling into remote ravines, in the morning holding glory and sleekness, in the evening becoming dried up bodies. Therefore worthy men and gentlemen, deeply plot distant considerations, fearing faults and ruthlessness, crossing high actions, quietly dragging tail in the streets, dirtying the troubled world’s rest and acclaim. How was that disparaging ruler and impeding people, and neglecting the time’s affairs? Overall the wrote admonishments of actions, the Shī had sighs of tranquil respect, and so invigorating it and listening to it and so the way enacted it thus.

  余應之曰:『虞帝以面從為戒,孔聖以悅己為尤,若子之言,良我所思,將為吾子論而釋之。昔在鴻荒,矇昧肇初,三皇應籙,五帝承符,爰暨夏、商,前典攸書。姬衰道缺,霸者翼扶,嬴氏慘虐,吞嚼八區,於是從橫雲起,狙詐如星,奇邪蜂動,智故萌生;或飾真以讎偽,或挾邪以干榮,或詭道以要上,或鬻技以自矜;背正崇邪,棄直就佞,忠無定分,義無常經。故鞅法窮而慝作,斯義敗而姦成,呂門大而宗滅,韓辯立而身刑。夫何故哉?利回其心,寵耀其目,赫赫龍章,鑠鑠車服,媮幸苟得,如反如仄,淫邪荒迷,恣睢自極,和鸞未調而身在轅側,庭宁未踐而棟折榱覆。天收其精,地縮其澤,人弔其躬,鬼芟其頟。初升高岡,終隕幽壑,朝含榮潤,夕為枯魄。是以賢人君子,深圖遠慮,畏彼咎戾,超然高舉,寧曳尾於塗中,穢濁世之休譽。彼豈輕主慢民,而忽於時務哉?蓋易著行止之戒,詩有靖恭之歎,乃神之聽之而道使之然也。

Raising the concentrated liquor of abundant transformation, ruler and minister observing rules, each holding to their reality; below [probably should be ‘above’?] passing down the greatness of inquiring and accepting, below there is the duty of rectifying and rescuing, servicemen without the favor of empty floweriness, the civilians having the legacy of unified conduct, beautiful in relentless diligence, esteeming this loyal benefit. However ways have rises and cracks, things have flourishing and deposing, there is sound and there is silence, there is light and there is shade. Red light is not in white autumn, dark shade is restrained in the first of spring, the sun passes and the moon continues, fortune hides and dazzling spirit is revealed. [Emperors] Chōng and Zhì were not long lived, [Emperors] Huán and Líng fell in destruction, outstanding heroes as clouds spreads, towering figures crowned the world, houses grasped different suggestions, people harbored ulterior plans, and therefore those criss crossing suddenly unrolled their bosom, the treacherous and deceptive temporarily spit their tongues.

  揚茂化之醲醇,君臣履度,各守厥真;下垂詢納之弘,下有匡救之責,士無虛華之寵,民有一行之跡,粲乎亹亹,尚此忠益。然而道有隆窳,物有興廢,有聲有寂,有光有翳。朱陽否於素秋,玄陰抑於孟春,羲和逝而望舒係,運氣匿而耀靈陳。沖、質不永,桓、靈墜敗,英雄雲布,豪傑蓋世,家挾殊議,人懷異計,故從橫者欻披其胸,狙詐者暫吐其舌也。

Now Heaven’s weaving is already sewn, virtuous cultivation in western regions, the glorious founder’s vast plans, joining good noble ranks to servicemen, raising five teachings to instruct customs, abundant nine virtues to relieve the civilians, cleaning and enlightening libations to the sacrifices, almost using the Imperial Way to assist the true. Although the stopped are not yet unified, the false are not yet divided out, sagely men pass down admonishments, overall all are without greed; therefore the ruler and ministers harmonize beauty in Court, the masses are happy to support in the fields, moving as with heavy determination, calm as folded patterns. The multitudes great and elegant, are the order of Yuán Kǎi. If there is mistake it is certain to be known, that is Yán-zǐ’s benevolence. Assurance in government, is the governance of Rǎn and Jì, eagles raising and falcons soaring, is the matter of Yī and Wàng. Gathering the top strategies of the crowd of the eminent, containing Xuē shì’s three plans, applying Zhāng and Chén’s secret schemes, and therefore with strength campaigning with diligence to the world, assisting the flowering and outstanding without negligence, how is there leisure for dried up bamboo in decaying tree dirt?

  今天綱已綴,德樹西鄰,丕顯祖之宏規,縻好爵於士人,興五教以訓俗,豐九德以濟民,肅明祀以礿祭,幾皇道以輔真。雖跱者未一,偽者未分,聖人垂戒,蓋均無貪;故君臣協美於朝,黎庶欣戴於野,動若重規,靜若疊矩。濟濟偉彥,元凱之倫也,有過必知,顏子之仁也,侃侃庶政,冉、季之治也,鷹楊鷙騰,伊、望之事也;總群俊之上略,含薛氏之三計,敷張、陳之祕策,故力征以勤世,援華英而不遑,豈暇脩枯籜於榛穢哉!

However I am not talented, have been in Court for accumulated decades, entrusting self to Heaven, my heart on this relying. Joyful in the azure sea’s width and depth, sighing at Sōng peak’s height and area, hearing Zhòngní’s praising Shāng, moved by village schools benefiting self, that Píngzhòng was a matching accompaniment, also was advancing the possible and replacing the wrong; therefore the undiscerning words of the blind, at times are distantly offered, like a strong man having selections in the market gates, a playing child singing at the borders, the masses by this expanding and widening good fortune, devoting strength to exhorting. If this is united, then use the muddled to harmonize the enlightened, advance to answer the spiritual signs; if this is violated, it is due to me, withdraw and hold my own foolishness. Advancing or withdrawing and appointed repeatedly, not argumentative and not slandering, following nature and pleased by heaven, what is to regret? This his how to enter and not exit, to have and yet seem without. Narrow was Qū shì’s constant awareness, turbid was Yúfù’s certain intoxication, disordered was Liǔ Jì’s lowly disgrace, urgent was Yí Shū’s high criticism. Uniting not to obtain, violating not to lose, obtaining not to yield, losing not to be wretched; not enjoying the former to look back at the front axle, not meeting the later to worry of the back axle, not selling acclaim to wield beneficence, not resigning fault to fear deficiency. What reproach is to explain? What dinner is to sympathize? What position is to line? What uprightness is to enter? Nine examinations not changing, assuredly the place to hold to.

  然吾不才,在朝累紀,託身所天,心焉是恃。樂滄海之廣深,歎嵩嶽之高跱,聞仲尼之贊商,感鄉校之益己,彼平仲之和羹,亦進可而替否;故矇冒瞽說,時有攸獻,譬遒人之有采于市閭,游童之吟詠乎疆畔,庶以增廣福祥,輸力規諫。若其合也,則以闇協明,進應靈符;如其違也,自我常分,退守己愚。進退任數,不矯不誣,循性樂天,夫何恨諸?此其所以既入不出,有而若無者也。狹屈氏之常醒,濁漁父之必醉,溷柳季之卑辱,褊夷叔之高懟。合不以得,違不以失,得不克詘,失不慘悸;不樂前以顧軒,不就後以慮輊,不鬻譽以干澤,不辭愆以忌絀。何責之釋?何飧之卹?何方之排?何直之入?九考不移,固其所執也。

Right now the Court servicemen like mountains pile, the elegant and eminent form crowds, like scale armor hidden in vast seas, fur and feathers gathering in dense forest: roaming beasts leaving is not them becoming few, floating fish arriving is not them becoming many. Moreover Yánglíng was secluded in Táng’s age, Yīnjīng answered to Shāng’s time, Yángxū had request and the vast flood ceased, Sānglín had prayer and sweet pools arrived. (2) Going and stopping have their ways, connecting and blocking have their phases. My teacher’s legacy teachings, was to not blame and not complain, entrust to fate and respect oneself, how can I refuse? Words are exhausted and roads isolated, [I am] about to return to first integrity, assemble the legacies of books and canons, seek Kǒng shì’s legacy arts, combine small words to preserve the way, constitute former courses and set regulations, correct Shūxì’s excessive play, beautify Shūshì’s distant passing, collect stopped feet to speak of returning, floating white to contain on, happy in closed walls for quiet amusement, escaping blame and regret in this world, looking back to this heart’s discontent, fearing the muddy obstruction at the end of the road. If seeking excitement yet increases indignation, unrestrained in internal thoughts to declare pledge. In the past nine regions examined elites at utmost nobility, Qín Yá poured thought to different forms; (3) Xuē Zhú investigated treasures by flowing reputation, (4) Hù Liáng entrusted string to flowing sound; (5) Qí Lì struck his buttocks to relieve Wén, (6) Chǔ retainers included bandits to protect Jīng, (7) Yōngmén held zither and coerced speech, (8) Hán Āi maintained reins and galloped name, (9) Lú Áo soared through Xuánquè, Ruòshì raised body to Yúnqīng. (10) I truly cannot match skills with these numerous masters, and therefore thus calmly hold to myself and stay at peace.”

  方今朝士山積,髦俊成群,猶鱗介之潛乎巨海,毛羽之集乎鄧林,游禽逝不為之尠,浮魴臻不為之殷。且陽靈幽於唐葉,陰精應於商時,陽盱請而洪災息,桑林禱而甘澤茲。〔二〕行止有道,啟塞有期。我師遺訓,不怨不尤,委命恭己,我又何辭?辭窮路單,將反初節,綜墳典之流芳,尋孔氏之遺藝,綴微辭以存道,憲先軌而投制,韙叔肸之優游,美疏氏之遐逝,收止足以言歸,汎皓然以容裔,欣環堵以恬娛,免咎悔於斯世,顧茲心之未泰,懼末塗之泥滯,仍求激而增憤,肆中懷以告誓。昔九方考精於至貴,秦牙沈思於殊形;〔三〕薛燭察寶以飛譽,〔四〕瓠梁託絃以流聲;〔五〕齊隸拊髀以濟文,〔六〕楚客潛寇以保荊;〔七〕雍門援琴而挾說,〔八〕韓哀秉轡而馳名;〔九〕盧敖翱翔乎玄闕,若士竦身于雲清。〔一0〕余實不能齊技於數子,故乃靜然守已而自寧。』

  • (1) Shàng Shū states: In three years examine achievements, three examinations dismiss or promote the hidden and visible. Nine examinations then is twenty-seven years.

  〔一〕 尚書曰:三載考績,三考黜陟幽明。九考則二十七年。

  • (2) Huáinán-zǐ states: Yǔ controlled the waters, personally requesting at Yángxū’s river, Tāng suffered drought, personally praying at Sānglín’s clearing. The sage’s sympathy for the people, in this way is obvious.
  • Lǚshì Chūnqiū states: In the past Yīn Tāng overcame Xià Jié and Under Heaven was great drought, for three years there was no collection, Tāng thus personally prayed at Sānglín saying: “If my one person has guilt, do not extend it to all places. If all places have guilt, place it on my one person, do not for my one person’s lack of wisdom, cause Above God to injure the people’s great lives.” Tāng therefore sheared his hair, broke his fingers, making himself a sacrifice, using prayer for blessings to the Above God. The people then were extremely pleased. Rain then greatly arrived.

  〔二〕 淮南子曰:禹為水,以身請于陽盱之河,湯苦旱,以身禱於桑林之際,聖人之憂民,如此其明也。呂氏春秋曰:昔殷湯克夏桀而天下大旱,三年不收,湯乃以身禱於桑林曰:「余一人有罪,無及萬方,萬方有罪,在余一人,無以一人之不敏,使上帝毀傷民之大命。」湯於是剪其髮,攦其爪,自以為犧牲,用祈福于上帝。民乃甚悅。雨乃大至。

  • (3) Huáinánzǐ states: Qín Duke Mù said to Bó Lè: “You are old, of your clan is there one that can be sent to seek horses?” Replied saying: “A good horse can by appearance of muscles and bones be appraised. To appraise a horse Under Heaven, it is like extinguishing like drowning, like failing like losing; a horse like this, does not raise dust or leave a trail. Your servant’s sons all are not talented, and can report good horses but cannot report the horses Under Heaven. For the horse Under Heaven, I your servant collected and gathered firewood together with Jiǔfāng Yīn, his appraisal of horses, is not below your servant, I request you meet him.” Duke Mù met him, and sent him to find a horse, in three moons he returned, and reported saying: “Already obtained a horse, at Shāqiū.” Duke Mù said: “What horse is it?” Replied saying: “Female and yellow.” Sent someone to go fetch it, and it was male and black. Duke Mù was not pleased, summoned Bó Lè and asked him saying: “Ruined, is the one you sent to seek horses! Even the color of hair and male or female he yet cannot understand, what horse can he understand?” Bó Lè sighed a great sigh and said: “What is this! It is what in ten million your servant yet is without count. One like Yīn sees Heaven’s mystery, obtains its vitality and forgets its coarseness, is at its inside and forgets its outside, sees what is to see and does not see what is not to see, observes what is to observe and omits what is not to observe, one like what he appraises, then is a noble horse.” The horse arrived, and indeed it was a horse Under Heaven.
  • Huáinánzǐ also states: Bó Lè, Hán Fēng, Qín Yá, Gě Qīng, how they appraised was each different, their understanding of horses were the same; probably Jiǔfāng observed their vitality, Qín Yá examined their form.

  〔三〕 淮南子曰:秦穆公謂伯樂曰:「子之年長矣,子姓有可使求馬者乎?」對曰:「良馬者,可以形容筋骨相也。相天下之馬者,若滅若沒,若失若亡,其一若此馬者,絕塵卻轍。臣之子皆下才也,可告以良馬而不可告以天下之馬。天下之馬,臣有所與共儋纏采薪九方堙,此其相馬,非臣之下也,請見之。」穆公見之,使之求馬,三月而反,報曰:「已得馬矣,在於沙丘。」穆公曰:「何馬也?」對曰:「牝而黃。」使人往取之,牡而驪。穆公不悅,召伯樂而問之曰:「敗矣,子之所使求馬者也!毛物牝牡尚弗能知,又何馬之能知?」伯樂喟然太息曰:「一至此乎!是乃所以千萬(里)臣而無數者也。若堙之所觀者天機也,得其精而忘其麤,在其內而忘其外,見其所見而不見其所不見,視其所視而遺其所不視,若彼之所相者,乃有貴乎馬者。」馬至,而果天下之馬也。淮南子又曰:伯樂、寒風、秦牙、葛青,所相各異,其知馬一也;蓋九方觀其精,秦牙察其形。

  • (4) Yuè Jué shū states: In the past King of Yuè Gōujiàn had treasure swords of five, famed through Heaven’s Under. Among the guest retainers was one able to appraises swords named Xuē Zhú, the King summoned him and asked him: “I have treasure swords of five, and request to show them to you.” Then he fetched Háocáo and Chénquē, Xuē Zhú said: “All are wrong.” Again fetched Chúngōu, Zhànlú, [Xuē] Zhú said: “Observing this sword’s edge, it shines like a row of stars, observing its light, it is mixed like water about to overflow a dyke, observing its inscriptions, it is dissipating like ice about to melt, is this what is called Chúngōu?” The King said: “It is.” The King said: “By your valuing it, would marketing it for three villages, a thousand fine horses, and two cities of a thousand households, be possible?” Xuē Zhú said: “Not possible. At the time of creating this sword, Chìjǐn’s mountain was destroyed to produce tin, Ruòxié’s creek was dried to produce copper, Yǔ Shī [rain god] swept and sprayed, Léi Gōng [thunder god] struck drum, Tài Yī [god] downward watched, Heaven’s vitality descended to it, Ōu Yě then answered Heaven’s vitality, used all his skill, the first called Chúngōu, the second called Zhànlú. Now Chìjǐn’s mountain is already gathered, Ruòxié’s creek is deep and immeasurable, Ōu Yě’s son is already dead, even overturning the city for all its gold, pearls and jade exhausting a river, would not be enough for this one thing. Marketing it for three villages, a thousand fine horses, two cities of a thousand households, how is it worth speaking of!”

  〔四〕 越絕書曰:昔越王句踐有寶劍五枚,聞於天下。客有能相劍者名薛燭,王召而問之:「吾有寶劍五,請以示子。」乃取豪曹、臣闕,薛燭曰:「皆非也。」又取純鉤、湛盧,燭曰:「觀其劍鈔,爛爛如列宿之行,觀其光,渾渾如水之將溢于塘,觀其文,渙渙如冰將釋,此所謂純鉤邪?」王曰:「是也。」王曰:「客有直之者,有市之鄉三,駿馬千匹,千戶之都二,可乎?」薛燭曰:「不可。當造此劍之時,赤堇之山破而出錫,若邪之谿涸而出銅,雨師掃灑,雷公擊鼓,太一下觀,天精下之,歐冶乃因天之精,悉其伎巧,一曰純鉤,二曰湛盧。今赤堇之山已合,若邪之谿深而不測,歐冶子已死,雖傾城量金,珠玉竭河,獨不得此一物。有市之鄉三,駿馬千匹,千戶之都二,亦何足言與!」

  • (5) Huáinánzǐ states: Hù Bā strummed zither and fish listened to it.
  • Also states: Hù Liáng’s song could be sung-along, but the singers could not sing it.

  〔五〕 淮南子曰:瓠巴鼓瑟而鱏魚聽之。又曰:瓠梁之歌可隨也,而以歌者不可為也。

  • (6) Your Servant Sōngzhī states: According to this it says Mèngchángjūn Tián Wén’s subordinate retainer was able to make chicken calls to relieve his distress. Generally those making chicken calls certainly first slap their buttocks to imitate a chicken patting wings.

  〔六〕 臣松之曰:按此謂孟嘗君田文下坐客,能作雞鳴以濟其厄者也。凡作雞鳴,必先拊髀,以傚雞之拊翼也。

  • (7) Huáinánzǐ states: Chǔ officer Zǐfā enjoyed seeking skilled Dào specialists. Chǔ had someone good at stealing, went to meet and said: “One hears you seek skilled Dào specialists, I your servant am a thief, and request to use my skills be a soldier.” Zǐfā heard this, his robes were not yet tied, his cap was not yet straight, and he went out to meet and pay respects to him. The left and right attendants remonstrated saying: “A thief is a bandit Under Heaven, why pay respects to him?” The lord said: “This does not have anything to do with you left and right” Later very soon, Qí raised troops to attack Chǔ. Zǐfā commanded the forces to resist them, the troops three times retreated. The Chǔ worthy grandees all exhausted their plans and all their devotion, the Qí forces were all the more strong. Therefore the soldier thief advanced and requested saying: “I your servant have meager skills, and request my lord to use it.” The lord said: “Accepted.” The thief at once in the night went out, untied the Qí General’s standard, and presented it to Zǐfā. Zǐfā sent a messenger to return it, saying: “Of my soldiers one went out to gather firewood, and obtained your standard General, and I send envoy to return it to you sir.” The next day again went to steal the pillow, Zǐfā again sent to return it. The next day again went to steal hairpin, Zǐfā again sent to return it. The Qí forces heard this and were greatly astonished, the General with his military officials planned saying: “If today we do not leave, I fear the Chǔ army will take my head!” At once turned the forces and left.

  〔七〕 淮南子曰:楚將子發好求技道之士。楚有善為偷者,往見曰:「聞君求技道之士,臣偷也,願以技備一卒。」子發聞之,衣不及帶,冠不暇正,出見而禮之。左右諫曰:「偷者,天下之盜也,何為禮之?」君曰:「此非左右之所得與。」後無幾何,齊興兵伐楚。子發將師以當之,兵三卻。楚賢大夫皆盡其計而悉其誠,齊師愈彊。於是卒偷進請曰:「臣有薄技,願為君行之。」君曰「諾」。偷即夜出,解齊將軍之帳,而獻之子發。子發使人歸之,曰:「卒有出採薪者,得將軍之帳,使使歸於執事。」明日又復往取枕,子發又使歸之。明日又復往取簪,子發又使歸之。齊師聞之大駭,將軍與軍吏謀曰:「今日不去,楚軍恐取吾頭矣!」即旋師而去。

  • (8) Huán Tán’s Xīnlùn states: Yōngmén Zhōu with a zither met, Mèngchángjūn said: “Is your playing of the zither able to make me sorrowful?” Replied saying: “Your servant’s ability to cause sorrow, is in the first noble and later lowly, in the past wealthy and now poor, rejected from destitute alleys, not interacting with the four neighbors; it is not like bodily figure high and clever, holding character and embracing the true, yet encountering slander and suffering defamation, blamed and not able to be trusted; it is not like interacting happily and joining love, without blame and yet producing alienation, distantly reaching to cut off states, without time to meet one another; it is not like an infant without father and mother, an adult without wife and child, going out taking fields and ponds as neighbors, going in using caves as a house, trapped morning and night, without pardon: one like these people, who yet hears the call of flying birds, autumn breeze rustling branches, then is pained in heart. Once I your servant for them plays zither and long sighs, never once have they not been sorrowful and weeping. Now if it is you sir, residing in a wide mansion and tall hall, of continuous doors and rooms, below curtains, with coming pure breezes; performers at the front, flattering attendants at the side, raising exciting Chǔ [music], dancing Zhèng women, flowing sounds to amuse the ear, refined sensuality to overflow the eyes; on the water playing on large dragon boats, setting feather banners, dropping hooks down into immeasurable depths, in the fields roaming on flat plains, galloping wide park, strong crossbows taking down high birds, valorous warriors blocking ferocious beasts; setting liquor for amusement, pouring intoxication and forgetting to return: at this time, to look at Heaven and Earth as not worth one finger, even if one is good at strumming zither, it is not able to move you sir.” Mèngchángjūn said: “Assuredly so!” Yōngmén Zhōu said: “However your servant humbly believes you sir do have a constant sorrow. The one fighting to be Emperor and is hard-pressed by Qín is you, the one joining five states to attack Chǔ is also you. Under Heaven there has not once been no problems, if not vertical then it is horizontal; if vertical succeeds then Chǔ is King, if horizontal succeeds then Qín is Emperor. To with Qín’s and Chǔ’s strength and yet avenge weak Xuē, is like sharpening dread axe and chopping morning mushrooms. Of servicemen with knowledge, none are not disillusioned with you sir. Heaven’s way does not constantly flourish, cold and hot cycle in advancing and withdrawing, after a thousand autumns and ten thousand years, the ancestral temples will certainly not enjoy sacrifices; high towers already overturn, bent ponds also already flatten, graves will produce thistles and thorns, foxes burrowing inside, roaming bows and herders will trample their feet and sing above it saying: “Mèngchángjūn’s honored nobility also was yet like this!” Therefore Mèngchángjūn sighed a great sigh, tears forming on eyelashes and not yet falling. Yōngmén Zhōu drew zither and strummed it, gently moving gōng and zhǐ [notes], knocking jué and yǔ [notes], in the end completing melody, Mèngchángjūn therefore sobbed and said to him: “Your strumming of zither, causes me to stand like a man of a destroyed state.”

  〔八〕 桓譚新論曰:雍門周以琴見,孟嘗君曰:「先生鼓琴,亦能令文悲乎?」對曰:「臣之所能令悲者,先貴而後賤,昔富而今貧,擯壓窮巷,不交四鄰;不若身材高妙,懷質抱真,逢讒罹謗,怨結而不得信;不若交歡而結愛,無怨而生離,遠赴絕國,無相見期;不若幼無父母,壯無妻兒,出以野澤為鄰,入用堀穴為家,困于朝夕,無所假貸:若此人者,但聞飛烏之號,秋風鳴條,則傷心矣,臣一為之援琴而長太息,未有不悽惻而涕泣者也。今若足下,居則廣廈高堂,連闥洞房,下羅帷,來清風;倡優在前,諂諛侍側,揚激楚,舞鄭妾,流聲以娛耳,練色以淫目;水戲則舫龍舟,建羽旗,鼓釣乎不測之淵;野游則登平原,馳廣囿,強弩下高鳥,勇士格猛獸;置酒娛樂,沈醉忘歸:方此之時,視天地曾不若一指,雖有善鼓琴,未能動足下也。」孟嘗君曰:「固然!」雍門周曰:「然臣竊為足下有所常悲。夫角帝而困秦者君也,連五國而伐楚者又君也。天下未嘗無事,不從即衡;從成則楚王,衡成則秦帝。夫以秦、楚之彊而報弱薛,猶磨蕭斧而伐朝菌也,有識之士,莫不為足下寒心。天道不常盛,寒暑更進退,千秋萬歲之後,宗廟必不血食;高臺既已傾,曲池又已平,墳墓生荊棘,狐狸穴其中,游兒牧豎躑躅其足而歌其上曰:『孟嘗君之尊貴,亦猶若是乎!』」於是孟嘗君喟然太息,涕淚承睫而未下。雍門周引琴而鼓之,徐動宮徵,叩角羽,終而成曲,孟嘗君遂歔欷而就之曰:「先生鼓琴,令文立若亡國之人也。」

  • (9) Lǚshì Chūnqiū states: Hán Āi was a driver.
  • Wáng Bāo’s Shèng zhǔ dé Xián chén sòng “Ode to a sagely ruler obtaining a worthy minister” states: Reaching to harness gnawing knee, joining ride at dawn, Wáng Liáng grasping board, Hán Āi attaching carriage, releasing gallop and rushing, sudden like a bright flash, passing cities and crossing states, trampling like trailing chunks, chasing lightning, pursuing wind, all around flowing eight extremities, ten thousand lǐ in one breath, such distances! It is from man and horse understanding one another.

  〔九〕 呂氏春秋曰:韓哀作御。王褒聖主得賢臣頌曰:及至駕齧膝,參乘旦,王良執靶,韓哀附輿,縱馳騁騖,忽如景靡,過都越國,蹶如歷塊,追奔電,逐遺風,周流八極,萬里一息,何其遼哉!人馬相得也。

  • (10) Huáinánzǐ states: Lú Áo traveled to Běihǎi, crossing Tàiyīn, entering Xuánquè, reaching to above Ménggū, saw one man, deep eyes and dark nose, bent neck and wide shoulders, abundant top and weak bottom, laughing and facing the wind and dancing, looked back and saw Lú Áo, slowly lowered his arms, and fled below the stele. Lú Áo looked down and saw him, just rolling up turtle shell and eating a pear. Lú Áo then with him spoke saying: “I Áo turned back on the crowds and left the groups, exhaustively searched beyond the six directions, is it not Áo? I Áo as a youth enjoyed traveling, ever unable to explain, all around going to the four extremities, only the north Yīn not seen, now to suddenly see you here, you probably can befriend Áo.” The one appearing like a man scoffed and laughed and said: “Ha! You are the central province’s commoner, how can you travel far to here? This yet is the light of the soon and moon and the constellations of stars, where yīn and yáng travel, where the four seasons are produced, this is comparable to those unnamed lands, yet all the more mysterious. If I to the south travel to the network of fields, to the north rest in blackened countryside, to the west exhaust the darkest groups, to the east cross the vast drizzle light, this is to below be without earth and above be without heaven, listening and not hear, looking and in a daze, yet beyond here there is a torrential stream, the remaining one move of ten million lǐ, I yet cannot take. Now you have traveled only to here, and then speak of exhausting sights, how is it not also far? However you are here, I am with the vast time above the nine boundaries, I cannot stay long.” The one like a man raised arm and straightened body, and then entered into the clouds. Lú Áo looked up and watched him, did not see him and then stopped, saying: “Comparing me to him, is like a yellow swan and an earth worm, to the end of days going but not leaving the very near, but believing it to be far, is it not also sorrowful?”

  〔一0〕淮南子曰:盧敖游乎北海,經乎太陰,入乎玄闕,至於蒙轂之上,見一士焉,深目而玄準,戾頸而鳶肩,豐上而殺下,軒軒然方迎風而舞,顧見盧敖慢然下其臂,遯逃乎碑下。盧敖俯而視之,方卷龜殼而食合梨。盧敖乃與之語曰:「惟敖為背群離黨,窮觀於六合之外者,非敖而已乎!敖幼而好游,長不喻解,周行四極,惟北陰之不闚,今卒睹夫子於是,子殆可與敖為交乎!」若士者齤然而笑曰:「嘻乎!子中州民,寧肯而遠至此?此猶光乎日月而戴列星,陰陽之所行,四時之所生,此其比夫不名之地,猶突奧也。若我南游乎罔{罒良}之野,北息于沈墨之鄉,西窮冥冥之黨,東貫鴻濛之光,此其下無地而上無天,聽焉無聞,視焉則眴,此其外猶有沈沈之汜,其餘一舉而千萬里,吾猶未能之在。今子游始至于此,乃語窮觀,豈不亦遠哉!然子處矣,吾與汗漫期於九垓之上,吾不可以久。」若士舉臂而竦身,遂入雲中。盧敖仰而視之,弗見乃止,曰:「吾比夫子也,猶黃鵠之與壤蟲,終日行不離咫尺,自以為遠,不亦悲哉!」


Jǐngyào Sixth Year [263], Hòuzhǔ followed Qiáo Zhōu’s plan, and sent envoy to request to surrender to Dèng Ài. The letter was by Zhèng written. Next year Standard Moon, Zhōng Huì made chaos in Chéngdū, Hòuzhǔ moved east to Luòyáng, the times were disturbed and confused, Shǔ’s great ministers were without supporting attendants, only Zhèng and Palace Hall Internal Director Rǔnán’s Zhāng Tōng abandoned wives and children and alone followed in attendance. Hòuzhǔ depended on Zhèng’s guidance on suitable behavior, actions and movements were without deficiency, and so he sighed in regret of knowing of Zhèng too late. At the time discussions praised this. Bestowed noble rank as Marquis Within the Passes. During Tàishǐ sent out as Ānyáng Magistrate, promoted Bāxī Administrator. Tàishǐ Eighth Year [272] Imperial Order said: “Zhèng in the past at Chéngdū, in destitution held to righteousness, not violating loyal integrity, and when meeting with employment, was exhaustive in heart in enacting duties, having government accomplishments, thus appoint Zhèng as Bāxī Administrator.” Xiánníng Fourth Year [278] died. Altogether his written poems and discussions and rhapsodies were over a hundred piān.

  景耀六年,後主從譙周之計,遣使請降于鄧艾,其書,正所造也。明年正月,鍾會作亂成都,後主東遷洛陽,時擾攘倉卒,蜀之大臣無翼從者,惟正及殿中督汝南張通,捨妻子單身隨侍。後主賴正相導宜適,舉動無闕,乃慨然歎息,恨知正之晚。時論嘉之。賜爵關內侯。泰始中,除安陽令,遷巴西太守。泰始八年詔曰:「正昔在成都,顛沛守義,不違忠節,及見受用,盡心幹事,有治理之績,其以正為巴西太守。」咸寧四年卒。凡所著述詩論賦之屬,垂百篇。

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