(30.8) Yìlóu 挹婁

Yìlóu is to Fūyú’s northeast by over a thousand lǐ, bordering the great sea, the south with the north of Wòjǔ bordering, it is unknown where its north reaches. Its land has many mountains and rugged terrain. Its people in form resemble Fūyú. The language is not the same as with Fūyú and Gōulí. They have the five grains, ox, horses, hemp cloth. The people have much valor and strength. The are without an chief leader, the village tribes each have their own chieftain. They reside in the mountains and woods, frequently living in caves, the large families are deep needing nine stairs, with the more the better. The land and air is cold, more severe than in Fūyú. Their customs are to enjoy raising pigs, eating their meat, wearing their skins. In winter they use pig grease to cover their bodies, several fēn in thickness, to resist the cold weather. In summer then they are unclothed, with a chǐ of cloth covering their front and rear, to conceal their bodily form. Their people are not clean, making the animal pens in the center, the people residing around it. Their bows in length are four chǐ, strong as a crossbow, the arrows use hù [wood], length one chǐ and eight cùn, blue stone as the arrowhead, the ancient Sùshènshì’s state. They are good at shooting, when shooting someone they all strike the eye. The arrows are poisoned, people hit all die. They produce red jade, good sable, now what is called Yìlóu sable is this. From Hàn onward, they were subordinate to Fūyú, Fūyú burdened them with heavy taxes, and during Huángchū they rebelled against them. Fūyú repeatedly attacked them, though their people were few, their location was mountainous and rugged, the neighboring state’s peoples feared their bows and arrows, and in the end they could not be subdued. Their state then road boats to plunder and raid, the neighboring states suffered from this. The Dōngyí in drink and food all use zǔdòu [utensils], only Yìlóu does not, their laws and customs are the most without order.

挹婁在夫餘東北千餘里,濱大海,南與北沃沮接,未知其北所極。其土地多山險。其人形似夫餘,言語不與夫餘、句麗同。有五穀、牛、馬、麻布。人多勇力。無大君長,邑落各有大人。處山林之間,常穴居,大家深九梯,以多為好。土氣寒,劇於夫餘。其俗好養豬,食其肉,衣其皮。冬以豬膏塗身,厚數分,以禦風寒。夏則裸袒,以尺布隱其前後,以蔽形體。其人不絜,作溷在中央,人圍其表居。其弓長四尺,力如弩,矢用楛,長尺八寸,青石為鏃,古之肅慎氏之國也。善射,射人皆入(因)〔目〕。矢施毒,人中皆死。出赤玉,好貂,今所謂挹婁貂是也。自漢已來,臣屬夫餘,夫餘責其租賦重,以黃初中叛之。夫餘數伐之,其人眾雖少,所在山險,鄰國人畏其弓矢,卒不能服也。其國便乘船寇盜,鄰國患之。東夷飲食類皆用俎豆,唯挹婁不,法俗最無綱紀也。

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