(42.11) Appraisal [of Dù 杜, Zhōu 周, Dù 杜, Xǔ 許, Mèng 孟, Lái 來, Yǐn 尹, Lǐ 李, Qiáo 譙, Xì 郤]

Appraisal states: Dù Wēi cultivated self in seclusion and tranquility, not serving in the present age, almost of Yí and Hào’s sort. Zhōu Qún’s divination of the heavens had demonstration, Dù Qióng’s submerged in silence with cautious care, the scholar’s purity. Xǔ, Mèng, Lái, Lǐ extensively waded many teachings, Yǐn Mò was proficient in the Zuǒshì, though they were not praised for a virtuous enterprise, indeed they were all the whole time’s scholars. Qiáo Zhōu’s words and reasoning were profound and reaching, he was the age’s great classicist, having Dǒng and Yáng’s form, Xí Zhèng’s writings were glorious, having Zhāng and Cài’s air, and additionally in their conduct, they had a gentlemen’s ways. The two masters in residing in Jìn had few services, in Shǔ they had many services, and therefore they are written in this piān.


  • (1) Zhāng Fán believes: Qiáo Zhōu in explaining a strategy to surrender to Wèi, probably already anticipated Liú Shàn’s cowardice and weakness, heart without harmful ruthlessness, and therefore it was able to be enacted. If it had encountered an angry and unrestrained person, even if there were no other calculations, yet he would have esteemed death and despised shame, and perhaps in fury rashly executed, to establish a time’s authority, and please these waiting thoughts; this also was to tempt the disaster of extermination.

  〔一〕 張璠以為譙周所陳降魏之策,蓋素料劉禪懦弱,心無害戾,故得行也。如遇忿肆之人,雖無他算,然矜殉鄙恥,或發怒妄誅,以立一時之威,快其斯須之意者,此亦夷滅之禍云。

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