(24.2) Cuī Lín 崔林 [Dérú 德儒]

Cuī Lín appellation Dérú was a Qīnghé Dōngwǔchéng man. When he was young he was late to mature, in his clan none knew of him, only his elder cousin [Cuī] Yǎn was impressed with him. When Tǎizǔ settled Jì province, he summoned and sent him out as Wū chief, he was poor and without carriage or horses, and alone walked to office. When Tàizǔ campaigned against Húguān, he asked who of the chief clerks had the most virtuous government, Bìng province Inspector Zhāng Zhì answered with [Cuī] Lín, therefore he was selected out to be Jì province Registrar, transferred to Separate Harness, Chancellor’s Official Associate. When Wèi state was established, he was summoned as Censorate Internal Deputy.


When Emperor Wén [Cáo Pī] ascended the throne, he was appointed Secretariat Documenter, sent out as Yōu province Inspector. North Internal Cadet General Wú Zhì presided the Hé’s north’s military affairs, Zhuō prefecture Administrator Wáng Xióng spoke of Lín to his Separate Harness saying: “Internal Cadet General Wú, is closely valued by the Ascended, the state’s noble minister. Holding staff to preside affairs, in the provinces and prefectures none do not present letters paying respect, but he with his governorship Cuī at first did not hear of each other. If the border fortresses are not repaired and they behead you, how would his governorship be able to protect you?” The Separate Harness told all this to Lín, Lín said: “An Inspector looks upon leaving the province like taking off shoes, how can they be bound to one another? This province borders the Hú caitiffs, and should subdue them with tranquility, if it disturbs them then it moves their rebellious hearts, and will specially for the country great a northern worry to look after, may you pass this message.” He was in office for one year, and the banditry and theft ceased, (1) yet as he did not serve his superiors, he was demoted to Héjiān Administrator, and in pure discussion many complained for Lín. (2)


  • (1) Citing Wáng Shìpǔ: Xióng appellation Yuánbó was of Grand Protector [Wáng] Xiáng’s clan.
  • Wèi Míngchénzòu records Āndìng Administrator Mèng Dá’s recommendation of Xióng stating: “I your servant have heard that the enlightened lord takes seeking worthies as his enterprise, loyal ministers takes advancing the good as their action, and therefore the says: ‘pulling out grasses links to the roots,’ the Zhuàn states: ‘Elect those known.’ Your servant cannot measure oneself, but humbly admires this meaning. Your servant in the past because personnel were few, erroneously filled department duty. At the time Zhuō prefecture Administrator Wáng Xióng was West Division Attending Official, with your servant sharing office. [Wáng] Xióng’s natural character is good and firm, resolute and with planning. He successively was tested in three counties, government was achieved and people were harmonious. Reaching to nearby duties, he served and spread authority and kindness, embracing conciliation with technique, pure and cautious in upholding law. Your servant in former years was sent out as an envoy, and passed by [Wáng] Xióng’s prefecture. I personally said I specially received Your Majesty’s grace of selection for promotion, always encouraged integrity with elite heart, thinking of devoting life to action, words incited and raised, emotions devoted and sorrowful. Though your servant is foolish and ignorant, not knowing true or false, I will say [Wáng] Xióng is talented in both the civil and military, has loyal and ardent nature, surpassing his class. Now Zhuō prefecture governs households of three thousand, orphaned and widowed families occupy half, the north has the firmness of defending troops and screen guards, truly not sufficient to extend [Wáng] Xióng’s intelligence and strength, and exhibit his diligence and ability. Your servant has received deep favor, with nothing to repay the state, and cannot bear this anxious and shallow feeling, and solemnly explain what I hear.”
  • Imperial Order said: “In the past Xiāo Hé recommended Hán Xìn, Dèng Yǔ advanced Wú Hàn; only worthies understand worthies. [Wáng] Xióng has guts and wisdom, technical ability, and civil and martial disposition, and I have formerly known of this. Now when there is a selection for an attending cavalier, to have one young below my gates to known and direct return, I then greatly employ him. The servicemen Under Heaven, to wish to have all first experience being my cavalier, and afterward be sent out to occupy provinces and prefecture, was my original intention.”
  • Xióng later became Yōu province Inspector. His son [Wáng] Hún, Liáng province Inspector. Next [son Wáng] Yì, Pacifying North General. Excellency over the Masses Ānfēng Marquis [Wáng] Róng was Hún’s son. Excellency Commandant Wǔlíng Marquis [Wáng] Yǎn and Jīng Province Inspector [Wáng] Chéng were both [Wáng] Yì’s sons.

  〔一〕 案王氏譜:雄字元伯,太保祥之宗也。魏名臣奏載安定太守孟達薦雄曰:「臣聞明君以求賢為業,忠臣以進善為效,故易稱『拔茅連茹』,傳曰『舉爾所知』。臣不自量,竊慕其義。臣昔以人乏,謬充備部職。時涿郡太守王雄為西部從事,與臣同僚。雄天性良固,果而有謀。歷試三縣,政成人和。及在近職,奉宣威恩,懷柔有術,清慎持法。臣往年出使,經過雄郡。自說特受陛下拔擢之恩,常勵節精心,思投命為效。言辭激揚,情趣款惻。臣雖愚闇,不識真偽,以謂雄才兼資文武,忠烈之性,踰越倫輩。今涿郡領戶三千,孤寡之家,參居其半,北有守兵藩衛之固,誠不足舒雄智力,展其勤幹也。臣受恩深厚,無以報國,不勝慺慺淺見之情,謹冒陳聞。」詔曰:「昔蕭何薦韓信,鄧禹進吳漢,惟賢知賢也。雄有膽智技能文武之姿,吾宿知之。今便以參散騎之選,方使少在吾門下知指歸,便大用之矣。天下之士,欲使皆先歷散騎,然後出據州郡,是吾本意也。」雄後為幽州刺史。子渾,涼州刺史。次乂,平北將軍。司徒安豐侯戎,渾之子。太尉武陵侯衍、荊州刺史澄,皆乂之子。

  • (2) Wèi Míngchénzòu records Attendant Internal Xīn Pí’s memorial stating: “In the past Huán Jiē was Secretariat Documents Director, and as Cuī Lín did not have a Secretariat Documenter’s talent, transferred him to Héjiān Administrator.”
  • It is with this biography not the same.

  〔二〕 魏名臣奏載侍中辛毗奏曰:「昔桓階為尚書令,以崔林非尚書才,遷以為河閒太守。」與此傳不同。

Promoted to Minister Herald. The Quīcí King sent his son to attend Court, the Court commended his coming from afar, and the rewards on the king were extremely generous. The other states each sent sons to come to Court, the envoys came continuously, and Lín feared of those sent some were not genuine, but expediently taking distant subordinate merchant Hú, to take advantage of connection of emissary missions, to for profit obtain seals and ribbons, and the road escort costs were increasing. It troubled the caring for the people, was providing for a matter without benefit, was by the Yí and Dí laughed at, and this was what former times suffered from. Thus he sent letter to Dùnhuáng to explain and direct, to all note the precedents of how previous ages had treated the various states generously or meagerly, to have there be standards. When Emperor Míng [Cáo Ruì] succeeded the throne, bestowed noble rank as Marquis Within the Passes, transferred to Minister of Merits, Colonel Director of Retainers. The subordinate prefectures dismissed all staff clerks that violated law and had wrongs. Lín in governing promoted sincerity, simplified and preserved major forms, and therefore.


Cavalier Regular Attendant Liú Shào composed Kǎokè lùn “Discussion on Examinations,” to regulate subordinate hundred officials. Lín’s comment stated: “Citing Zhōu Guān‘s examinations, their writing is provided. From Kāng-wáng on down, there was decline, this then means examination methods depend on the people. Reaching to Hàn’s end, how were the failings due to the duties of assistant officials not being numerous? Right now the army has some rustic and some lost, to equip them with regulation clauses, extend them inside and outside, to increase or decrease without standards, is assuredly difficult to unify. Moreover ten thousand articles do not spread and raise their ordering, a multitude of hairs do not organize and rouse its neck, when Gāotáo was at Yú, when Yī Yǐn was serving Yīn, the not benevolent were kept distant. The Five Emperors and Three Kings were not necessarily the same, but each governed chaos. The states: ‘Change to simplicity, and Heaven’s Under’s reasoning is obtained.’ Tàizǔ followed suitability in arranging and enlisting, and it remained to the present, without worry that they were not the laws of the ancients. One believes that the present system regulations are not lax, only holding to oneself and not failing and nothing more. If the Court Ministers are able to appoint Zhòngshān Fǔ’s heaviness, forming in the hundred enlistments, then who dares not be respectful?


Jǐngchū Inaugural Year [237], the Excellency over the Masses and Excellency of Works positions were both vacant, Cavalier Attendant Cadet Mèng Kāng recommended Lín stating: “The prime ministers are those that Heaven’s Under looks toward and imitates, and truly should be a servicemen maintaining loyalty, treading uprightness, rooted in virtue, and upholding righteousness, sufficient to be a paragon model for Within the Seas. I humbly observe Colonel Director of Retainers Cuī Lín is endowed with self-natural upright nature, embodies high elegant liberal capacity. Discussing his strengths in comparison to ancient people, in loyalty and uprightness without turn then he is of Shǐ Yú’s level, in purity and frugality and holding to word then he is of Jì Wén’s class. As Governor and Administrator of provinces and prefectures, wherever he was he governed, reaching to become outer Director, ten thousand lǐ respectful and level, truly he is a Terrace Assistant’s sublime capacity, an Imperial duty’s excellent talent.” The year after next he then became Excellency of Works, enfeoffed Ānyáng precinct Marquis, fief of six hundred households. The Three Excellencies being enfeoffed as Ranked Marquis, from Lín began. (1) Shortly after this, he was again advanced to Ānyáng village Marquis.


  • (1) Your Servant Sōngzhī believes Hàn enfeoffing a Chancellor’s fief was by Xún Yuè ridiculed. Wèi in enfeoffing the Three Excellencies, their mistake was the same.

  〔一〕 臣松之以為漢封丞相邑,為荀悅所譏。魏封三公,其失同也。

The Lǔ Chancellor sent up word: “Hàn of old established Kǒng-zǐ’s Temple, the Bāochéng Marquis by season presented sacrifices, Bìyōng [Academy] in enacting ritual, must sacrifice to former teachers, the Royal House produces grain, spring and autumn with sacrifical worship. Now Zōngshèng Marquis succession line, does not yet have mandated sacrifice ritual, it is appropriate to provide livestock, chief clerk to present worship, and honor [Kǒng-zǐ] as a noble spirit.”

Regulation had the Three Offices discuss it, Academic Scholar Fù Zhī believed: “The Chūnqiū zhuàn stating ‘Establish in the sacrificial canon’ then was referring to Kǒng-zǐ. Zōngshèng is sufficient to restore a cut off succession, manifesting flourishing virtue and that is all. As for making prominent and establishing report, esteeming enlightened virtue, then it is appropriate to do as the Lǔ Chancellor sends up.”

Lín commented believing: “Zōngshèng Marquis also by the Ruling Mandate sacrifices, so it is not that it ‘does not yet have mandate.’ Zhōu King Wǔ enfeoffed Huángdì’s Yáo’s, and Shùn’s posterity, so establishing the Three Respects. Yǔ’s and Táng’s successions were not ranked at the time, and again special mandate had other offices sacrifice. Now from Zhōu-gōng on up, reaching to the Three Augusts, they are neglected and do not receive sacrifices, but the Lǐ jīng also preserves report of them. Now to alone sacrifice to Kǒng-zǐ, is because the generations are closer. From becoming a grandee afterward, he specially received a border-less sacrifice, the ritual exceeds the ancient Emperors, the honors surpass Tāng and Wǔ, and can be said to be esteemed enlightenment repay virtue, there is no need to again increase sacrifices to the unrelated.” (1)


  • (1) Your Servant Sōngzhī believes: Mèng Kē’s quoted Zǎi Wǒ’s statement saying: “By my observation of the master, he was worthier than Yáo and Shùn by far.” He also said: “From the birth of humanity onward, there has never been one greater than Kǒng-zǐ.” Is this not an understanding worthy’s maxim, a consulting comparison’s standard? Though the extremities of ingenuity are the same, ten thousand sages are like one, yet extravagance and meagerness are different in time, character and culture are distinct in use. Some in their own time were glorious, and when they died it ended. Therefore the leaving of legacy, indeed has their thick and shallow. If then one comprehends Heaven and Man, leaves speech to pass down as regulation, that of a Hundred Kings none are able to violate, order and coherence provided in it and established, truly it is still one person and nothing more. Zhōu compared to its two predecessors, its culture was more magnificent. However in the principles of the six classics, it could not reach their refinement. Moreover when a sagely worthy does not appear for years of five hundred, cultivation declines away, statutes are lost, so if at that time there was no Kǒng school, then Zhōu’s canon would almost be vanished. The ability to radiate the way of the former kings, to achieve an achievement for all ages, level Heaven and Earth without end, as sun and moon forever shining, how did he not surpass the various sages? Lín was without the Scribe [Sīmǎ] Qiān’s sincerity of thorough thought or Méi Zhēn’s ardent will, but held to his narrow heart to block enlightened understanding, it can be said his lack of understanding of capacity is greatly seen.

  〔一〕 臣松之以為孟軻稱宰我之辭曰:「以予觀夫子,賢於堯舜遠矣。」又曰:「生民以來,未有盛於孔子者也。」斯非通賢之格言,商較之定準乎!雖妙極則同,萬聖猶一,然淳薄異時,質文殊用,或當時則榮,沒則已焉,是以遺風所被,寔有深淺。若乃經緯天人,立言垂制,百王莫之能違,彝倫資之以立,誠一人而已耳。周監二代,斯文為盛。然於六經之道,未能及其精致。加以聖賢不興,曠年五百,道化陵夷,憲章殆滅,若使時無孔門,則周典幾乎息矣。夫能光明先王之道,以成萬世之功,齊天地之無窮,等日月之久照,豈不有踰於群聖哉?林曾無史遷洞想之誠,梅真慷慨之志,而守其蓬心以塞明義,可謂多見其不知量也。

Emperor Míng also divided Lín’s fief, enfeoffing one son as a Ranked Marquis. Zhèngshǐ Fifth Year [244] died, posthumous name Xiào-hóu “Filial Marquis.” His son Shù succeeded. (1)


  • (1) Jìn Zhūgōng zàn states: Shù’s younger brother Suí was a Jìn Secretariat Documents Deputy Director. As a man he was bright and relieving. When the King of Zhào [Sīmǎ] Lún seized the throne, Suí served him. When [Sīmǎ] Lún was defeated, Suí also was deposed and died. Lín’s grandson Wěi by nature was rash and negligent, reached Heir-Apparent’s Right Guard Leader. Previously, Lín noted and promoted his same prefecture’s Wáng Jīng from among the civilians, he died as a famed servicemen, and the world because of this praised him.

  〔一〕 晉諸公贊曰:述弟隨,晉尚書僕射。為人亮濟。趙王倫篡位,隨與其事。倫敗,隨亦廢錮而卒。林孫瑋,性率而疏,至太子右衛率也。初,林識拔同郡王經於民伍之中,卒為名士,世以此稱之。

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