(24.2) Cuī Lín 崔林 [Dérú 德儒]

Cuī Lín appellation Dérú was a Qīnghé Dōngwǔchéng man. When he was young he was late to mature, in his clan none knew of him, only his elder cousin [Cuī] Yǎn was impressed with him. When Tǎizǔ settled Jì province, he summoned and sent him out as Wū chief, he was poor and without carriage or horses, and alone walked to office. When Tàizǔ campaigned against Húguān, he asked who of the chief clerks had the most virtuous government, Bìng province Inspector Zhāng Zhì answered with [Cuī] Lín, therefore he was selected out to be Jì province Registrar, transferred to Separate Harness, Chancellor’s Official Associate. When Wèi state was established, he was summoned as Censorate Internal Deputy.

  崔林字德儒,清河東武城人也。少時晚成,宗族莫知,惟從兄琰異之。太祖定冀州,召除鄔長,貧無車馬,單步之官。太祖征壺關,問長吏德政最者,并州刺史張陟以林對,於是擢為冀州主簿,徙署別駕、丞相掾屬。魏國既建,稍遷御史中丞。


When Emperor Wén [Cáo Pī] ascended the throne, he was appointed Secretariat Documenter, sent out as Yōu province Inspector. North Internal Cadet General Wú Zhì presided the Hé’s north’s military affairs, Zhuō prefecture Administrator Wáng Xióng spoke of Lín to his Separate Harness saying: “Internal Cadet General Wú, is closely valued by the Ascended, the state’s noble minister. Holding staff to preside affairs, in the provinces and prefectures none do not present letters paying respect, but he with his governorship Cuī at first did not hear of each other. If the border fortresses are not repaired and they behead you, how would his governorship be able to protect you?” The Separate Harness told all this to Lín, Lín said: “An Inspector looks upon leaving the province like taking off shoes, how can they be bound to one another? This province borders the Hú caitiffs, and should subdue them with tranquility, if it disturbs them then it moves their rebellious hearts, and will specially for the country great a northern worry to look after, may you pass this message.” He was in office for one year, and the banditry and theft ceased, (1) yet as he did not serve his superiors, he was demoted to Héjiān Administrator, and in pure discussion many complained for Lín. (2)

  文帝踐阼,拜尚書,出為幽州刺史。北中郎將吳質統河北軍事,涿郡太守王雄謂林別駕曰:「吳中郎將,上所親重,國之貴臣也。仗節統事,州郡莫不奉牋致敬,而崔使君初不與相聞。若以邊塞不脩斬卿,使君寧能護卿邪?」別駕具以白林,林曰:「刺史視去此州如脫屣,寧當相累邪?此州與胡虜接,宜鎮之以靜,擾之則動其逆心,特為國家生北顧憂,以此為寄。」在官一期,寇竊寢息;〔一〕猶以不事上司,左遷河閒太守,清論多為林怨也。〔二〕

  • (1) Citing Wáng Shìpǔ: Xióng appellation Yuánbó was of Grand Protector [Wáng] Xiáng’s clan.
  • Wèi Míngchénzòu records Āndìng Administrator Mèng Dá’s recommendation of Xióng stating: “I your servant have heard that the enlightened lord takes seeking worthies as his enterprise, loyal ministers takes advancing the good as their action, and therefore the says: ‘pulling out grasses links to the roots,’ the Zhuàn states: ‘Elect those known.’ Your servant cannot measure oneself, but humbly admires this meaning. Your servant in the past because personnel were few, erroneously filled department duty. At the time Zhuō prefecture Administrator Wáng Xióng was West Division Attending Official, with your servant sharing office. [Wáng] Xióng’s natural character is good and firm, resolute and with planning. He successively was tested in three counties, government was achieved and people were harmonious. Reaching to nearby duties, he served and spread authority and kindness, embracing conciliation with technique, pure and cautious in upholding law. Your servant in former years was sent out as an envoy, and passed by [Wáng] Xióng’s prefecture. I personally said I specially received Your Majesty’s grace of selection for promotion, always encouraged integrity with elite heart, thinking of devoting life to action, words incited and raised, emotions devoted and sorrowful. Though your servant is foolish and ignorant, not knowing true or false, I will say [Wáng] Xióng is talented in both the civil and military, has loyal and ardent nature, surpassing his class. Now Zhuō prefecture governs households of three thousand, orphaned and widowed families occupy half, the north has the firmness of defending troops and screen guards, truly not sufficient to extend [Wáng] Xióng’s intelligence and strength, and exhibit his diligence and ability. Your servant has received deep favor, with nothing to repay the state, and cannot bear this anxious and shallow feeling, and solemnly explain what I hear.”
  • Imperial Order said: “In the past Xiāo Hé recommended Hán Xìn, Dèng Yǔ advanced Wú Hàn; only worthies understand worthies. [Wáng] Xióng has guts and wisdom, technical ability, and civil and martial disposition, and I have formerly known of this. Now when there is a selection for an attending cavalier, to have one young below my gates to known and direct return, I then greatly employ him. The servicemen Under Heaven, to wish to have all first experience being my cavalier, and afterward be sent out to occupy provinces and prefecture, was my original intention.”
  • Xióng later became Yōu province Inspector. His son [Wáng] Hún, Liáng province Inspector. Next [son Wáng] Yì, Pacifying North General. Excellency over the Masses Ānfēng Marquis [Wáng] Róng was Hún’s son. Excellency Commandant Wǔlíng Marquis [Wáng] Yǎn and Jīng Province Inspector [Wáng] Chéng were both [Wáng] Yì’s sons.

  〔一〕 案王氏譜:雄字元伯,太保祥之宗也。魏名臣奏載安定太守孟達薦雄曰:「臣聞明君以求賢為業,忠臣以進善為效,故易稱『拔茅連茹』,傳曰『舉爾所知』。臣不自量,竊慕其義。臣昔以人乏,謬充備部職。時涿郡太守王雄為西部從事,與臣同僚。雄天性良固,果而有謀。歷試三縣,政成人和。及在近職,奉宣威恩,懷柔有術,清慎持法。臣往年出使,經過雄郡。自說特受陛下拔擢之恩,常勵節精心,思投命為效。言辭激揚,情趣款惻。臣雖愚闇,不識真偽,以謂雄才兼資文武,忠烈之性,踰越倫輩。今涿郡領戶三千,孤寡之家,參居其半,北有守兵藩衛之固,誠不足舒雄智力,展其勤幹也。臣受恩深厚,無以報國,不勝慺慺淺見之情,謹冒陳聞。」詔曰:「昔蕭何薦韓信,鄧禹進吳漢,惟賢知賢也。雄有膽智技能文武之姿,吾宿知之。今便以參散騎之選,方使少在吾門下知指歸,便大用之矣。天下之士,欲使皆先歷散騎,然後出據州郡,是吾本意也。」雄後為幽州刺史。子渾,涼州刺史。次乂,平北將軍。司徒安豐侯戎,渾之子。太尉武陵侯衍、荊州刺史澄,皆乂之子。

  • (2) Wèi Míngchénzòu records Attendant Internal Xīn Pí’s memorial stating: “In the past Huán Jiē was Secretariat Documents Director, and as Cuī Lín did not have a Secretariat Documenter’s talent, transferred him to Héjiān Administrator.”
  • It is with this biography not the same.

  〔二〕 魏名臣奏載侍中辛毗奏曰:「昔桓階為尚書令,以崔林非尚書才,遷以為河閒太守。」與此傳不同。


Promoted to Minister Herald. The Quīcí King sent his son to attend Court, the Court commended his coming from afar, and the rewards on the king were extremely generous. The other states each sent sons to come to Court, the envoys came continuously, and Lín feared of those sent some were not genuine, but expediently taking distant subordinate merchant Hú, to take advantage of connection of emissary missions, to for profit obtain seals and ribbons, and the road escort costs were increasing. It troubled the caring for the people, was providing for a matter without benefit, was by the Yí and Dí laughed at, and this was what former times suffered from. Thus he sent letter to Dùnhuáng to explain and direct, to all note the precedents of how previous ages had treated the various states generously or meagerly, to have there be standards. When Emperor Míng [Cáo Ruì] succeeded the throne, bestowed noble rank as Marquis Within the Passes, transferred to Minister of Merits, Colonel Director of Retainers. The subordinate prefectures dismissed all staff clerks that violated law and had wrongs. Lín in governing promoted sincerity, simplified and preserved major forms, and therefore.

  遷大鴻臚。龜茲王遣侍子來朝,朝廷嘉其遠至,褒賞其王甚厚。餘國各遣子來朝,閒使連屬,林恐所遣或非真的,權取疏屬賈胡,因通使命,利得印綬,而道路護送,所損滋多。勞所養之民,資無益之事,為夷狄所笑,此曩時之所患也。乃移書燉煌喻指,并錄前世待遇諸國豐約故事,使有恆常。明帝即位,賜爵關內侯,轉光祿勳、司隸校尉。屬郡皆罷非法除過員吏。林為政推誠,簡存大體,是以去後每輒見思。


Cavalier Regular Attendant Liú Shào composed Kǎokè lùn “Discussion on Examinations,” to regulate subordinate hundred officials. Lín’s comment stated: “Citing Zhōu Guān‘s examinations, their writing is provided. From Kāng-wáng on down, there was decline, this then means examination methods depend on the people. Reaching to Hàn’s end, how were the failings due to the duties of assistant officials not being numerous? Right now the army has some rustic and some lost, to equip them with regulation clauses, extend them inside and outside, to increase or decrease without standards, is assuredly difficult to unify. Moreover ten thousand articles do not spread and raise their ordering, a multitude of hairs do not organize and rouse its neck, when Gāotáo was at Yú, when Yī Yǐn was serving Yīn, the not benevolent were kept distant. The Five Emperors and Three Kings were not necessarily the same, but each governed chaos. The states: ‘Change to simplicity, and Heaven’s Under’s reasoning is obtained.’ Tàizǔ followed suitability in arranging and enlisting, and it remained to the present, without worry that they were not the laws of the ancients. One believes that the present system regulations are not lax, only holding to oneself and not failing and nothing more. If the Court Ministers are able to appoint Zhòngshān Fǔ’s heaviness, forming in the hundred enlistments, then who dares not be respectful?

  散騎常侍劉劭作考課論,制下百僚。林議曰:「案周官考課,其文備矣,自康王以下,遂以陵遲,此即考課之法存乎其人也。及漢之季,其失豈在乎佐吏之職不密哉?方今軍旅,或猥或卒,備之以科條,申之以內外,增減無常,固難一矣。且萬目不張舉其綱,眾毛不整振其領。皋陶仕虞,伊尹臣殷,不仁者遠。五帝三王未必如一,而各以治亂。易曰:『易簡,而天下之理得矣。』太祖隨宜設辟,以遺來今,不患不法古也。以為今之制度,不為疏闊,惟在守一勿失而已。若朝臣能任仲山甫之重,式是百辟,則孰敢不肅?」


Jǐngchū Inaugural Year [237], the Excellency over the Masses and Excellency of Works positions were both vacant, Cavalier Attendant Cadet Mèng Kāng recommended Lín stating: “The prime ministers are those that Heaven’s Under looks toward and imitates, and truly should be a servicemen maintaining loyalty, treading uprightness, rooted in virtue, and upholding righteousness, sufficient to be a paragon model for Within the Seas. I humbly observe Colonel Director of Retainers Cuī Lín is endowed with self-natural upright nature, embodies high elegant liberal capacity. Discussing his strengths in comparison to ancient people, in loyalty and uprightness without turn then he is of Shǐ Yú’s level, in purity and frugality and holding to word then he is of Jì Wén’s class. As Governor and Administrator of provinces and prefectures, wherever he was he governed, reaching to become outer Director, ten thousand lǐ respectful and level, truly he is a Terrace Assistant’s sublime capacity, an Imperial duty’s excellent talent.” The year after next he then became Excellency of Works, enfeoffed Ānyáng precinct Marquis, fief of six hundred households. The Three Excellencies being enfeoffed as Ranked Marquis, from Lín began. (1) Shortly after this, he was again advanced to Ānyáng village Marquis.

  景初元年,司徒、司空並缺,散騎侍郎孟康薦林曰:「夫宰相者,天下之所瞻效,誠宜得秉忠履正本德仗義之士,足為海內所師表者。竊見司隸校尉崔林,稟自然之正性,體高雅之弘量。論其所長以比古人,忠直不回則史魚之儔,清儉守約則季文之匹也。牧守州郡,所在而治,及為外司,萬里肅齊,誠台輔之妙器,袞職之良才也。」後年遂為司空,封安陽亭侯,邑六百戶。三公封列侯,自林始也。〔一〕頃之,又進封安陽鄉侯。

  • (1) Your Servant Sōngzhī believes Hàn enfeoffing a Chancellor’s fief was by Xún Yuè ridiculed. Wèi in enfeoffing the Three Excellencies, their mistake was the same.

  〔一〕 臣松之以為漢封丞相邑,為荀悅所譏。魏封三公,其失同也。


The Lǔ Chancellor sent up word: “Hàn of old established Kǒng-zǐ’s Temple, the Bāochéng Marquis by season presented sacrifices, Bìyōng [Academy] in enacting ritual, must sacrifice to former teachers, the Royal House produces grain, spring and autumn with sacrifical worship. Now Zōngshèng Marquis succession line, does not yet have mandated sacrifice ritual, it is appropriate to provide livestock, chief clerk to present worship, and honor [Kǒng-zǐ] as a noble spirit.”

Regulation had the Three Offices discuss it, Academic Scholar Fù Zhī believed: “The Chūnqiū zhuàn stating ‘Establish in the sacrificial canon’ then was referring to Kǒng-zǐ. Zōngshèng is sufficient to restore a cut off succession, manifesting flourishing virtue and that is all. As for making prominent and establishing report, esteeming enlightened virtue, then it is appropriate to do as the Lǔ Chancellor sends up.”

Lín commented believing: “Zōngshèng Marquis also by the Ruling Mandate sacrifices, so it is not that it ‘does not yet have mandate.’ Zhōu King Wǔ enfeoffed Huángdì’s Yáo’s, and Shùn’s posterity, so establishing the Three Respects. Yǔ’s and Táng’s successions were not ranked at the time, and again special mandate had other offices sacrifice. Now from Zhōu-gōng on up, reaching to the Three Augusts, they are neglected and do not receive sacrifices, but the Lǐ jīng also preserves report of them. Now to alone sacrifice to Kǒng-zǐ, is because the generations are closer. From becoming a grandee afterward, he specially received a border-less sacrifice, the ritual exceeds the ancient Emperors, the honors surpass Tāng and Wǔ, and can be said to be esteemed enlightenment repay virtue, there is no need to again increase sacrifices to the unrelated.” (1)

  魯相上言:「漢舊立孔子廟,褒成侯歲時奉祠,辟雍行禮,必祭先師,王家出穀,春秋祭祀。今宗聖侯奉嗣,未有命祭之禮,宜給牲牢,長吏奉祀,尊為貴神。」制三府議,博士傅祗以春秋傳言立在祀典,則孔子是也。宗聖適足繼絕世,章盛德耳。至於顯立言,崇明德,則宜如魯相所上。林議以為「宗聖侯亦以王命祀,不為未有命也。周武王封黃帝、堯、舜之後,及立三恪,禹、湯之世,不列于時,復特命他官祭也。今周公已上,達於三皇,忽焉不祀,而其禮經亦存其言。今獨祀孔子者,以世近故也。以大夫之後,特受無疆之祀,禮過古帝,義踰湯、武,可謂崇明報德矣,無復重祀於非族也。」〔一〕

  • (1) Your Servant Sōngzhī believes: Mèng Kē’s quoted Zǎi Wǒ’s statement saying: “By my observation of the master, he was worthier than Yáo and Shùn by far.” He also said: “From the birth of humanity onward, there has never been one greater than Kǒng-zǐ.” Is this not an understanding worthy’s maxim, a consulting comparison’s standard? Though the extremities of ingenuity are the same, ten thousand sages are like one, yet extravagance and meagerness are different in time, character and culture are distinct in use. Some in their own time were glorious, and when they died it ended. Therefore the leaving of legacy, indeed has their thick and shallow. If then one comprehends Heaven and Man, leaves speech to pass down as regulation, that of a Hundred Kings none are able to violate, order and coherence provided in it and established, truly it is still one person and nothing more. Zhōu compared to its two predecessors, its culture was more magnificent. However in the principles of the six classics, it could not reach their refinement. Moreover when a sagely worthy does not appear for years of five hundred, cultivation declines away, statutes are lost, so if at that time there was no Kǒng school, then Zhōu’s canon would almost be vanished. The ability to radiate the way of the former kings, to achieve an achievement for all ages, level Heaven and Earth without end, as sun and moon forever shining, how did he not surpass the various sages? Lín was without the Scribe [Sīmǎ] Qiān’s sincerity of thorough thought or Méi Zhēn’s ardent will, but held to his narrow heart to block enlightened understanding, it can be said his lack of understanding of capacity is greatly seen.

  〔一〕 臣松之以為孟軻稱宰我之辭曰:「以予觀夫子,賢於堯舜遠矣。」又曰:「生民以來,未有盛於孔子者也。」斯非通賢之格言,商較之定準乎!雖妙極則同,萬聖猶一,然淳薄異時,質文殊用,或當時則榮,沒則已焉,是以遺風所被,寔有深淺。若乃經緯天人,立言垂制,百王莫之能違,彝倫資之以立,誠一人而已耳。周監二代,斯文為盛。然於六經之道,未能及其精致。加以聖賢不興,曠年五百,道化陵夷,憲章殆滅,若使時無孔門,則周典幾乎息矣。夫能光明先王之道,以成萬世之功,齊天地之無窮,等日月之久照,豈不有踰於群聖哉?林曾無史遷洞想之誠,梅真慷慨之志,而守其蓬心以塞明義,可謂多見其不知量也。


Emperor Míng also divided Lín’s fief, enfeoffing one son as a Ranked Marquis. Zhèngshǐ Fifth Year [244] died, posthumous name Xiào-hóu “Filial Marquis.” His son Shù succeeded. (1)

  明帝又分林邑,封一子列侯。正始五年薨,諡曰孝侯。子述嗣。〔一〕

  • (1) Jìn Zhūgōng zàn states: Shù’s younger brother Suí was a Jìn Secretariat Documents Deputy Director. As a man he was bright and relieving. When the King of Zhào [Sīmǎ] Lún seized the throne, Suí served him. When [Sīmǎ] Lún was defeated, Suí also was deposed and died. Lín’s grandson Wěi by nature was rash and negligent, reached Heir-Apparent’s Right Guard Leader. Previously, Lín noted and promoted his same prefecture’s Wáng Jīng from among the civilians, he died as a famed servicemen, and the world because of this praised him.

  〔一〕 晉諸公贊曰:述弟隨,晉尚書僕射。為人亮濟。趙王倫篡位,隨與其事。倫敗,隨亦廢錮而卒。林孫瑋,性率而疏,至太子右衛率也。初,林識拔同郡王經於民伍之中,卒為名士,世以此稱之。

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