(56.4) Zhū Huán 朱桓 [Xiūmù 休穆]

son Yì 異 [Jìwén 季文]

Zhū Huán appellation Xiūmù was a Wú prefecture Wú [county] man. When Sūn Quán became a General, Huán was his Dispensing Affairs Tent Office, sent out as Yúyáo Chief. He went and encountered plague, grain and food was scarce and expensive, Huán divided his division’s good officials to personally give out medicine, provisions and porridge in succession, the servicemen and civilians were moved in gratitude for this. Promoted to Washing away Bandits Colonel, awarded troops of two thousand men, sent to organize Wú and Kuài two prefectures to gather together the lost and scattered, and within a year he obtained over ten thousand people. Later Dānyáng and Póyáng mountain bandits swarmed and rose, attacking and destroying cit walls, killing and plundering the chief officials, everywhere garrisoning and gathering. Huán commanded and led the various officers, traveling around and suppressing, and in answer all were pacified and settled. Gradually promoted to Secondary General, enfeoffed Xīnchéng precinct marquis.


Later he succeeded Zhōu Tài as Rúxū Commander. Huángwǔ Inaugural Year [222], Wèi sent Marshal-in-Chief Cáo Rén with infantry and cavalry of several tens of thousand toward Rúxū, Rén wished to with troops attack and capture the province’s upstream, feigning in advance a raise of noise of wishing to go east to attack Xiànxī. Huán divided troops to go to Xiànxī, had set out, and suddenly obtained report Rén had advanced army to resist Rúxū at seventy lǐ away. Huán sent envoy to call back the Xiànxī troops, the troops had not yet arrived when Rén suddenly arrived.

At the time Huán’s at hand and division troops present were five thousand men, the various officers were apprehensive, each having fearful heart, Huán explained to them saying: “Whenever two armies meet and oppose, victory or defeat is on the commander, not on whether many or few. You sirs in hearing of how Cáo Rén uses troops and deploys armies, how can he compare to me Huán? What military methods calls ‘guests are multi-fold but hosts are half,’ is speaking of being on open fields, without defenses of walls and moats, and also speaking of the comparison of whether soldiers are valorous or timid. Now the man is not wise or valorous, and moreover their soldiers are extremely timid, and also have marched and waded a thousand lǐ, their men and horses are exhausted, I Huán with the various armies together occupy high walls, to the south overlooking the great Jiāng, to the north backed against mountains and hills, at ease waiting for the exhausted, as host controlling guests, this is a situation of a hundred victories in a hundred battles. Even if Cáo Pī personally came, it still would not be enough to worry about, all the more for Rén and the rest!”

Huán therefore hid banners and drums, outside showing weakness, to entice and draw out [Cáo] Rén. [Cáo] Rén indeed sent his son [Cáo] Tài to attack Rúxū city, separately sending General Cháng Diāo to command Zhūgě Qián and Wáng Shuāng and others to ride oil ships to separately attack the center islets. The center islets was where the division retainers’ wives and children were located. [Cáo] Rén personally commanded ten thousand men to remain at Tuógāo, again being the rear support for [Cáo] Tài and the rest. Huán’s division troops were about to attack and capture the oil ships, some separately struck [Cháng] Diāo and the rest, Huán and the rest personally resisted [Cáo] Tài, burning camps and driving away, and therefore beheaded [Cháng] Diāo, capturing alive [Wáng] Shuāng, sending him to Wǔchāng, and overlooking the battle lines those cut down and drowned, the dead were over a thousand. [Sūn] Quán commended Huán’s achievement, enfeoffing as Jiāxīng marquis, promoted Exerting Warfare General, designate Péngchéng Chancellor.


Huángwǔ Seventh Year [228], Póyáng Administrator Zhōu Fáng deceived and enticed Wèi Marshal-in-Chief Cáo Xiū, Xiū commanded infantry and cavalry of a hundred thousand to reach Huánchéng to welcome [Zhōu] Fáng. At the time Lù Xùn was the primary commander, Quán Cóng with Huán were the left and right commanders, each commanding thirty thousand men to strike [Cáo] Xiū, [Cáo] Xiū knew he had been cheated, was about to lead the army back, but self-confident in his numbers, sought a decisive battle. Huán advanced a strategy saying: “[Cáo] Xiū originally due to being a relative met with employment, he is not a wise or valorous famed officer. Now in battle he will certainly be defeated, in defeat he will certainly flee, in fleeing he will go through Jiāshí and Guàchē, these two roads are both rugged defiles, if we with ten thousand troops cut off the road, then their forces can be wiped out, and [Cáo] Xiū can be captured alive, I your servant request to command my division to cut them off. If immersed in heavenly prestige, I can capture Xiū as service, and then can follow up on victory to charge ahead, advancing to capture Shòuchūn, cut away and take Huáinán, to plan against Xǔ and Luò. This is a chance out of ten thousand ages, and cannot be lost.” [Sūn] Quán first with Lù Xùn discussed, [Lù] Xùn believed it could not be, and therefore the strategy was not enacted.


Huánglóng Inaugural Year [229], appointed Huán as Front General, designate Qīng province Governor, Lent Staff. Jiāhé Sixth Year [237], Wèi Lújiāng Registrar Lǚ Xí requested the main army welcome him, wishing to open the gates as answer. Huán with Guard General Quán Cóng together with the armies welcomed. They arrived, the matter leaked, the army was about to return, outside the city there was a creek river, from the city walls by one lǐ, width over thirty zhàng, depth eight to nine chǐ, the shallows half of this, the various armies reined troops to cross and leave, Huán personally cutting off the rear. At the time Lújiāng Administrator Lǐ Yīng organized strict troops and cavalry, wishing to wait for the various armies to cross halfway and then pressure and strike them. When he saw Huán’s staff and canopy at the rear, the troops did not dare go out, he met with dread like this.


At the time Quán Cóng was the commander, [Sūn] Quán also ordered Assistant General Hú Zōng to announce and pass on Imperial Order mandates and advise on military affairs. [Quán] Cóng because the army had gone out without gains, discussed wishes to divide the various officers for a surprise attack. Huán by nature in air was lofty, was shamed to meet division subordinates, and so went to meet [Quán] Cóng to ask the meaning of the actions, emotions were roused and he became angry, and with [Quán] Cóng disputed strategies. [Quán] Cóng wished to personally resolve it and therefore said: “The Ascended personally ordered Hú Zōng to be commander, [Hú] Zōng’s thinking believes it appropriate.” Huán became all the more angered and hateful, returned and then sent someone to call on [Hú] Zōng. [Hú] Zōng arrived at the army gates, Huán went out to welcome him, looked back and said to his left and right attendants: “I will release my hands [on Hú Zōng], you all each yourselves leave.” There was one person that on the side went out, and spoke to [Hú] Zōng to cause him to return. Huán went out, did not meet [Hú] Zōng, knew it was his left and right attendants’ doing, and therefore chopped and killed them. Huán’s Assistant to the Army advanced to remonstrate, he stabbed and killed the Assistant to the Army, and therefore claimed insanity, and went to Jiànyè to treat his illness. [Sūn] Quán cherished his achievements and ability, and therefore did not punish him. (1) He sent his son [Zhū] Yì to take over command of his division retainers, ordered a doctor to look over him, in several moons he again went to return to the central islets. [Sūn] Quán personally went out on the road to send him off, saying: “Now the bandit caitiffs still survive, the king’s road is not yet unified, I will with you together settle Heaven’s Under, and wish to have you command fifty thousand men to specially face one side, to plot for advancing and capturing, and hope your illness will not relapse.” Huán said: “Heaven awarded Your Majesty with sagely disposition, to rule and overlook the Four Seas, if you heavily entrust me, your servant, to remove the treacherous rebels, your servant’s illness will on its own heal.” (2)


  • (1) Sūn Shèng states: The Shū says servants are without creation of authority or creation of fortune, to create authority or create fortune then is viciousness to the family, harm to the state. Huán’s treacherous cruelty was like a tiger’s or wolf’s, a ruler of men yet could not be like this, all the more for an officer or minister. The says, to obtain one man and so lose one state, indulging in punishment and deficient in penalties, the losses are so great!

〔一〕 孫盛曰:書云臣無作威作福,作威作福,則凶于而家,害于而國。桓之賊忍,殆虎狼也,人君且猶不可,況將相乎?語曰,得一夫而失一國,縱罪虧刑,失孰大焉!

  • (2) Wúlù states: Huán saluted with goblet saying: “Your servant is about to go far away, and hope for one stroke of Your Majesty’s beard, to have no regrets.” [Sūn] Quán stepped over table in front of the mat, Huán advanced ahead and stroked his beard saying: “Your servant today truly can be said to have stroked a tiger’s whiskers [translator’s note: ‘to stroke a tiger’s whiskers’ is an idiom for being very daring].” [Sūn] Quán greatly laughed.

〔二〕 吳錄曰:桓奉觴曰:「臣當遠去,願一捋陛下鬚,無所復恨。」權馮几前席,桓進前捋鬚曰:「臣今日真可謂捋虎鬚也。」權大笑。

Huán by nature held to being foremost, was shamed to be below others, every time in overlooking the enemy and meeting in battle, if he was restrained and could not do as he wished, at once he would be enraged and indignant. However he thought little of wealth and valued righteousness, and also had strong memory. When he met someone once, for several tens of years he would not forget him, and his division retainers of ten thousand people, their wives and children he completely remembered. He favored and cared for officials and soldiers, provided for the six relations, his salary and estate he all shared together. When Huán’s illness was serious, the whole camp worried and grieved. Aged sixty-two, Chìwū Inaugural Year [238] he died. Of the officials and soldiers and males and females, none did not cry out. Also his family was without surplus wealth, [Sūn] Quán bestowed five thousand hú to provide for the funeral affairs. His son Yì succeeded.


Yì appellation Jìwén, due to his father was appointed and sent out as a cadet, (1) later appointed Cavalry Commandant, succeeding Huán’s command of troops. Chìwū Fourth Year [241] he accompanied Zhū Rán in attacking Wèi’s Fánchéng, established plan to break their outer encirclement, returned and was appointed Assistant General. Wèi’s Lújiāng Administrator Wén Qīn’s camp stationed Lù’ān, setting up many garrisons and camps, installed on the various road critical points, to entice deserters and rebels, to plunder and harm the borders. Yì then personally led his at hand two thousand people, surprising and destroying [Wén] Qīn’s seven garrisons, beheading several hundred, promoted to Raising Warfare General. [Sūn] Quán with him discussed attacking and battles, his answers pleased his thinking. [Sūn] Quán said to Yì’s cousin’s father Elite Cavalry General [Zhū] Jù: “Originally I knew Jìwén’s guts were firm, meeting him he further surpassed what was heard.” Thirteenth Year [250], Wén Qīn feigned surrender, secretly writing letter to Yì, wishing to have him personally welcome. Yì memorialized and presented [Wén] Qīn’s letter, and therefore explained its falseness, and it could not be easily welcomed. [Sūn] Quán’s Imperial Order said: “Right now the northern lands are not yet unified, [Wén] Qīn says he wishes to submit to our mandate, and it is appropriate to welcome him. If you suspect there is deception, yet you should establish a plan to net and catch him, merely with vigorous heavy troops to guard against him.” Thus sent Lǚ Jù to command twenty thousand men, to with Yì join strength, reached the northern border, [Wén] Qīn indeed did not surrender.

Jiànxīng Inaugural Year [252], promoted to Defending South General. That year Wèi sent Hú Zūn, Zhūgě Dàn, and others to set out against Dōngxīng, Yì commanded the navy to attack the floating bridges, destroyed them, the Wèi army was greatly defeated. (2) Tàipíng Second Year [257] Lent Staff, became Commander-in-Chief, to rescue Shòuchūn’s encirclement, it was not resolved. Returned the army, and was by Sūn Chēn unjustly harmed. (3)


  • (1) Wénshì zhuàn states: Zhāng Dūn’s son Chún with Zhāng Yǎn and Yì together were children and youths, and went to meet Elite Cavalry General Zhū Jù. Jù heard the three people had talent and fame, wished to test them, and informed them saying: “I this old man have heard of you, my hunger and thirst [desire to meet you] was extreme. The steed takes rapid suddenness as achievement, the falcon takes light swiftness as wonder, thus for me each make a rhapsody on one thing, and afterward sit.” Yǎn then made a rhapsody on the dog saying: “Defending then having authority, going out then having gains, Hán Lú, Sòng Què, written names on bamboo and silk.” Chún made a rhapsody on the seating mat saying: “The mat in winter is arranged, the reed mat in summer is applied, saluting yield and then seated, the gentlemen thus should be.” Yì made a rhapsody on the crossbow saying: “The South Peaks’ lumber, Zhōng mountain’s copper, in answer the machine strikes target, taking the falcon on high wall.” The three men each following what their eyes saw made a rhapsody on it, all finished and afterward sat, Jù was greatly pleased.

〔一〕 文士傳曰:張惇子純與張儼及異俱童少,往見驃騎將軍朱據。據聞三人才名,欲試之,告曰:「老鄙相聞,飢渴甚矣。夫騕以迅驟為功,鷹隼以輕疾為妙,其為吾各賦一物,然後乃坐。」儼乃賦犬曰:「守則有威,出則有獲,韓盧、宋鵲,書名竹帛。」純賦席曰:「席以冬設,簟為夏施,揖讓而坐,君子攸宜。」異賦弩曰:「南嶽之幹,鍾山之銅,應機命中,獲隼高墉。」三人各隨其目所見而賦之,皆成而後坐,據大歡悅。

  • (2) Wú shū states: Yì also accompanied Zhūgě Kè in besieging Xīnchéng, the city was not taken, Yì and the rest all said it was appropriate to quickly return to Yùzhāng, attack Shítóu city, and within a few days it could be taken. Kè in a letter replied to Yì, Yì threw the letter to the ground saying: “To not use my plan, but use a petty fellow’s words!” Kè was greatly furious, immediately took away his troops, and so he was deposed and returned to Jiànyè.

〔二〕 吳書曰:異又隨諸葛恪圍新城,城既不拔,異等皆言宜速還豫章,襲石頭城,不過數日可拔。恪以書曉異,異投書於地曰:「不用我計,而用傒子言!」恪大怒,立奪其兵,遂廢還建業。

  • (3) Wú shū states: Chēn demanded Yì meet with him, he was about to go, feared Lù Kàng would stop him, Yì said: “Zǐtōng if a family member, what is there to suspect?” Therefore he went. Chēn had strong people on the seats capture him. Yì said: “I am Wú state’s loyal servant, what crime do I have?” Then pulled out and killed him.

〔三〕 吳書曰:綝要異相見,將往,恐陸抗止之,異曰:「子通,家人耳,當何所疑乎!」遂往。綝使力人於坐上取之。異曰:「我吳國忠臣,有何罪乎?」乃拉殺之。

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