(56.4) Zhū Huán 朱桓 [Xiūmù 休穆]

son Yì 異 [Jìwén 季文]


Zhū Huán appellation Xiūmù was a Wú prefecture Wú [county] man. When Sūn Quán became a General, Huán was his Dispensing Affairs Tent Office, sent out as Yúyáo Chief. He went and encountered plague, grain and food was scarce and expensive, Huán divided his division good officials to personally give out medicine, provisions and porridge in succession, the servicemen and civilians were moved in gratitude for this. Promoted to Washing away Bandits Colonel, awarded troops of two thousand men, sent to organize Wú and Kuài two prefectures to gather together the lost and scattered, and within a year he obtained over ten thousand people. Later Dānyáng and Póyáng mountain bandits swarmed and rose, attacking and destroying cit walls, killing and plundering the chief officials, everywhere garrisoning and gathering. Huán commanded and led the various officers, traveling around and suppressing, and in answer all were pacified and settled. GRadually promoted to Secondary General, enfeoffed Xīnchéng precinct marquis.

朱桓字休穆,吳郡吳人也。孫權為將軍,桓給事幕府,除餘姚長。往遇疫癘,穀食荒貴,桓分部良吏,隱親醫藥,飧粥相繼,士民感戴之。遷盪寇校尉,授兵二千人,使部伍吳、會二郡,鳩合遺散,期年之閒,得萬餘人。後丹楊、鄱陽山賊蜂起,攻沒城郭,殺略長吏,處處屯聚。桓督領諸將,周旋赴討,應皆平定。稍遷裨將軍,封新城亭侯。


Later he succeeded Zhōu Tài as Rúxū Commander. Huángwǔ Inaugural Year [222], Wèi sent Marshal-in-Chief Cáo Rén with infantry and cavalry of several tens of thousand toward Rúxū, Rén wished to with troops attack and capture the province’s upstream, feigning in advance a raise of noise of wishing to go east to attack Xiànxī. Huán divided troops to go to Xiànxī, had set out, and suddenly obtained report Rén had advanced army to resist Rúxū at seventy lǐ away. Huán sent envoy to call back the Xiànxī troops, the troops had not yet arrived when Rén suddenly arrived.

At the time Huán’s at hand and division troops present were five thousand men, the various officers were apprehensive, each having fearful heart, Huán explained to them saying: “Whenver two armies meet and oppose, victory or defeat is on the commander, not on whether many or few. You sirs in hearing of how Cáo Rén uses troops and deploys armies, how can he compare to me Huán? What military methods calls ‘guests are multi-fold but hosts are half,’ is speaking of being on open fields, without defenses of walls and moats, and also speaking of the comparison of whether soldiers are valorous or timid. Now the man is not wise or valorous, and moreover their soldiers are extremely timid, and also have marched and waded a thousand lǐ, their men and horses are exhausted, I Huán with the various armies together occupy high walls, to the south overlooking the great Jiāng, to the north backed against mountains and hills, at ease waiting for the exhausted, as host controlling guests this is a situation of a hundred victories in a hundred battles. Even if Cáo Pī personally came, it still would not be enough to worry about, all the more for Rén and the rest!”

Huán therefore hid banners and drums, outside showing weakness, to entice and draw out [Cáo] Rén. [Cáo] Rén indeed sent his son [Cáo] Tài to attack Rúxū city, separately sending General Cháng Diāo to command Zhūgě Qián and Wáng Shuāng and others to ride oil ships to separately attack the center islets. The center islets was where the division retainers’ wives and children were located. [Cáo] Rén personally commanded ten thousand men to remain at Tuógāo, again being the rear support for [Cáo] Tài and the rest. Huán’s division troops were about to attack and capture the oil ships, some separately struck [Cháng] Diāo and the rest, Huán and the rest personally resisted [Cáo] Tài, burning camps and driving away, and therefore beheaded [Cháng] Diāo, capturing alive [Wáng] Shuāng, sending him to Wǔchāng, and overlooking the battle lines those cut down and drowned, the dead were over a thousand. [Sūn] Quán commended Huán’s achievement, enfeoffing as Jiāxīng marquis, promoted Exerting Warfare General, designate Péngchéng Chancellor.

後代周泰為濡須督。黃武元年,魏使大司馬曹仁步騎數萬向濡須,仁欲以兵襲取州上,偽先揚聲,欲東攻羨溪。桓分兵將赴羨溪,既發,卒得仁進軍拒濡須七十里問。桓遣使追還羨溪兵,兵未到而仁奄至。時桓手下及所部兵,在者五千人,諸將業業,各有懼心,桓喻之曰:「凡兩軍交對,勝負在將,不在眾寡。諸君聞曹仁用兵行師,孰與桓邪?兵法所以稱客倍而主人半者,謂俱在平原,無城池之守,又謂士眾勇怯齊等故耳。今人既非智勇,加其士卒甚怯,又千里步涉,人馬罷困,桓與諸軍,共據高城,南臨大江,北背山陵,以逸待勞,為主制客,此百戰百勝之勢也。雖曹丕自來,尚不足憂,況仁等邪!」桓因偃旗鼓,外示虛弱,以誘致仁。仁果遣其子泰攻濡須城,分遣將軍常雕督諸葛虔、王雙等,乘油船別襲中洲。中洲者,部曲妻子所在也。仁自將萬人留橐皋,復為泰等後拒。桓部兵將攻取油船,或別擊雕等,桓等身自拒泰,燒營而退,遂梟雕,生虜雙,送武昌,臨陳斬溺,死者千餘。權嘉桓功,封嘉興侯,遷奮武將軍,領彭城相。


Huángwǔ Seventh Year [228], Póyáng Administrator Zhōu Fáng deceived and enticed Wèi Marshal-in-Chief Cáo Xiū, Xiū commanded infantry and cavalry of a hundred thousand to reach Huánchéng to welcome [Zhōu] Fáng. At the time Lù Xùn was the primary commander, Quán Cóng with Huán were the left and right commanders, each commanding thirty thousand men to strike [Cáo] Xiū, [Cáo] Xiū knew he had been cheated, was about to lead the army back, but self-confident in his numbers, sought a decisive battle. Huán advanced a strategy saying: “[Cáo] Xiū originally due to being a relative met with employment, he is not a wise or valorous famed officer. Now in battle he will certainly be defeated, in defeat he will certainly flee, in fleeing he will go through Jiāshí and Guàchē, these two roads are both rugged defiles, if we with ten thousand troops cut off the road, then their forces can be wiped out, and [Cáo] Xiū can be captured alive, I your servant request to command my division to cut them off. If immersed in heavenly prestige, I can capture Xiū as service, and then can follow up on victory to charge ahead, advancing to capture Shòuchūn, cut away and take Huáinán, to plan against Xǔ and Luò. This is a chance out of ten thousand ages, and cannot be lost.” [Sūn] Quán first with Lù Xùn discussed, [Lù] Xùn believed it could not be, and therefore the strategy was not enacted.

黃武七年,鄱陽太守周魴譎誘魏大司馬曹休,休將步騎十萬至皖城以迎魴。時陸遜為元帥,全琮與桓為左右督,各督三萬人擊休。休知見欺,當引軍還,自負眾盛,邀於一戰。桓進計曰:「休本以親戚見任,非智勇名將也。今戰必敗,敗必走,走當由夾石、挂車,此兩道皆險阨,若以萬兵柴路,則彼眾可盡,而休可生虜,臣請將所部以斷之。若蒙天威,得以休自效,便可乘勝長驅,進取壽春,割有淮南,以規許、洛,此萬世一時,不可失也。」權先與陸遜議,遜以為不可,故計不施行。


Huánglóng Inaugural Year [229], appointed Huán as Front General, designate Qīng province Governor, Lent Staff. Jiāhé Sixth Year [237], Wèi Lújiāng Registrar Lǚ Xí requested the main army welcome him, wishing to open the gates as answer. Huán with Guard General Quán Cóng together with the armies welcomed. They arrived, the matter leaked, the army was about to return, outside the city there was a creek river, from the city walls by one lǐ, width over thirty zhàng, depth eight to nine chǐ, the shallows half of this, the various armies reined troops to cross and leave, Huán personally cutting off the rear. At the time Lújiāng Administrator Lǐ Yīng organized strict troops and cavalry, wishing to wait for the various armies to cross halfway and then pressure and strike them. When he saw Huán’s staff and canopy at the rear, the troops did not dare go out, he met with dread like this.

黃龍元年,拜桓前將軍,領青州牧,假節。嘉禾六年,魏廬江主簿呂習請大兵自迎,欲開門為應。桓與衛將軍全琮俱以師迎。既至,事露,軍當引還。城外有溪水,去城一里所,廣三十餘丈,深者八九尺,淺者半之,諸軍勒兵渡去,桓自斷後。時廬江太守李膺整嚴兵騎,欲須諸軍半渡,因迫擊之。及見桓節蓋在後,卒不敢出,其見憚如此。


At the time Quán Cóng was the commander, [Sūn] Quán also ordered Assistant General Hú Zōng to announce and pass on Imperial Order mandates and advise on military affairs. [Quán] Cóng because the army had gone out without gains, discussed wishes to divide the various officers for a surprise attack. Huán by nature in air was lofty, was shamed to meet division subordinates, and so went to meet [Quán] Cóng to ask the meaning of the actions, emotions were roused and he became angry, and with [Quán] Cóng disputed strategies. [Quán] Cóng wished to personally resolve it and therefore said: “The Ascended personally ordered Hú Zōng to be commander, [Hú] Zōng’s thinking believes it appropriate.” Huán became all the more angered and hateful, returned and then sent someone to call on [Hú] Zōng. [Hú] Zōng arrived at the army gates, Huán went out to welcome him, looked back and said to his left and right attendants: “I will release my hands [on Hú Zōng], you all each yourselves leave.” There was one person that on the side went out, and spoke to [Hú] Zōng to cause him to return. Huán went out, did not meet [Hú] Zōng, knew it was his left and right attendants’ doing, and therefore chopped and killed them. Huán’s Assistant to the Army advanced to remonstrate, he stabbed and killed the Assistant to the Army, and therefore claimed insanity, and went to Jiànyè to treat his illness. [Sūn] Quán cherished his achievements and ability, and therefore did not punish him. (1) He sent his son [Zhū] Yì to take over command of his division retainers, ordered a doctor to look over him, in several moons he again went to return to the central islets. [Sūn] Quán personally went out on the road to send him off, saying: “Now the bandit caitiffs still survive, the king’s road is not yet unified, I will with you together settle Heaven’s Under, and wish to have you command fifty thousand men to specially face one side, to plot for advancing and capturing, and hope your illness will not relapse.” Huán said: “Heaven awarded Your Majesty with sagely disposition, to rule and overlook the Four Seas, if you heavily entrust me, your servant, to remove the treacherous rebels, your servant’s illness will on its own heal.” (2)

是時全琮為督,權又令偏將軍胡綜宣傳詔命,參與軍事。琮以軍出無獲,議欲部分諸將,有所掩襲。桓素氣高,恥見部伍,乃往見琮,問行意,感激發怒,與琮校計。琮欲自解,因曰:「上自令胡綜為督,綜意以為宜爾。」桓愈恚恨,還乃使人呼綜。綜至軍門,桓出迎之,顧謂左右曰:「我縱手,汝等各自去。」有一人旁出,語綜使還。桓出,不見綜,知左右所為,因斫殺之。桓佐軍進諫,刺殺佐軍,遂託狂發,詣建業治病。權惜其功能,故不罪。〔一〕使子異攝領部曲,令醫視護,數月復遣還中洲。權自出祖送,謂曰:「今寇虜尚存,王塗未一,孤當與君共定天下,欲令君督五萬人專當一面,以圖進取,想君疾未復發也。」桓曰:「天授陛下聖姿,當君臨四海,猥重任臣,以除姦逆,臣疾當自愈。」〔二〕

  • (1) Sūn Shèng states: The Shū says servants are without creation of authority or creation of fortune, to create authority or create fortune then is viciousness to the family, harm to the state. Huán’s treacherous cruelty was like a tiger’s or wolf’s, a ruler of men yet could not be like this, all the more for an officer or minister. The says, to obtain one man and so lose one state, indulge in punishment and deficient in penalties, the losses are so great!

〔一〕 孫盛曰:書云臣無作威作福,作威作福,則凶于而家,害于而國。桓之賊忍,殆虎狼也,人君且猶不可,況將相乎?語曰,得一夫而失一國,縱罪虧刑,失孰大焉!

  • (2) Wúlù states: Huán saluted with goblet saying: “Your servant is about to go far away, and hope for one stroke of Your Majesty’s beard, to have no regrets.” [Sūn] Quán stepped over table in front of the mat, Huán advanced ahead and stroked his beard saying: “Your servant today truly can be said to have stroked a tiger’s whiskers [translator’s note: to stroke a tiger’s whiskers is an idiom for being vary daring].” [Sūn] Quán greatly laughed.

〔二〕 吳錄曰:桓奉觴曰:「臣當遠去,願一捋陛下鬚,無所復恨。」權馮几前席,桓進前捋鬚曰:「臣今日真可謂捋虎鬚也。」權大笑。


Huán by nature held to being in front, was shamed to be below others, every time in overlooking the enemy and meeting in battle, if he was restrained and could not do as he wished, at once he would be enraged and indignant. However he thought little of wealth and valued righteousness, and also had strong memory. When he met someone once, for several tens of years he would not forget him, and his division retainers of ten thousand people, their wives and children he completely remembered. He favored and cared for officials and soldiers, provided for the six relations, his salary and estate he all shared together. When Huán’s illness was serious, the whole camp worried and grieved. Aged sixty-two, Chìwū Inaugural Year [238] he died. Of the officials and soldiers and males and females, none did not cry out. Also his family was without surplus wealth, [Sūn] Quán bestowed five thousand hú to provide four the funeral affairs. His son Yì succeeded.

桓性護前,恥為人下,每臨敵交戰,節度不得自由,輒嗔恚憤激。然輕財貴義,兼以彊識,與人一面,數十年不忘,部曲萬口,妻子盡識之。愛養吏士,贍護六親,俸祿產業,皆與共分。及桓疾困,舉營憂戚。年六十二,赤烏元年卒。吏士男女,無不號慕。又家無餘財,權賜鹽五千斛以周喪事。子異嗣。


Yì appellation Jìwén, due to his father was appointed and sent out as a cadet, (1) later appointed Cavalry Commandant, succeeding Huán’s command of troops. Chìwū Fourth Year [241] he accompanied Zhū Rán in attacking Wèi’s Fánchéng, established plan to break their outer encirclement, returned and was appointed Assistant General. Wèi’s Lújiāng Administrator Wén Qīn’s camp stationed Lù’ān, setting up many garrisons and camps, installed on the various road critical points, to entice deserters and rebels, to plunder and harm the borders. Yì then personally led his at hand two thousand people, surprising and destroying [Wén] Qīn’s seven garrisons, beheading several hundred, promoted to Raising Warfare General. [Sūn] Quán with him discussed attacking and battles, his answers pleased his thinking. [Sūn] Quán said to Yì’s cousin’s father Elite Cavalry General [Zhū] Jù: “Originally I knew Jìwén’s guts were firm, meeting him he further surpassed what was heard.” Thirteenth Year [250], Wén Qīn feigned surrender, secretly writing letter to Yì, wishing to have him personally welcome. Yì memorialized and presented [Wén] Qīn’s letter, and therefore explained its falseness, and it could not be easily welcomed. [Sūn] Quán’s Imperial Order said: “Right now the northern lands are not yet unified, [Wén] Qīn says he wishes to submit to our mandate, and it is appropriate to welcome him. If you suspect there is deception, yet you should establish a plan to net and catch him, merely with vigorous heavy troops to guard against him.” Thus sent Lǚ Jù to command twenty thousand men, to with Yì join strength, reached the northern border, [Wén] Qīn indeed did not surrender.

Jiànxīng Inaugural Year [252], promoted to Defending South General. That year Wèi sent Hú Zūn, Zhūgě Dàn, and others to set out against Dōngxīng, Yì commanded the navy to attack the floating bridges, destroyed them, the Wèi army was greatly defeated. (2) Tàipíng Second Year [257] Lent Staff, became Commander-in-Chief, to rescue Shòuchūn’s encirclement, it was not resolved. Returned the army, and was by Sūn Chēn unjustly harmed. (3)

異字季文,以父任除郎,〔一〕後拜騎都尉,代桓領兵。赤烏四年,隨朱然攻魏樊城,建計破其外圍,還拜偏將軍。魏廬江太守文欽營住六安,多設屯砦,置諸道要,以招誘亡叛,為邊寇害。異乃身率其手下二千人,掩破欽七屯,斬首數百,遷揚武將軍。權與論攻戰,辭對稱意。權謂異從父驃騎將軍據曰:「本知季文(懀)〔膽〕定,見之復過所聞。」十三年,文欽詐降,密書與異,欲令自迎。異表呈欽書,因陳其偽,不可便迎。權詔曰:「方今北土未一,欽云欲歸命,宜且迎之。若嫌其有譎者,但當設計網以羅之,盛重兵以防之耳。」乃遣呂據督二萬人,與異并力,至北界,欽果不降。建興元年,遷鎮南將軍。是歲魏遣胡遵、諸葛誕等出東興,異督水軍攻浮梁,壞之,魏軍大破。〔二〕太平二年,假節,為大都督,救壽春圍,不解。還軍,為孫綝所枉害。〔三〕

  • (1) Wénshì zhuàn states: Zhāng Dūn’s son Chún with Zhāng Yǎn and Yì together were children and youths, and went to meet Elite Cavalry General Zhū Jù. Jù heard the three people had talent and fame, wished to test them, and informed them saying: “I this old man have heard of you, my hunger and thirst [desire to meet you] was extreme. The steed takes rapid suddenness as achievement, the falcon takes light swiftness as wonder, thus for me each make a rhapsody on one thing, and afterward sit.” Yǎn then made a rhapsody on the dog saying: “Defending then having authority, going out then having gains, Hán Lú, Sòng Què, written names on bamboo and silk.” Chún made a rhapsody on the seating mat saying: “The mat in winter is arranged, the reed mat in summer is applied, saluting yield and then seated, the gentlemen thus should be.” Yì made a rhapsody on the crossbow saying: “The South Peaks’ lumber, Zhōng mountain’s copper, in answer the machine strikes target, taking the falcon on high wall.” The three men each following what their eyes saw made a rhapsody on it, all finished and afterward sat, Jù was greatly pleased.

〔一〕 文士傳曰:張惇子純與張儼及異俱童少,往見驃騎將軍朱據。據聞三人才名,欲試之,告曰:「老鄙相聞,飢渴甚矣。夫騕以迅驟為功,鷹隼以輕疾為妙,其為吾各賦一物,然後乃坐。」儼乃賦犬曰:「守則有威,出則有獲,韓盧、宋鵲,書名竹帛。」純賦席曰:「席以冬設,簟為夏施,揖讓而坐,君子攸宜。」異賦弩曰:「南嶽之幹,鍾山之銅,應機命中,獲隼高墉。」三人各隨其目所見而賦之,皆成而後坐,據大歡悅。

  • (2) Wú shū states: Yì also accompanied Zhūgě Kè in besieging Xīnchéng, the city was not taken, Yì and the rest all said it was appropriate to quickly return to Yùzhāng, attack Shítóu city, and within a few days it could be taken. Kè in a letter replied to Yì, Yì threw the letter to the ground saying: “To not use my plan, but use a petty fellow’s words!” Kè was greatly furious, immediately took away his troops, and so he was deposed and returned to Jiànyè.

〔二〕 吳書曰:異又隨諸葛恪圍新城,城既不拔,異等皆言宜速還豫章,襲石頭城,不過數日可拔。恪以書曉異,異投書於地曰:「不用我計,而用傒子言!」恪大怒,立奪其兵,遂廢還建業。

  • (3) Wú shū states: Chēn demanded Yì meet with him, he was about to go, feared Lù Kàng would stop him, Yì said: “Zǐtōng if a family member, what is there to suspect?” Therefore he went. Chēn had strong people on the seats capture him. Yì said: “I am Wú state’s loyal servant, what crime do I have?” Then pulled out and killed him.

〔三〕 吳書曰:綝要異相見,將往,恐陸抗止之,異曰:「子通,家人耳,當何所疑乎!」遂往。綝使力人於坐上取之。異曰:「我吳國忠臣,有何罪乎?」乃拉殺之。

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