(60.2) Quán Cóng 全琮 [Zǐhuáng 子璜]

Quán Cóng appellation Zǐhuáng was a Wú prefecture Qiántáng man. His father Róu in Hàn Emperor Líng’s time was nominated Filial and Incorrupt, filling vacancy as Secretariat Documents Cadets Right Deputy, in Dǒng Zhuó’s chaos left office and returned, the province recruited him as Separate Harness Attending Official, Imperial Order letter then appointed him Kuàijī East Division Commandant. Sūn Cè arrived at Wú, Róu raised troops to first join, Cè memorialized Róu as Dānyáng Commandant. When Sūn Quán became Chariots and Cavalry General, appointed Róu as his Chief Clerk, transferred to Guìyáng Administrator. Róu once sent Cóng to carry rice of several thousand hú to Wú, to trade in the market. Cóng arrived, scattered and used it all, and with empty boat returned. Róu was greatly furious, Cóng bowed head and said: “I foolishly believed market trading was not urgent, and the scholar officials are about to have misfortunes of collapse, and therefore recklessly gave out support, and did not send report.” Róu then was impressed with him. (1) At the time the servicemen of the central provinces fled the chaos and went south, those that relied on Cóng for housing were in the hundreds, Cóng emptied his house to give and relieve, sharing in having and lacking, and therefore his prominent name spread far and near. Later Quán appointed him Exerting Authority Colonel, awarded troops of several thousand men, sent to suppress Shānyuè. Therefore he opened recruitment, obtaining elite troops of over ten thousand men, going out to garrison Niúzhǔ, gradually promoted to Assistant General.

全琮字子璜,吳郡錢唐人也。父柔,漢靈帝時舉孝廉,補尚書郎右丞,董卓之亂,棄官歸,州辟別駕從事,詔書就拜會稽東部都尉。孫策到吳,柔舉兵先附,策表柔為丹楊都尉。孫權為車騎將軍,以柔為長史,徙桂陽太守。柔嘗使琮齎米數千斛到吳,有所市易。琮至,皆散用,空船而還。柔大怒,琮頓首曰:「愚以所市非急,而士大夫方有倒縣之患,故便振贍,不及啟報。」柔更以奇之。〔一〕是時中州士人避亂而南,依琮居者以百數,琮傾家給濟,與共有無,遂顯名遠近。後權以為奮威校尉,授兵數千人,使討山越。因開募召,得精兵萬餘人,出屯牛渚,稍遷偏將軍。

  • (1) Xú Zhòng’s comment states: By ritual, the son in serving father is without personal wealth, and also does not dare personally give out, in order to avoid infringing on superiors. To discard mandate and take control of wealth in order to seek reputation, was not exhaustive of the propriety of father and son.
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī believes: Zǐlù asked: “Have you heard of this conduct?” The master said: “There were fathers and elder brothers present.” Cóng then scattering his father’s wealth, truly was not a son’s way, however the servicemen types in spreading command, worry in morning and night, are expedient in their lightness or heaviness, to put first another’s emergency, this also was of the sort as Féng Nuǎn’s  righteousness in the market and Jí Àn’s rousing and rescuing, to completely call it seeking reputation, perhaps betrays this heart.

    〔一〕 徐眾評曰:禮,子事父無私財,又不敢私施,所以避尊上也。棄命專財而以邀名,未盡父子之禮。臣松之以為子路問「聞斯行諸」?子曰「有父兄在」。琮輒散父財,誠非子道,然士類縣命,憂在朝夕,權其輕重,以先人急,斯亦馮煖市義、汲黯振救之類,全謂邀名,或負其心。


Jiàn’ān Twenty-Fourth Year [219], Liú Bèi’s officer Guān Yǔ besieged Fán and Xiāngyáng, Cóng sent up memorial explaining a plan that [Guān] Yǔ could be suppressed, [Sūn] Quán at the time was already with Lǚ Méng secretly discussing attacking him, feared the matter had leaked, and therefore dismissed Cóng’s memorial and did not answer. Reaching to the capture of [Guān] Yǔ, [Sūn] Quán set up liquor at Gōng’ān, and turned to say to Cóng: “You previously explained this, though I did not answer it, today’s triumph also was your achievement.” Therefore enfeoffed as Yánghuá precinct marquis.

建安二十四年,劉備將關羽圍樊、襄陽,琮上疏陳羽可討之計,權時已與呂蒙陰議襲之,恐事泄,故寢琮表不答。及禽羽,權置酒公安,顧謂琮曰:「君前陳此,孤雖不相答,今日之捷,抑亦君之功也。」於是封陽華亭侯。


Huángwǔ Inaugural Year [222], Wèi with boats and army greatly set out against Dòngkǒu, [Sūn] Quán sent Lǚ Fàn to command the various officers to resist them, the army camps faced one another. The enemy repeatedly with light ships raided and struck, Cóng always wore armor and grasped weapon, looking out without rest. Shortly after this, the enemy of several thousand people set out into the Jiāng, Cóng struck and defeated them, beheading their General Yǐn Lú. Promoted Cóng to Soothing South General, advanced fief to Qiántáng marquis. Fourth Year [225], Lent Staff as designate Jiǔjiāng Administrator.

黃初元年,魏以舟軍大出洞口,權使呂範督諸將拒之,軍營相望。敵數以輕船鈔擊,琮常帶甲仗兵,伺候不休。頃之,敵數千人出江中,琮擊破之,梟其將軍尹盧。遷琮綏南將軍,進封錢唐侯。四年,假節領九江太守。


Seventh Year [228], [Sūn] Quán arrived at Huán, sent Cóng with Assisting the State General Lù Xùn to strike Cáo Xiū, defeating him at Shí’tíng. At the time Dānyáng, Wú, and Kuài’s mountain peoples repeatedly became bandits, attacking and destroying various counties. [Sūn] Quán divided the three prefecture’s rugged terrain to form Dōng’ān prefecture, Cóng designated Administrator. (1) He arrived, made clear reward and punishment, enticed surrenders and attachment, and within a few years, obtained over ten thousand people. [Sūn] Quán summoned Cóng back to Niúzhǔ, abolished Dōng’ān prefecture. (2) Huánglóng Inaugural Year [229], promoted Guard General, Left Protector of the Army, Xú province Governor, (3) bestowed a princess.

七年,權到皖,使琮與輔國將軍陸遜擊曹休,破之於石亭。是時丹楊、吳、會山民復為寇賊,攻沒屬縣,權分三郡險地為東安郡,琮領太守。〔一〕至,明賞罰,招誘降附,數年中,得萬餘人。權召琮還牛渚,罷東安郡。〔二〕黃龍元年,遷衛將軍、左護軍、徐州牧,〔三〕尚公主。

  • (1) Wú lù states: Cóng at the time governed at Fùchūn.

〔一〕 吳錄曰:琮時治富春。

  • (2) Jiāngbiǎo zhuàn states: Cóng returned, passed through Qiántáng, repaired and sacrificed to the graves, his flags and banners and canopies dazzling through his old hometown, invited and met with the town people he had known his whole life, his clansmen and six relations, giving out and scattering and sharing, over a thousand of ten thousands, his home land by this thrived.

〔二〕 江表傳曰:琮還,經過錢唐,脩祭墳墓,麾幢節蓋,曜於舊里,請會邑人平生知舊、宗族六親,施散惠與,千有餘萬,本土以為榮。

  • (3) Wú shū states: Previously, Cóng as an officer was extremely brave and decisive, in matching enemy and facing disaster, he would exert himself without regard to his body. When he became a commander, he raised authority and maintained severity, every time managing the army, he always established plans, not striving for small gains.
  • Jiāngbiǎo zhuàn states: [Sūn] Quán sent his son [Sūn] Dēng to go out on campaign, had already sent out the army, going to Ānlè, of the various minsiters none dared remonstrate. Cóng secretly memorialized saying: “From since the ancients the Heir-Apparent has never once accompanied campaign, therefore following is called Succoring the Army, defending is called Supervising the State. Now the Heir-Apparent going out east, is not the ancient regulations. Your servant humbly has worries and doubts.” [Sūn] Quán at once followed this, ordering [Sūn] Dēng to turn back the army. The commentators all believed Cóng had a great minister’s integrity.

〔三〕 吳書曰:初,琮為將甚勇決,當敵臨難,奮不顧身。及作督帥,養威持重,每御軍,常任計策,不營小利。江表傳曰:權使子登出征,已出軍,次于安樂,群臣莫敢諫。琮密表曰:「古來太子未嘗偏征也,故從曰撫軍,守曰監國。今太子東出,非古制也,臣竊憂疑。」權即從之,命登旋軍,議者咸以為琮有大臣之節也。


Jiāhé Second Year [233], commanded infantry and cavalry of fifty thousand to campaign against Lù’ān, Lù’ān’s people all scattered and fled, the various officers wished to divide troops to capture them. Cóng said: “To ride into danger depending on luck and act without certain completion, is not of the country’s overall form. Now to divide troops to capture people, the gains and losses are both half, how can it be called complete? It lets go what is gained, and yet is not enough to weaken the enemy and assist the state’s expectations. If there is a chance encounter, the losses would not be small, to share in obtaining punishment, I Cóng would rather personally receive it, and not dare for a lucky achievement fail the state.”

嘉禾二年,督步騎五萬征六安,六安民皆散走,諸將欲分兵捕之。琮曰:「夫乘危徼倖,舉不百全者,非國家大體也。今分兵捕民,得失相半,豈可謂全哉?縱有所獲,猶不足以弱敵而副國望也。如或邂逅,虧損非小,與其獲罪,琮寧以身受之,不敢徼功以負國也。」


Chìwū Ninth Year [246], promoted to Right Marshal-in-Chief, Left Master of the Army. As a person he was respectful and obedient, skilled in following appearances and accepting admonishments, his words were never once cutting and obstinate. Previously, [Sūn] Quán was about to besiege Zhūyá and Yízhōu, all first asked Cóng, Cóng said: “With the sagely court’s authority, where could it go and not overcome? However it is an alien region and foreign land, cut off and obstructed by sea, water and land and air are poisonous, from since the ancients it has been when troops enter the people leave, it certainly will produce diseases, and turning around in the cross-contamination, those that go will fear they will not be able to return, and how ca the captured be numerous in coming? To decrease the troops on the Jiāng’s bank, to hope for a ten thousand to one profit, I your foolish servant am yet not at ease.” [Sūn] Quán did not listen. The army went out for a year, the soldiers suffered epidemic and the dead were eight to nine out of ten, [Sūn] Quán deeply regretted it. Later in speaking of it, Cóng replied saying: “At that time, of the various ministers there were those that did not remonstrate, I your servant believe it disloyalty.”

赤烏九年,遷右大司馬、左軍師。為人恭順,善於承顏納規,言辭未嘗切迕。初,權將圍珠崖及夷州,皆先問琮,琮曰:「以聖朝之威,何向而不克?然殊方異域,隔絕障海,水土氣毒,自古有之,兵入民出,必生疾病,轉相污染,往者懼不能反,所獲何可多致?猥虧江岸之兵,以冀萬一之利,愚臣猶所不安。」權不聽。軍行經歲,士眾疾疫死者十有八九,權深悔之。後言次及之,琮對曰:「當是時,群臣有不諫者,臣以為不忠。」


Cóng was both a relative [by marriage] and heavily valued, his clansmen and junior relatives all were immersed in favor and nobility, the bestowals accumulated thousands of gold, however he was yet modest in receiving servicemen, his countenance was without proud expression. Twelfth Year [249] he died, his son Yì succeeded. Later he inherited the enterprise and command of troops, rescuing Zhūgě Dàn at Shòuchūn, went out of the city and was first to surrender, Wèi appointed him Pacifying East General, enfeoffed Línxiāng marquis. Yì’s elder brother’s sons Yī, Yí, Jìng, and the rest also surrendered to Wèi, all successively serving as prefecture administrators and ranked marquis. (1)

琮既親重,宗族子弟並蒙寵貴,賜累千金,然猶謙虛接士,貌無驕色。十二年卒,子懌嗣。後襲業領兵,救諸葛誕于壽春,出城先降,魏以為平東將軍,封臨湘侯。懌兄子禕、儀、靜等亦降魏,皆歷郡守列侯。〔一〕

  • (1) Wú shū states: Cóng’s eldest son Xù from youth was famed, answered the Court’s invitation, going out awarded with troops, gradually promoted to Raising Warfare General, Niúzhǔ Commander. When Sūn Liàng succeeded the throne, promoted to Defending North General. In the Dōngguān campaign, Xù with Dīng Fèng established proposal to lead troops to first go out, and so defeated the Wèi army, enfeoffed one son as a precinct marquis, aged forty-four he died. Next son Jì, in connection to flattering and factioning with the King of Lǔ [Sūn] Bà was bestowed death. Youngest son Wú was Sūn Quán’s daughter’s son, enfeoffed a capital village marquis.

〔一〕 吳書曰:琮長子緒,幼知名,奉朝請,出授兵,稍遷揚武將軍、牛渚督。孫亮即位,遷鎮北將軍。東關之役,緒與丁奉建議引兵先出,以破魏軍,封一子亭侯,年四十四卒。次子寄,坐阿黨魯王霸賜死。小子吳,孫權外孫,封都鄉侯。

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