(59.3) Sūn Hé 孫和 [Zǐxiào 子孝]

Sūn Hé appellation Zǐxiào was [Sūn] Lǜ’s younger brother. When young as his mother Wáng had favor he met with love, at fourteen years, for him was installed a palace guard, sending Internal Documents Director Kàn Zé to teach him writing and art. He enjoyed study and subordinate servicemen, deeply meeting with praise. Chìwū Fifth Year, enthroned as Heir-Apparent, at the time his years twenty-nine. Kàn Zé became Grand Tutor, Xuē Zōng became Junior Tutor, and Cài Yǐng, Zhāng Chún, Fēng Fǔ, Yán Wéi and others all followed as attendants. (1)


  • (1) Wúshū states: Hé when young had exceptional wisdom and thinking, and therefore [Sūn] Quán particularly loved and favored him, always having him in his left and right, of the clothes and ritual order engraved baubles and rare treasures bestowed on him, of the various sons none could compare. He enjoyed literary study, was good at riding and shooting, followed teachers in experiencing scholarship, had refined knowledge and intelligence, respected teachers, delighted in people. Every time [Cài] Yǐng and the rest met in Court to advance congratulations, Hé always subdued intentions, happy to care for them. In discussing and investigating meanings of the classics, summarizing and examining right and wrong, he consulted the Court ministers, investigating merits and enacting ability, to understand merits and drawbacks, each having categorization. Later Zhūgě Yī feigned rebellion to entice Wèi officer Zhūgě Dàn, [Sūn] Quán secretly hid army to wait for him. Hé, because [Sūn] Quán was exposed outside, and also as battle was a vicious affair, always was worried and sorrowful, and no longer gathered together for drink and food, repeatedly sent up remonstrants, warning to hold to caution, and attend to secure victory, [Sūn] Quán returned, and only afterward [did Sūn Hé] feel at ease.
  • Zhāng Chún appellation Yuánjī was [Zhāng] Dūn’s son.
  • Wú lù states: Chún when young was strict in upholding conduct, studied widely with talent exceptional, cutting in inquiry and quick in answer, look and demeanor impressive. Appointed Cadet Internal, filled vacancy as Guǎngdé Magistrate, in governance had unusual merits, selected out to be Heir-Apparent’s Assisting Righteousness Commandant.

  〔一〕 吳書曰:和少岐嶷有智意,故權尤愛幸,常在左右,衣服禮秩雕玩珍異之賜,諸子莫得比焉。好文學,善騎射,承師涉學,精識聰敏,尊敬師傅,愛好人物。穎等每朝見進賀,和常降意,歡以待之。講校經義,綜察是非,及訪諮朝臣,考績行能,以知優劣,各有條貫。後(諸葛豐)〔諸葛壹〕偽叛以誘魏將諸葛誕,權潛軍待之。和以權暴露外次,又戰者凶事,常憂勞憯怛,不復會同飲食,數上諫,戒令持重,務在全勝,權還,然後敢安。張純字元基,敦之子。吳錄曰:純少厲操行,學博才秀,切問捷對,容止可觀。拜郎中,補廣德令,治有異績,擢為太子輔義都尉。

At the time managers tended to only use writing to inquire on matters, Hé believed that treacherous and rash people would take advantage of matters to evade intentions, to create disastrous hearts, it could not be long-term, and memorialized it was appropriate to end it.

Also Regional Commander Liú Bǎo reported Companion Dīng Yàn, [Dīng] Yàn also reported [Liú] Bǎo, Hé said to [Dīng] Yàn: “To have civil and military ability in affairs, how many people can there be? To because of a rift to frame and despise, plotting to endanger and harm one another, how can that be fortunate?” Therefore both sides resolved it, causing them to be generous. He often said that the present age’s servicemen should speak of cultivation and focus on study, investigate and practice shooting and driving, to go through worldly affairs, and to merely make friends and play games to harm affairs and enterprise, was not to take initiative. Later the various ministers attended in a feast, the discussion reached to gaming, he believed: “It hinders affairs and wastes days and yet is without benefit in use, toils vitality and weakens thought and yet in the end is without any accomplishment, not how to advance virtue or cultivate enterprise, or accumulate achievements. Moreover the ambitious serviceman loves time and begrudges energy, the noble man admires the large, a high mountain in vision and conduct, and is disgraced by and oppose the lesser. That Heaven and Earth are forever, and people reside between, has the analogy of a white steed passing a crack, a year of tooth as a sunset, glory and splendor does not repeat. Overall what is suffered, is that human feeling cannot be cut off, to truly be able to cut off desires without benefit in order to server the way of virtue and righteousness, to abandon the not urgent business to cultivate the foundations of achievement and enterprise; this fame and conduct, how would it not be excellent? Human feeling yet cannot be without amusement, the good of amusement, also is found in drink and feast and zither and book and shooting and driving, why need there be gaming, to afterward be joyous?” Then he ordered the attending seated of eight people, to each write arguments to discuss it. Therefore Internal Documents Companion Wéi Yào withdrew and memorialized a discussion, and Hé showed it to the guest retainers. At the time Cài Yǐng enjoyed games, and of the installed officials some learned from him, and therefore [Sūn Hé] by this mocked him.


Afterward lady Wáng and the princess Quán had a rift. [Sūn] Quán was once lying ill, Hé sacrificed in the temple, Hé’s consort’s father’s younger brother Zhāng Xiū lived near the temple, and invited Hé as he passed his residence. Princess Quán sent someone to spy, and took advantage to report that the Heir-Apparent was not in the temple, focusing on plotting with his consort’s family, and also reported lady Wáng on seeing the Ascended lying ill had a pleased expression. [Sūn] Quán because of this was furious, the lady [Wáng] in anxiety died, and Hé’s favor somewhat decreased, and he feared being deposed. The King of Lǔ [Sūn] Bà’s coveting increased in extremity, Lù Xùn, Wú Càn, Gù Tán and others repeatedly explained the distinction of primary and lesser [sons], that the reasoning could not seized away. Quán Jì, Yáng Zhú were the King of Lǔ [Sūn] Bà’s supporter faction, their slanders daily increased. [Wú] Càn therefore was sent down to prison and executed, [Gù] Tán was exiled to Jiāo province. [Sūn] Quán was flooded with persuasions for successive years, (1) and later therefore imprisoned Hé. Therefore Elite Cavalry General Zhū Jù, Secretariat Documents Deputy-Director Qū Huǎng led the various officers and officials with muddy heads and self bound, to for continuous days visit the watchtower to plead for Hé. [Sūn] Quán ascended Báijué watchtower and saw, extremely hated it, and reprimanded [Zhū] Jù and [Qū] Huǎng and the rest for without reason causing trouble. [Sūn] Quán wished to depose Hé and enthrone [Sūn] Liàng, Wúnán Commander Chén Zhèng and Wǔyíng Commander Chén Xiàng sent up letter, speaking the example of Jìn Xiàn-gōng killing Shēnshēng, enthroning Xīqí, and Jìn state was disturbed. Also [Zhū] Jù and [Qū] Huǎng firmly remonstrated without end. [Sūn] Quán was greatly furious, clan executed [Chén] Zhèng and [Chén] Xiàng, [Zhū] Jù and [Qū] Huǎng were bound into the palace hall, flogged a hundred strokes, (2) and went so far as to exile Hé to Gùzhāng, the various managers in connection to remonstrants that were executed were in the tens. The masses all believed it wrong. (3)


  • (1) Yīn Jī’s Tōngyǔ states: Previously when [Sūn] Quán enthroned Hé as Heir-Apparent, he yet enfeoffed Bà as King of Lǔ, and at the first appointment het had them share Palace Residences, the ritual order was not separated. The various excellencies discussed, believing the Heir-Apparent and state Kings high and low have their ordering, the ritual order should be different, and therefore they divided palace and separated officials, and yet a rift between sides opened. From the attendant guest retainers forming into two sides, enemy factions suspecting and betraying, growing to reach the chief ministers. Chancellor Lù Xùn, General-in-Chief Zhūgě Kè, Minister of Ceremonies Gù Tán, Elite Cavalry General Zhū Jù, Kuàijī Administrator Téng Yìn, Commander-in-Chief Shī Jì, Secretariat Documenter Dīng Mì, and others esteemed ritual in conduct, supporting the Heir-Apparent. Elite Cavalry General Bù Zhì, Defending South General Lǚ Dài, Marshal-in-Chief Quán Cóng, Left General Lǚ Jù, Internal Documents Director Sūn Hóng and others attached to the King of Lǔ. Inside and outside the officials and generals and chief ministers and whole country was divided in the middle. [Sūn] Quán worried about this, and said to Attendant Internal Sūn Jùn: “Junior relatives are not harmonious, minister subordinates are divided, there will be the disaster of the Yuán clan, to be laughed at by the world Under Heaven. Only one person can be enthroned, how can there not be chaos?” Therefore he had plan to change the succession.
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī believes: Yuán Shào and Liú Biǎo said [Yuán] Shàng and [Liú] Cóng were worthier and originally had intention to pass on to posterity, different from Sūn Quán having already enthroned Hé and yet further favoring Bà, the connection of producing chaos, came from forming family disaster, comparing to Yuán and Liú, the foolishness and perverseness is more extreme. Bù Zhì for virtue and judgment was widely praised, was Wú’s good servant, and yet flattered and attached to Bà, serving the same as Yáng Zhú, why? Hé was already the standard position, the primary and lesser were divided and settled, even if [Sūn Hé’s] talent and virtue was not special, yet by righteousness he should not form faction with the lesser [son], all the more when Bà truly was without fame, and Hé was the established successor? Those improper people, how could their whole body be without any goodness? It is only that if one that is not good, all the beauties are lost. If [Bù] Zhì really had this matter, then the rest would not be worth observing! Lǚ Dài’s and Quán Cóng’s sort probably are not worth discussing.

  〔一〕 殷基通語曰:初權既立和為太子,而封霸為魯王,初拜猶同宮室,禮秩未分。群公之議,以為太子、國王上下有序,禮秩宜異,於是分宮別僚,而隙端開矣。自侍御賓客造為二端,仇黨疑貳,滋延大臣。丞相陸遜、大將軍諸葛恪、太常顧譚、驃騎將軍朱據、會稽太守滕胤、大都督施績、尚書丁密等奉禮而行,宗事太子,驃騎將軍步騭、鎮南將軍呂岱、大司馬全琮、左將軍呂據、中書令孫弘等附魯王,中外官僚將軍大臣舉國中分。權患之,謂侍中孫峻曰:「子弟不睦,臣下分部,將有袁氏之敗,為天下笑。一人立者,安得不亂?」於是有改嗣之規矣。臣松之以為袁紹、劉表謂尚、琮為賢,本有傳後之意,異於孫權既以立和而復寵霸,坐生亂階,自構家禍,方之袁、劉,昏悖甚矣。步騭以德度著稱,為吳良臣,而阿附於霸,事同楊竺,何哉?和既正位,適庶分定,就使才德不殊,猶將義不黨庶,況霸實無聞,而和為令嗣乎?夫邪僻之人,豈其舉體無善,但一為不善,眾美皆亡耳。騭若果有此事,則其餘不足觀矣!呂岱、全琮之徒,蓋所不足論耳。

  • (2) Wúlì states: [Qū] Huǎng entered, and verbally remonstrated saying: “The Heir-Apparent is benevolent and enlightened, prominently heard in the Four Seas. Now the three regions as a tripod stand, truly it is not appropriate to shake the Heir-Apparent, to disturb the hearts of the masses. May Your Majesty slightly give down sagely thought, even if I your old servant dies, yet I would live.” He knocked head to the point of shedding blood, words strong without yielding. [Sūn] Quán would not accept [Qū] Huǎng’ words, expelled him back to his hometown. When Sūn Hào succeeded the throne, Imperial Order said: “Former Deputy-Director Qū Huǎng had ambition to rectify the State Altars, loyally remonstrated and lost self, enfeoff [Qū] Huǎng’s son Xù as Dōngyáng precinct marquis, younger brothers Gàna nd Gōng as Establishing Righteousness Commandants.” Xù later also reached Secretariat Documents Deputy-Director.
  • Huǎng was a Rǔnán man. See Hú Chōng’s Dáwèn.
  • Wú shū states: Zhāng Chún also exhaustively spoke in extreme remonstrance, [Sūn] Quán imprisoned him, and then executed him in the market.

  〔二〕 吳歷曰:晃入,口諫曰:「太子仁明,顯聞四海。今三方鼎跱,實不宜搖動太子,以生眾心。願陛下少垂聖慮,老臣雖死,猶生之年。」叩頭流血,辭氣不撓。權不納晃言,斥還田里。孫皓即位,詔曰:「故僕射屈晃,志匡社稷,忠諫亡身。封晃子緒為東陽亭侯,弟幹、恭為立義都尉。」緒後亦至尚書僕射。晃,汝南人,見胡沖答問。吳書曰:張純亦盡言極諫,權幽之,遂棄市。

  • (3) Wúshū states: [Sūn] Quán was lying ill, his thoughts tended toward awareness, and he wished to summon Hé back to enthrone him, princess Quán and Sūn Jùn, Sūn Hóng, and others firmly resisted this, so it stopped.

  〔三〕 吳書曰:權寢疾,意頗感寤,欲徵和還立之,全公主及孫峻、孫弘等固爭之,乃止。

Tàiyuán Second Year [252] Standard Moon, enfeoffed Hé as King of Nányáng, sending him to Chángshā. (1) Fourth Moon, [Sūn] Quán died, Zhūgě Kè maintained the government. [Zhūgě] Kè was Hè’s consort Zhāng’s maternal uncle. The consort sent Yellow Gate Chén Qiān to Jiànyè to send up memorial to the Inner Palace, and also sent inquiries to [Zhūgě] Kè. When [Chén Qiān] was about to leave, [Zhūgě] Kè said to [Chén] Qiān: “Tell the consort for me, that in time I will help the other.” This speech leaked. Also [Zhūgě] Kè had intention to move the capital, ordered repairs of Wǔchāng Palace, among the civilians some said he wished to invite [Sūn] Hé. When [Zhūgě] Kè was executed, Sūn Jùn because of this seized Hé’s seal and ribbon, relocated him to Xīndū, and also sent envoy to bestow death. Hé with his consort Zhāng took leave, Zhāng said: “In good and bad fortune we should follow one another, in the end I will not live alone.” She also killed herself, the whole country grieved.


  • (1) Wú shū states: Hé went to Chángshā, on the way passing Wúhú, there was a magpie nest on the sail mast, the former officials hearing this all were anxious, believing the mast tip would collapse, not a sign of being long at ease. Someone said: “The Quècháo ‘Magpie Nest’ poem had the saying: ‘Amassed conduct accumulated achievements to reach noble rank,’ now the King is of utmost virtue and abundant conduct, again receives a state territory, is it the spirits by this informing intentions to unaware people?”

  〔一〕 吳書曰:和之長沙,行過蕪湖,有鵲巢于帆檣,故官寮聞之皆憂慘,以為檣末傾危,非久安之象。或言鵲巢之詩有「積行累功以致爵位」之言,今王至德茂行,復受國土,儻神靈以此告寤人意乎?

When Sūn Xiū was enthroned, enfeoffed Hé’s son Hào as Wūchéng marquis, from Xīndū to his home state. [Sūn] Xiū died, [Sūn] Hào succeeded and ascended, that year posthumously titling his father Hé as Wén Huángdì “Civil Imperial Emperor”, changed burial to Mínglíng “Brilliant Tomb,” installing park village of two hundred families, a magistrate and deputy providing administration. The year after next Standard Moon, again divided from Wú prefecture and Dānyáng nine counties to form Wúxīng prefecture, capital Wūchéng, installing an Administrator, to in the four seasons provide sacrifices. Managers memorialized saying it was appropriate to establish a temple in the capital city, Bǎodǐng Second Year [267] Seventh Moon, sent observing chief craftsman Xuē Xǔ to build and establish a hall, called as Qīngmiào “Pure Temple.” Twelfth Moon, sent observing Chancellor Mèng Rén, Minister of Ceremonies Yáo Xìn, and others to prepare bureaucrat Internal army infantry and cavalry of two thousand men, with spirit carriage law chariot, to the east welcoming the soul at Mínglíng. [Sūn] Hào summoned and met [Mèng] Rén, personally bowing and sending off in the courtyard. (1) The spirit carriage was about to arrive, sent Chancellor Lù Kǎi to present three sacrificial animals to sacrifice in the nearby suburbs, [Sūn] Hào at Jīnchéng’s outside in the open slept. The next day, he looked out and bowed outside the east gate. The next day, he bowed at the temple and sacrificed, sobbing in grief. Every seven days there were three sacrifices, performers day and night providing music. Managers memorialized saying “sacrifices should not wish to be numerous, if numerous then it is insulting, it is appropriate to use ritual to restrict emotion.” Therefore afterward it ended. (2)


  • (1) Wú shū states: When [Mèng] Rén returned, central sent hand-written Imperial Orders, day and night in succession, offering inquiries on the soul spirit’s rising and resting and moving and stopping. A shaman reported seeing Hé’s bedding and clothing, color and expression like an ordinary day, Hào was grieved and happy and shed tears, summoning all the Excellencies and Ministers and Secretariat Documenters to visit the watchtower gates below to receive bestowments.

  〔一〕 吳書曰:比仁還,中使手詔,日夜相繼,奉問神靈起居動止。巫覡言見和被服,顏色如平(生)日,皓悲喜涕淚,悉召公卿尚書詣闕門下受賜。

  • (2) Wú lì states: Hé’s four sons: Hào, Dé, Qiān, Jùn. When Sūn Xiū succeeded the throne, enfeoffed Dé as Qiántáng marquis, Qiān Yǒng’ān marquis, Jùn appointed Cavalry Commandant. Hào was at Wǔchāng, Wúxīng’s Shī Dàn because the people could not bear the commands, gathered over ten thousand people, captured Qiān, and was about to reach Mòlíng, wishing to enthrone him. Not yet reaching thirty lǐ they halted, selected an auspicious day, [Shī] Dàn sent envoy with Qiān’s Imperial Order on Dīng Gù and Zhūgě Jìng. [Zhūgě] Jìng at once beheaded the envoy. [Shī] Dàn therefore advanced to arrive at Jiǔlǐ. [Dīng] Gù and [Zhūgě] Jìng went out to strike and greatly defeated him. [Shī] Dàn’s troops were unclothed and without armor, on overlooking the battle lines they all split and scattered. [Sūn] Qiān alone sat in the carriage, and therefore was captured alive. [Dīng] Gù did not dare kill him, and reported the situation to [Sūn] Hào. [Sūn] Hào poisoned him, mothers and children all died. [Sūn] Jùn was Zhāng Chéng’s daughter’s son, intelligent and eloquent, was praised by the far and near, [Sūn] Hào also killed him.

  〔二〕 吳歷曰:和四子:皓、德、謙、俊。孫休即位,封德錢唐侯,謙永安侯,俊拜騎都尉。皓在武昌,吳興施但因民之不堪命,聚萬餘人,劫謙,將至秣陵,欲立之。未至三十里住,擇吉日,但遣使以謙命詔丁固、諸葛靚。靚即斬其使。但遂前到九里,固、靚出擊,大破之。但兵裸身無鎧甲,臨陳皆披散。謙獨坐車中,遂生獲之。固不敢殺,以狀告皓,皓酖之,母子皆死。俊,張承外孫,聰明辨惠,為遠近所稱,皓又殺之。

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