(64.1) Zhūgě Kè 諸葛恪 [Yuánxùn 元遜]

Zhūgě Kè appellation Yuánxùn was [Zhūgě] Jǐn’s eldest son. When young he had known reputation. (1) On capping he was appointed Cavalry Commandant, and with Gù Tán, Zhāng Xiū and others attended to the Heir-Apparent [Sūn] Dēng, discussing principles and arts, all of them retainer friends. From [Heir-Apparent’s] Internal Companion transferred to Left Assisting Commandant.

諸葛恪字元遜,瑾長子也。少知名。〔一〕弱冠拜騎都尉,與顧譚、張休等侍太子登講論道藝,並為賓友。從中庶子轉為左輔都尉。

  • (1) Jiāngbiǎo zhuàn states: [Zhūgě] Kè when young had talent and reputation, exhibited literary elegance and precocious intelligence, in debate answered opportunities, none could match him. [Sūn] Quán met and was impressed with him, saying to [Zhūgě] Jǐn: “Lántián producing jade, truly it is not false.”
  • Wú lù states: [Zhūgě] Kè’s height was seven chǐ six cùn [~1.8 m], had few whiskers and eyebrows, bent nose and wide forehead, large mouth and loud voice.

〔一〕 江表傳曰:恪少有才名,發藻岐嶷,辯論應機,莫與為對。權見而奇之,謂瑾曰:「藍田生玉,真不虛也。」吳錄曰:恪長七尺六寸,少鬚眉,折頞廣額,大口高聲。

[Zhūgě] Kè’s father [Zhūgě] Jǐn’s face was long resembling a donkey, Sūn Quán at a great assembly with the various ministers, sent someone to lead one donkey inside, long board on its face, labeled saying: “Zhūgě Zǐyú.” [Zhūgě] Kè knelt and said: “I request pen to add two words.” Therefore, agreed and gave pen. [Zhūgě] Kè continued below it saying: “Donkey of.” All the seated laughed, and so the donkey was bestowed on [Zhūgě] Kè.

On another day they again met, [Sūn] Quán asked [Zhūgě] Kè: “Of your father [Zhūgě Jǐn] and your father’s younger brother [Zhūgě Liàng] who is worthier?” Replied: “Your servant’s father is superior.” [Sūn] Quán asked the reason, he replied: “Your servant’s father knows who to serve, my father’s younger brother does not. By this he is superior.” [Sūn] Quán again greatly laughed. He ordered [Zhūgě] Kè to serve the alcohol, reaching to Zhāng Zhāo’s front, [Zhāng] Zhāo already had intoxicated appearance, would not agree to drink, and said: “This is not the courtesy to care for the elderly.” [Sūn] Quán said: “Are you able to defeat Excellency Zhāng in debate and have him drink it?” [Zhūgě] Kè scolded [Zhāng] Zhāo saying: “In the past Shī Shàngfù was ninety, grasping banner and wielding battle-ax, and yet he was not called old. Now in military affairs, you General are at the rear, and in drink and food affairs, you General are at the front, how can it be said to not care for the elderly?” [Zhāng] Zhāo was without reply, and therefore finished the goblet.

Later a Shǔ envoy arrived, the various ministers all gathered, [Sūn] Quán said to the envoy: “This Zhūgě Kè is skilled and enjoys riding, return and inform your Chancellor [Zhūgě Liàng], to have him send a good horse.” [Zhūgě] Kè therefore bowed in thanks, [Sūn] Quán said: “The horse has not yet arrived and yet you give thanks, why?” [Zhūgě] Kè replied saying: “Shǔ is Your Majesty’s Outer Stable, now that there is generous Imperial Order, the horse is certain to arrive, how dare I not give thanks?”

[Zhūgě] Kè’s talent and quickness was all of this sort. (1)

[Sūn] Quán was extremely impressed with him, wished to test him in service, and ordered him to act as Economical Measurer. Economical Measurer handled military provisions and grain, the written documents were complicated and plentiful, and not what he enjoyed. (2)

恪父瑾面長似驢,孫權大會群臣,使人牽一驢入,長檢其面,題曰諸葛子瑜。恪跪曰:「乞請筆益兩字。」因聽與筆。恪續其下曰「之驢。」舉坐歡笑,乃以驢賜恪。他日復見,權問恪曰:「卿父與叔父孰賢?」對曰:「臣父為優。」權問其故,對曰:「臣父知所事,叔父不知,以是為優。」權又大噱。命恪行酒,至張昭前,昭先有酒色,不肯飲,曰:「此非養老之禮也。」權曰:「卿其能令張公辭屈,乃當飲之耳。」恪難昭曰:「昔師尚父九十,秉旄仗鉞,猶未告老也。今軍旅之事,將軍在後,酒食之事,將軍在先,何謂不養老也?」昭卒無辭,遂為盡爵。後蜀使至,群臣並會,權謂使曰:「此諸葛恪雅好騎乘,還告丞相,為致好馬。」恪因下謝,權曰:「馬未至而謝何也?」恪對曰:「夫蜀者陛下之外廄,今有恩詔,馬必至也,安敢不謝?」恪之才捷,皆此類也。〔一〕權甚異之,欲試以事,令守節度。節度掌軍糧穀,文書繁猥,非其好也。〔二〕

  • (1) Kè Biézhuàn states: [Sūn] Quán once feasted Shǔ envoy Fèi Yī, in advance ordering the various ministers: “When the envoy arrives, lower head to eat and do not rise.” [Fèi] Yī arrived, [Sūn] Quán for him stopped eating, but the various subordinates did not rise. [Fèi] Yī teased them saying: “The phoenix comes souring, the unicorn spits feed, the donkey does not know, lowering head to eat as before.” [Zhūgě] Kè replied saying: “Then plant a parasol tree, to care for the phoenix. What a common sparrow, declaring itself as coming souring? Why not shoot pellets, to send it back to its homeland!” [Fèi] Yī stopped and ate pastry, and requested pen and composed Mài fù “Rhapsody on Wheat.” [Zhūgě] Kè also requested pen and composed Mò fù “Rhapsody on Grindstones,” all praised it as good. [Sūn] Quán once asked [Zhūgě] Kè: “Recently how have you amused yourself to become fatter and glossier?” [Zhūgě] Kè replied saying: “I your servant have heard that wealth glosses houses, virtue glosses body. I your servant do not dare amuse myself, I cultivate myself and nothing more.” Also asked: “How do you compare to Téng Yìn?” [Zhūgě] Kè answered saying: “In ascending steps and wearing shoes [attending Court], I your servant do not compare to [Téng] Yìn. In turning plans and spinning strategies, [Téng] Yìn does not compare to me your servant.” [Zhūgě] Kè once proffered [Sūn] Quán a horse, first piercing its ear. Fàn Shèn at the time was seated, and mocked [Zhūgě] Kè saying: “Though a horse is a large animal, it is endowed with the spirit of Heaven, now to ruin its ear, how is it not to violate benevolence?” [Zhūgě] Kè answered saying: “For a mother to her daughter, the affection and love is the utmost, she pierces the ear to attach pearls, what is the violation to benevolence?” The Heir-Apparent [Sūn] Dēng once teased [Zhūgě] Kè: “Zhūgě Yuánxùn can eat horse droppings.” [Zhūgě] Kè said: “May the Heir-Apparent eat chicken eggs.” [Sūn] Quán said: “He orders you to eat horse droppings, you have him eat chicken eggs. Why?” [Zhūgě] Kè said: “It comes out the same place.” [Sūn] Quán greatly laughed.
  • Jiǎngbiǎo zhuàn states: Once there were white headed birds gathered in front of the palace hall, [Sūn] Quán said: “What kind of birds are these?” [Zhūgě] Kè said: “White-headed fathers.” Zhāng Zhāo believed that he was the oldest among the seated, and suspected [Zhūgě] Kè was using the bird to mock him, and therefore said: “[Zhūgě] Kè is deceiving Your Majesty, one has never heard of a bird named ‘white-headed father.’ Try having [Zhūgě] Kè again find a ‘white-headed mother.’” [Zhūgě] Kè said: “There is a bird named ‘parrot mother,’ which does not have a match. Try having Supporting Wú [General Zhāng Zhāo] then find a ‘parrot father.’” [Zhāng] Zhāo could not answer, and those seated all laughed.

〔一〕 恪別傳曰:權嘗饗蜀使費禕,先逆敕群臣:「使至,伏食勿起。」禕至,權為輟食,而群下不起。禕啁之曰:「鳳皇來翔,騏驎吐哺,驢騾無知,伏食如故。」恪答曰:「爰植梧桐,以待鳳皇,有何燕雀,自稱來翔?何不彈射,使還故鄉!」禕停食餅,索筆作麥賦,恪亦請筆作磨賦,咸稱善焉。權嘗問恪:「頃何以自娛,而更肥澤?」恪對曰:「臣聞富潤屋,德潤身,臣非敢自娛,脩己而已。」又問:「卿何如滕胤?」恪答曰:「登階躡履,臣不如胤;迴籌轉策,胤不如臣。」恪嘗獻權馬,先〈金芻〉其耳。范慎時在坐,嘲恪曰:「馬雖大畜,稟氣於天,今殘其耳,豈不傷仁?」恪答曰:「母之於女,恩愛至矣,穿耳附珠,何傷於仁?」太子嘗嘲恪:「諸葛元遜可食馬矢。」恪曰:「願太子食雞卵。」權曰:「人令卿食馬矢,卿使人食雞卵何也?」恪曰:「所出同耳。」權大笑。江表傳曰:曾有白頭鳥集殿前,權曰:「此何鳥也?」恪曰:「白頭翁也。」張昭自以坐中最老,疑恪以鳥戲之,因曰:「恪欺陛下,未嘗聞鳥名白頭翁者,試使恪復求白頭母。」恪曰:「鳥名鸚母,未必有對,試使輔吳復求鸚父。」昭不能答,坐中皆歡笑。

  • (2) Jiāngbiǎo zhuàn states: [Sūn] Quán became King of Wú, first installed the Economical Measurer office, employed to manage and handle military provisions, it was not of the Hàn system. First employed Attendant Internal Assistant General Xú Xiáng, [Xú] Xiáng died, about to employ [Zhūgě] Kè. Zhūgě Liàng heard [Zhūgě] Kè would succeed [Xú] Xiáng, and wrote letter to Lù Xùn that said: “My elder brother is aged, and [Zhūgě] Kè by nature is neglectful. Now he is to manage provisions and grain, provisions and grain are the army’s most important, your servant though am far away, I humbly am not at ease. May you sir specially inform the Utmost Honored to transfer him.” [Lù] Xùn informed [Sūn] Quán, at once transferred [Zhūgě] Kè to lead troops.

〔二〕 江表傳曰:權為吳王,初置節度官,使典掌軍糧,非漢制也。初用侍中偏將軍徐詳,詳死,將用恪。諸葛亮聞恪代詳,書與陸遜曰:「家兄年老,而恪性疏,今使典主糧穀,糧穀軍之要最,僕雖在遠,竊用不安。足下特為啟至尊轉之。」遜以白權,即轉恪領兵。

[Zhūgě] Kè believed Dānyáng was mountainous and rugged, its people many and stalwart, so though previously there had been sent troops, they had only obtained the outer county’s common civilians and nothing more, the rest were deep and far away, none able to capture them completely, and repeatedly himself requested to for the government set out against them, and in three years they could obtain armored soldiers of forty thousand. The mass of commentators all believed Dānyáng’s terrain was difficult and dangerous, adjacent to Wú, Kuàijī, Xīndū, Póyáng four prefectures, the perimeter several thousand lǐ, the mountains and valleys ten-thousand fold, its secluded people, had not ever entered cities, in facing chief officials, all wielded weapons in the fields, bare-headed in the forests and weeds. Fleeing to rest in evil, all together running about. The mountains produced copper and iron, they personally cast into armor and weapons. Their customs enjoy warfare and practice battle, esteem strength, their climbing of mountains and traveling rugged terrain, trampling and charging thickets of thorns, were like fish in moving in deep pools, and apes in swinging in trees. They timely watch for opening, come out to plunder and rob, every time sending troops on campaign, searching their caves and hidings, in battle then they as wasps arrive, in defeat then they as birds flee, from previous ages onward, it cannot be restrained. All believed it difficult. [Zhūgě] Kè’s father [Zhūgě] Jǐn heard this, also believed the matter in the end would not succeed, and sighed and said: “[If Zhūgě] Kè will not greatly raise our house, he will greatly ruin our clan.” [Zhūgě] Kè vigorously explained it was certain to succeed. [Sūn] Quán appointed [Zhūgě] Kè as Succoring the Yuè General, designate Dānyáng Administrator, awarded tally and halberd martial cavalry of three hundred. The appointment completed, ordered [Zhūgě] Kè prepare majestic ceremony with drumming and trumpeting, cleared roads for his return home, at the time his years thirty-two.

恪以丹楊山險,民多果勁,雖前發兵,徒得外縣平民而已,其餘深遠,莫能禽盡,屢自求乞為官出之,三年可得甲士四萬。眾議咸以丹楊地勢險阻,與吳郡、會稽、新都、鄱陽四郡鄰接,周旋數千里,山谷萬重,其幽邃民人,未嘗入城邑,對長吏,皆仗兵野逸,白首於林莽。逋亡宿惡,咸共逃竄。山出銅鐵,自鑄甲兵。俗好武習戰,高尚氣力,其升山赴險,抵突叢棘,若魚之走淵,猿狖之騰木也。時觀閒隙,出為寇盜,每致兵征伐,尋其窟藏。其戰則蜂至,敗則鳥竄,自前世以來,不能羈也。皆以為難。恪父瑾聞之,亦以事終不逮,歎曰;「恪不大興吾家,將大赤吾族也。」恪盛陳其必捷。權拜恪撫越將軍,領丹楊太守,授棨戟武騎三百。拜畢,命恪備威儀,作鼓吹,導引歸家,時年三十二。

[Zhūgě] Kè arrived at office, and then sent letters to the four prefecture’s subordinate cities’ chief clerks, ordering each to protect their borders, clearly set up division squads, to cultivate the ordinary people, and all have them in garrisons reside. Then he divided his inner various officers, to spread troops in the secluded rugged areas, but only to repair barriers, and not with them cross blades, watch for when their grain was about to ripen, then at once release the troops to reap, to have them be without remaining seeds. The old grain was used up, the new fields would not be collected, the ordinary people in garrisons resides, plundering was without income, and therefore the mountain peoples were hungry and destitute, and gradually went out to surrender. [Zhūgě] Kè then again sent down orders saying: “The mountain peoples leaving evil for cultivation, all are to be comforted, relocated to outer counties, and are not to be suspected and be arrested and restricted.” Jiùyáng Chief Hú Kàng obtained surrendered man Zhōu Yí, [Zhōu] Yí was a long-time evil man, due to destitution had been forced to temporarily come out, inside plotted rebellion, [Hú] Kàng bound and sent him to the various offices. [Zhūgě] Kè because [Hú] Kàng had violated instructions, therefore beheaded him as an example, and sent up memorial about the case. The people heard [Hú] Kàng in connection to arresting someone was killed, knew the government only wished to have them come out and nothing more, and therefore the old and young supporting each other came out, and in a year, the count of people were all as originally planned. [Zhūgě] Kè personally commanded ten thousand men, the remainder was divided and given to the various officers.

恪到府,乃移書四郡屬城長吏,令各保其疆界,明立部伍,其從化平民,悉令屯居。乃分內諸將,羅兵幽阻,但繕藩籬,不與交鋒,候其穀稼將熟,輒縱兵芟刈,使無遺種。舊穀既盡,新田不收,平民屯居,略無所入,於是山民飢窮,漸出降首。恪乃復敕下曰:「山民去惡從化,皆當撫慰,徙出外縣,不得嫌疑,有所執拘。」臼陽長胡伉得降民周遺,遺舊惡民,困迫暫出,內圖叛逆,伉縛送(言)〔諸〕府。恪以伉違教,遂斬以徇,以狀表上。民聞伉坐執人被戮,知官惟欲出之而已,於是老幼相攜而出,歲期,人數皆如本規。恪自領萬人,餘分給諸將。

[Sūn] Quán praised this achievement, sending Secretariat Documents Deputy Director Xuē Zōng to appreciate the army. [Xuē] Zōng first sent letter to [Zhūgě] Kè and the rest that said: “The Shānyuè rely on obstructions, not submitting for successive generations, when relaxed then as rats, when anxious then like wolves look back. The Imperial Emperor in shining awe, ordered officers on western campaign, divine tally inside awarded, the martial forces outside shake. Weapons do not stain edges, armor is not moistened in sweat, the foremost evils are taken, the associates submit to righteousness, cleaning out the mountains and marshes, presenting troops of a hundred thousand. The fields are without remaining bandits, the cities have no damage and treachery. Both sweeping away the vicious and evil and also filling up military equipment. Multitudes of weeds are transformed into good grass. Monstrous beasts become tiger soldiers. Though indeed it was by the country’s authoritative spirit applied, it also was by the trusted foremost commander’s leadership delivered. Though the Shī beautified acting quickly, the praised breaking heads, Zhōu’s Fāng [shū] and Shào [gōng], Hàn’s Wèi [Qīng] and Huò [Qùbìng], how is it worth discussing? The achievement surpasses the ancient people, the merit overtakes former ages. The Ruler Above is joyous and pleased, far away sighs at the news. Moved by the Sìmǔ’s legacy canon, thinking of Yǐnzhì’s old words. Therefore, send the Central Terrace close officials, to deliver rewards and bestowments, to make manifest the abundant achievement, to comfort the labors and toils.” Appointed [Zhūgě] Kè as Terrifying North General, enfeoffed a capital village Lord. [Zhūgě] Kè requested to lead forces to farm Lújiāng and Wǎnkǒu, and therefore with light troops attacked Shū, by surprise capturing its people and returning. He again distantly sent scouts, observing and appraising the vital positions of the path, wishing to plot against Shòuchūn, [Sūn] Quán believed it could not be.

權嘉其功,遣尚書僕射薛綜勞軍。綜先移恪等曰:「山越恃阻,不賓歷世,緩則首鼠,急則狼顧。皇帝赫然,命將西征,神策內授,武師外震。兵不染鍔,甲不沾汗。元惡既梟,種黨歸義,蕩滌山藪,獻戎十萬。野無遺寇,邑罔殘姦。既埽兇慝,又充軍用。藜蓧稂莠,化為善草。魑魅魍魎,更成虎士。雖實國家威靈之所加,亦信元帥臨履之所致也。雖詩美執訊,易嘉折首,周之方、召,漢之衛、霍,豈足以談?功軼古人,勳超前世。主上歡然,遙用歎息。感四牡之遺典,思飲至之舊章。故遣中臺近官,迎致犒賜,以旌茂功,以慰劬勞。」拜恪威北將軍,封都鄉侯。恪乞率眾佃廬江、皖口,因輕兵襲舒,掩得其民而還。復遠遣斥候,觀相徑要,欲圖壽春,權以為不可。

During Chìwū, Wèi’s Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng planned wishing to attack [Zhūgě] Kè, [Sūn] Quán was about to send troops to answer this, a weather observer believed it would not be successful, and therefore relocated [Zhūgě] Kè’s garrison to Cháisāng. [Zhūgě Kè’s] letter to Chancellor Lù Xùn said:

“Yáng Jìngshū transmits pure discussion, believing right now the people are exhausted completely, those holding to virtue and enterprise cannot again be many, and it is appropriate to join with one another to be assisting carriages, above to glorify state affairs, below to treasure one another. But there are those who hate the world and enjoy slandering and damaging one another, to cause oneself to become employed, and internal harms accumulate; those sorts about to advance, their thoughts are not pleased. Hearing this I sigh, truly only able to strike hand. I humbly believe the noble man does not seek preparation in one person, from the Kǒng clan disciples the largest number was three thousand, those seen as exceptional were seventy-two men, reaching to the sort of Zǐzhāng, Zǐlù, Zǐgòng and others of seven men, the second sage’s virtue, however each yet had their short-comings, Shī refused and Yóu condoled, when bestowed did not accept command, so all the more for those below these and without fault? Moreover, Zhòngní did not count what they lacked and invite them to be friends, and did not because of a man’s shortcomings abandon their strengths. Additionally, at the present in seeking servicemen, it is appropriate to be generous to their past. Why? The time’s affairs are complicated, but good men are few, and the country’s office and duties, are always suffering from not being filled. If their character is not evil, their ambition is in devoting strength, then they can be encouraged, and quickly take up appointment. If for a very few inappropriateness and private conduct that is lacking, in all cases it is appropriate to be generous, and not worth in detail reproaching. Moreover, servicemen truly cannot in detail discuss severe restraints, severe restraints then have other worthy sages yet be not secure, so all the more those coming and going. Therefore, it is said to by the way observe men is difficult, to by men observe men is easy, worthy and foolish can be known. From Hàn’s end onward, the central states’ scholar officials like Xǔ Zǐjiāng’s sort, therefore casually defamed and mocked one another, some reaching to disaster. Investigating the origins, it was not due to great enmities, it was only in sitting and restraining oneself they could not be exhaustive in matching ritual, and reproached men completely using standard righteousness. For oneself to not match ritual, then people do not submit. To reproach men using standard righteousness, then the people cannot endure. Inside not submitting in conduct, outside not enduring reproaches, then they cannot but blame one another. Once they begin blaming one another, then petty men are able to appear among them. When they are able to appear among them, then the speech of the three utmosts, permeates into slander, disorderly mistakes in turn arrive, and even in sending the utmost enlightened and utmost close to reside there, yet it is difficult to oneself settle, all the more for one in the gaps, so all the more for those not yet able to understand. Therefore, Zhāng [Ěr] and Chén [Yú] came to bloodied blades, Xiāo [Yù] and Zhū [Bó] did not end well, the origin came from this and nothing more. To not forgive small mistakes, for the minute to reproach one another, after a long time it causes families and households to complain, and the whole country to again be without servicemen of complete conduct.”

[Zhūgě] Kè knew [Lù] Xùn because of this doubted himself, and therefore then expanded his reasoning and praised his intentions. It happened that [Lù] Xùn died, [Zhūgě] Kè was promoted to General-in-Chief, Lent Staff, stationing Wǔchāng, succeeding [Lù] Xùn in managing Jīng Province affairs.

赤烏中,魏司馬宣王謀欲攻恪,權方發兵應之,望氣者以為不利,於是徙恪屯於柴桑。與丞相陸遜書曰:「楊敬叔傳述清論,以為方今人物彫盡,守德業者不能復幾,宜相左右,更為輔車,上熙國事,下相珍惜。又疾世俗好相謗毀,使已成之器,中有損累;將進之徒,意不歡笑。聞此喟然,誠獨擊節。愚以為君子不求備於一人,自孔氏門徒大數三千,其見異者七十二人,至于子張、子路、子貢等七十之徒,亞聖之德,然猶各有所短,師辟由喭,賜不受命,豈況下此而無所闕?且仲尼不以數子之不備而引以為友,不以人所短棄其所長也。加以當今取士,宜寬於往古,何者?時務從橫,而善人單少,國家職司,常苦不充。苟令性不邪惡,志在陳力,便可獎就,騁其所任。若於小小宜適,私行不足,皆宜闊略,不足縷責。且士誠不可纖論苛克,苛克則彼賢聖猶將不全,況其出入者邪?故曰以道望人則難,以人望人則易,賢愚可知。自漢末以來,中國士大夫如許子將輩,所以更相謗訕,或至於禍,原其本起,非為大讎,惟坐克己不能盡如禮,而責人專以正義。夫己不如禮,則人不服。責人以正義,則人不堪。內不服其行,外不堪其責,則不得不相怨。相怨一生,則小人得容其閒。得容其閒,則三至之言,浸潤之譖,紛錯交至,雖使至明至親者處之,猶難以自定,況己為隙,且未能明者乎?是故張、陳至於血刃,蕭、朱不終其好,本由於此而已。夫不舍小過,纖微相責,久乃至於家戶為怨,一國無復全行之士也。」恪知遜以此嫌己,故遂廣其理而贊其旨也。會遜卒,恪遷大將軍,假節,駐武昌,代遜領荊州事。

Long after this, [Sūn] Quán was not well, but the Heir-Apparent was young, and so he summoned [Zhūgě] Kè to be General-in-Chief and designate Heir-Apparent’s Grand Tutor, Internal Documents Director Sūn Hóng was designated Junior Tutor. [Sūn] Quán’s illness was severe, he summoned [Zhūgě] Kè, [Sūn] Hóng, and Minister of Ceremonies Téng Yìn, General Lǚ Jù, Attendant Internal Sūn Jùn, to entrust them with later affairs. (1)

久之,權不豫,而太子少,乃徵恪以大將軍領太子太傅,中書令孫弘領少傅。權疾困,召恪、弘及太常滕胤、將軍呂據、侍中孫峻,屬以後事。〔一〕

  • (1) Wú shū states: [Sūn] Quán was lying ill, and discussed who to entrust. At the time the Court Ministers all put their intentions on [Zhūgě] Kè, and Sūn Jùn memorialized him as a vessel to appoint to assist the government, and could be entrusted with great affairs. [Sūn] Quán suspected [Zhūgě] Kè was stubborn and self-confident, [Sūn] Jùn believed of the present Court Ministers none could match him, and therefore firmly guaranteed him, and so summoned [Zhūgě] Kè. Later he summoned [Zhūgě] Kè and the rest to meet in the inner rooms, to accept Imperial Order below the bed. [Sūn] Quán’s Imperial Order said: “My illness is severe, I fear we will not meet again, all affairs are to be entrusted to you.” [Zhūgě] Kè sobbed and shed tears and said: “We your servants all received your generous grace, and will to the death serve Imperial Order, may Your Majesty be calm in spirit, decrease concerns, and do not worry of other affairs.” [Sūn] Quán’s Imperial Order had managers and all affairs be completely unified with [Zhūgě] Kè, only killing or sparing great affairs would afterward be reported [to Sūn Quán]. For him built mansion buildings, established accompanying guard. The various officials and hundred managers bowed and saluted in ceremony, each in order of rank. Of the various law orders if there were any inappropriate, he selected out to report, [Sūn] Quán at once listened to it. Inside and outside were compliant, and everyone was pleased.

〔一〕 吳書曰:權寢疾,議所付託。時朝臣咸皆注意於恪,而孫峻表恪器任輔政,可付大事。權嫌恪剛很自用,峻以當今朝臣皆莫及,遂固保之,乃徵恪。後引恪等見臥內,受詔床下,權詔曰:「吾疾困矣,恐不復相見,諸事一以相委。」恪歔欷流涕曰:「臣等皆受厚恩,當以死奉詔,願陛下安精神,損思慮,無以外事為念。」權詔有司諸事一統於恪,惟殺生大事然後以聞。為治第館,設陪衛。群官百司拜揖之儀,各有品敘。諸法令有不便者,條列以聞,權輒聽之。中外翕然,人懷歡欣。

The next day, [Sūn] Quán died. [Sūn] Hóng previously with [Zhūgě] Kè were not at peace, feared he would be by [Zhūgě] Kè controlled, kept secret the news of [Sūn] Quán’s death, wishing to fake Imperial Order to get rid of [Zhūgě] Kè. [Sūn] Jùn reported this to [Zhūgě] Kè, [Zhūgě] Kè invited [Sūn] Hóng to consult on matters, and in the middle of the city executed him, and then began mourning. His letter to his younger brother Gōng’ān commander [Zhūgě] Róng said: “This moon sixteenth day Yǐwèi [252 May 21], the greatly departed Imperial Emperor left behind all states, the various subordinates large and small, none do not grieve. As for we fathers and sons and elder brothers and younger brothers, we all received unique favor, not of the sort of the ordinary scribes, and therefore in my mourning, liver and heart are broken and rent apart. The Imperial Heir-Apparent on Dīngyǒu ascended to Honored Title, sorrow and joy joined together, not knowing what to do. I personally received command to look after, to assist and support the young ruler, I humbly judge myself, my talents are not of Bó Lù’s and yet I received the entrusting of Jī gong carrying plots, in fear and shame of the examples of the Chancellors assisting Hàn, afraid to disappoint the Former Emperor’s enlightenment in entrusting me, and therefore worry in shame and anxiety, my thoughts in ten thousand points. Moreover, the people hate their superiors, all actions are watched, when can this change? Now to with blunt and thick appearance occupy protector and tutor rank, the hardships are many and wisdom few, responsibility heavy and plans shallow, who can be lips to my teeth? Recently in Hàn’s age, Yān and Gài met unexpectedly, there was the Shàngguān rebellion, I am in this situation, how dare I be at ease? Also, where you my younger brother are, is interlocked with the rebel dog teeth, you must at this time organize military equipment, lead and discipline officers and soldiers, and be on alert beyond the norm, attend to going out to ten thousand death without consideration for one life, to repay the Court, and be without shame to our predecessors. Also, the various officers prepare defenses in each of their borders, yet fearing the rebel caitiffs will hear of the unspeakable [death of Sūn Quán], and abandon restraint to plunder and rob. The border cities various departments, have already separately been sent down restriction orders, their division commanding officers, are not to rashly entrust their garrisons to directly come hurrying. Though they harbor unbearable mourning and grieving hearts, public righteousness overcomes the private, Bóqín subdued the Róng. If there is violation, it is not a small matter. To use the close to correct negligence, is the ancient people’s enlightened warning.”

[Zhūgě] Kè then was appointed Grand Tutor. Therefore, he ended spying and listening, abolished investigation officers, pardoned desertions, removed pass tariffs, in matters esteemed kind favor, and of the masses none were not pleased. Every time [Zhūgě] Kè went out and in, the Hundred Surnames craned necks, hoping to see his appearance.

翌日,權薨。弘素與恪不平,懼為恪所治,祕權死問,欲矯詔除恪。峻以告恪,恪請弘咨事,於坐中誅之,乃發喪制服。與弟公安督融書曰:「今月十六日乙未,大行皇帝委棄萬國,群下大小,莫不傷悼。至吾父子兄弟,並受殊恩,非徒凡庸之隸,是以悲慟,肝心圮裂。皇太子以丁酉踐尊號,哀喜交并,不知所措。吾身受顧命,輔相幼主,竊自揆度,才非博陸而受姬公負圖之託,懼忝丞相輔漢之效,恐損先帝委付之明,是以憂慚惶惶,所慮萬端。且民惡其上,動見瞻觀,何時易哉?今以頑鈍之姿,處保傅之位,艱多智寡,任重謀淺,誰為脣齒?近漢之世,燕、蓋交遘,有上官之變,以身值此,何敢怡豫邪?又弟所在,與賊犬牙相錯,當於今時整頓軍具,率厲將士,警備過常,念出萬死,無顧一生,以報朝廷,無忝爾先。又諸將備守各有境界,猶恐賊虜聞諱,恣睢寇竊。邊邑諸曹,已別下約敕,所部督將,不得妄委所戍,徑來奔赴。雖懷愴怛不忍之心,公義奪私,伯禽服戎,若苟違戾,非徒小故。以親正疏,古人明戒也。」恪更拜太傅。於是罷視聽,息校官,原逋責,除關稅,事崇恩澤,眾莫不悅。恪每出入,百姓延頸,思見其狀。

Previously, [Sūn] Quán in Huánglóng Inaugural Year [229] moved capital to Jiànyè, Second Year [230] built Dōngxīng dam to restrain the lake water. Later in campaigning against Huáinán, the inner ships were defeated, and because of this it was abandoned and no longer maintained. [Zhūgě] Kè in Jiànxīng Inaugural Year [252] Tenth Moon gathered forces at Dōngxīng, again building a large dam, left and right joining the mountains and building two cities, each leaving a thousand men, sending Quán Duān and Liú Lüè to defend them, leading the army to return. Wèi because the Wú army had entered its border territory, was shamed to receive the insult, and ordered chief Generals Hú Zūn, Zhūgě Dàn and others to lead forces of seventy thousand, wishing to attack and besiege the two fortifications, plotting to destroy the dam restraints. [Zhūgě] Kè raised army of forty thousand, dawn to night going to the rescue. [Hú] Zūn and the rest ordered their various armies to make pontoon bridges to cross, laying them above the dam, dividing troops to attack the two cities. The cities walls were high and steep, and could not be quickly taken. [Zhūgě] Kè sent Generals Liú Zàn, Lǚ Jù, Táng Zī, Dīng Fèng as front division. At the time the weather was cold and snowing, Wèi’s various officers met to drink, observed [Liú] Zàn and the rest’s troops were few, and set aside armor, not wielding spears or halberds, only with helmet and saber and shield, uncovered body along restraints, greatly laughed at them, and did not promptly organize troops. The troops were able to ascend, then drummed and trumpeted and in chaos struck. The Wèi army was alarmed and scattered and fled, fighting to cross the pontoon bridges, the bridges were broken and cut off, they threw themselves into the water, and trampled over one another. Lè’ān Administrator Huán Jiā and others at the same time were all drowned, the dead were several tens of thousands. Former rebelling officer Hán Zōng was Wèi’s front army commander, and also beheaded him. Captured chariots and oxen and horses and donkeys each of several thousand, the supplies and equipment like mountains piled, rousing the forces and returning. Advanced enfeoffment of [Zhūgě] Kè to Yángdū Lord, added Jīng and Yáng provinces Governor, commander of Internal and External various military affairs, bestowed gold of one hundred jīn, horses of two hundred, silk fabric and cloth each ten thousand pǐ.

初,權黃龍元年遷都建業,二年築東興隄遏湖水。後征淮南,敗以內船,由是廢不復脩。恪以建興元年十月會眾於東興,更作大隄,左右結山俠築兩城,各留千人,使全端、留略守之,引軍而還。魏以吳軍入其疆土,恥於受侮,命大將胡遵、諸葛誕等率眾七萬,欲攻圍兩塢,圖壞隄遏。恪興軍四萬,晨夜赴救。遵等敕其諸軍作浮橋度,陳於隄上,分兵攻兩城。城在高峻,不可卒拔。恪遣將軍留贊、呂據、唐咨、丁奉為前部。時天寒雪,魏諸將會飲,見贊等兵少,而解置鎧甲,不持矛戟。但兜鍪刀楯,倮身緣遏,大笑之,不即嚴兵。兵得上,便鼓譟亂斫。魏軍驚擾散走,爭渡浮橋,橋壞絕,自投於水,更相蹈藉。樂安太守桓嘉等同時并沒,死者數萬。故叛將韓綜為魏前軍督,亦斬之。獲車乘牛馬驢騾各數千,資器山積,振旅而歸。進封恪陽都侯,加荊揚州牧,督中外諸軍事,賜金一百斤,馬二百匹,繒布各萬匹。

[Zhūgě] Kè therefore had heart that thought little of the enemy, in the Twelfth Moon had won in battle, and in the next year spring again wished to send out the army. (1) The various great ministers believed repeatedly going out was too much labor, and together remonstrated [Zhūgě] Kè, [Zhūgě] Kè did not listen. Internal Scattered Grandee Jiǎng Yán sometimes firmly argued and was carried out.

恪遂有輕敵之心,以十二月戰克,明年春,復欲出軍。〔一〕諸大臣以為數出罷勞,同辭諫恪,恪不聽。中散大夫蔣延或以固爭,扶出。

  • (1) Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: [Zhūgě] Kè sent Major Lǐ Héng to go to Shǔ to speak with Jiāng Wéi, to have them together mobilize, saying: “The ancients had a saying, sages cannot make time, the time on arriving also cannot be lost. Now the enemy’s government is with a private house, [at this time Wèi was controlled by the Sīmǎ family] outside and inside are suspicious and divided, troops are oppressed outside, and civilians are resentful inside, from Cáo Cāo onward, they have never had the signs of destruction like now. If we greatly mobilize to attack them, having Wú attack their east, Hàn enter their west, if they rescue the west then the east is empty, if they make the east heavy then the west is light, with a practiced and solid army, taking advantage of a weak and light enemy, defeating them is certain.” [Jiāng] Wéi followed this.

〔一〕 漢晉春秋曰:恪使司馬李衡往蜀說姜維,令同舉,曰:「古人有言,聖人不能為時,時至亦不可失也。今敵政在私門,外內猜隔,兵挫於外,而民怨於內,自曹操以來,彼之亡形未有如今者也。若大舉伐之,使吳攻其東,漢入其西,彼救西則東虛,重東則西輕,以練實之軍,乘虛輕之敵,破之必矣。」維從之。

[Zhūgě] Kè then wrote a discussion to argue with the opinions of the masses that said:

“The sky is without two suns, the land is without two rulers, a ruler that did not attend to uniting Heaven’s Under and yet wished to pass down blessings to later generations, from antiquity to now there has never been such. In the past in the time of the Warring States, the various lords were self-confident in troop strength and land size, mutually had rescue and assistance, saying this was sufficient to pass through the generations, of men none could endanger it. Indulging in whims and following wishes, dreading labor and toil, they allowed Qín to gradually enlarge itself, and therefore it conquered them; this was natural. More recently Liú [Biǎo] Jǐngshēng was at Jīng province, had forces of a hundred thousand, wealth and grain like mountains, but did not, when Cáo Cāo was still small, with him compete in strength, but sat and watched his strength enlarge, swallow and exterminate the various Yuán, and after the north was completely settled, [Cáo] Cāo led forces of three hundred thousand to come toward Jīng province, at the time even if there were wise men, they could no longer draw a plan, and therefore [Liú Biǎo] Jǐngshēng’s son, linked arms to request to surrender, and therefore became a prisoner. Overall enemy states wish to swallow one another, and enemies wish to remove one another. To have an enemy and strengthen it, if the disaster is not on oneself, then it is on posterity, it cannot be not distantly considered. In the past Wǔ Zǐxū said: ‘Yuè for ten years increased population, for ten years instructed and taught; after twenty years, Wú will become their pond!’ Fūchāi was self-confident he was strong and large, heard this far-seeing report, and therefore executed Zǐxū and was without heart to prepare against Yuè, and reaching to facing destruction he regretted it; how was it not too late? Yuè was smaller than Wú, and yet became Wú’s downfall, so all the more for the larger! In the past Qín only obtained Guānxī, and yet swallowed Six States. Now the rebels have already obtained Qín, Zhào, Hán, Wèi, Yān, Qí, nine provinces of territory, the territory is all villages of war horses and marshes of soldiers. The present’s Wèi compared to the past’s Qín, the territory is several times greater; Wú and Shǔ compared to the past’s Six States, cannot even reach half of them. However, now that we are able to match them, is only because in [Cáo] Cāo’s time their troops were numerous, reaching to the present they were used up, and the later born are not yet all grown up; this is exactly the time when the rebels are declined and few and not yet flourishing. Additionally, Sīmǎ Yì formerly executed Wáng Líng, and following that he fell and died, his son is young and weak, but controls their great appointment, and even if they have servicemen wise in strategy, they are not yet able to employ them. Right now, to attack them, is the opportunity of their endangerment. The sagely man eager in chasing the times, truly is speaking of today. If we follow the feelings of the masses, and harbor plans to steal ease, believing the barrier of the Cháng Jiāng can be passed down through the generations, and do not discuss Wèi’s beginning to end, and so today then think little of posterity; this is why I ever sigh. From the ancients onward, importance is in growing population, at present the rebel population yearly and monthly grows, but as they are still small, they cannot yet be employed. If again ten and some years pass, their forces will certain be several times those of today, and our country’s lands of stalwart troops, all are already empty and used up, only on seeing these forces can matters be settled. If we do not early employ them, and sitting still to old age, after ten and some years pass, overall, they will have decreased by half, and looking at the younger relative counts they are not enough to discuss. If the rebel forces increase one-fold, and our troops decrease by half, even if we were to have Yī or Guǎn plan against it, they could not do anything. Now those that do not understand far-reaching considerations, certainly will believe these words to be pedantic. For disaster and trouble to have not yet arrived and to yet be ponder worries and anxieties, this assuredly is what everyone considers pedantic. Reaching to when trouble arrives, afterward knocking forehead, even if there are the wise, they also are not able to plan. This then is what the ancients to now have resented, not only for one time. In the past Wú first believed Wǔ Yuán to be pedantic, and therefore trouble arrived and it could not be saved. Liú Jǐngshēng could not consider beyond ten years, and therefore had nothing to bequeath to his descendants. Now I [Zhūgě] Kè am without the talent of ministers, and yet received Great Wú’s appointment of Xiāo and Huò, my wisdom is with the masses the same, my thinking does not understand the distant, and if I do not today for the state expand the borders, in a turn I will grow old, and the enemy will become stronger, and even if I wished to cut my throat to apologize for faults, how would it repair anything? Now I hear of the masses some believe the Hundred Surnames are still poor, and wish to attend to rest, this is to not understand and consider the great peril, and love the small diligence. In the past Hàn zǔ by fortune already himself possessed the Three Qín’s lands, why did he not close the passes and defend rough terrain, to amuse himself, but emptied it to go out to attack Chǔ, his body being wounded and bruised, in the armor growing lice, officers and soldiers loathe distress and bitterness, how was it that they enjoyed blades and forgot security and peace? It was only the consideration that in the long term they could not both survive! Every time reading how Jīng Hán advised Gōngsūn Shù with plans to seize initiative, and recently seeing my father’s younger brother memorializing explanation of plans to with the rebels contend and fight, never once have I not sighed. Morning to night tossing and turning, my thoughts are like this, and therefore I slightly explain my humble speech, to reach to the ends of you various gentlemen. If in one morning I fall and die, my ambitions and plans not established, may you honored sirs have the later generations know of my worries, and think of posterity.”

The masses all believed [Zhūgě] Kè in this discussion wished to certainly enact his words, and therefore none dared again criticize.

恪乃著論諭眾意曰:「夫天無二日,土無二王,王者不務兼并天下而欲垂祚後世,古今未之有也。昔戰國之時,諸侯自恃兵彊地廣,互有救援,謂此足以傳世,人莫能危。恣情從懷,憚於勞苦,使秦漸得自大,遂以并之,此既然矣。近者劉景升在荊州,有眾十萬,財穀如山,不及曹操尚微,與之力競,坐觀其彊大,吞滅諸袁。北方都定之後,操率三十萬眾來向荊州,當時雖有智者,不能復為畫計,於是景升兒子,交臂請降,遂為囚虜。凡敵國欲相吞,即仇讎欲相除也。有讎而長之,禍不在己,則在後人,不可不為遠慮也。昔伍子胥曰:『越十年生聚,十年教訓,二十年之外,吳其為沼乎!』夫差自恃彊大,聞此邈然,是以誅子胥而無備越之心,至於臨敗悔之,豈有及乎?越小於吳,尚為吳禍,況其彊大者邪?昔秦但得關西耳,尚以并吞六國,今賊皆得秦、趙、韓、魏、燕、齊九州之地,地悉戎馬之鄉,士林之藪。今以魏比古之秦,土地數倍;以吳與蜀比古六國,不能半之。然今所以能敵之,但以操時兵眾,於今適盡,而後生者未悉長大,正是賊衰少未盛之時。加司馬懿先誅王淩,續自隕斃,其子幼弱,而專彼大任,雖有智計之士,未得施用。當今伐之,是其厄會。聖人急於趨時,誠謂今日。若順眾人之情,懷偷安之計,以為長江之險可以傳世,不論魏之終始,而以今日遂輕其後,此吾所以長歎息者也。自(本)〔古〕以來,務在產育,今者賊民歲月繁滋,但以尚小,未可得用耳。若復十數年後,其眾必倍於今,而國家勁兵之地,皆已空盡,唯有此見眾可以定事。若不早用之,端坐使老,復十數年,略當損半,而見子弟數不足言。若賊眾一倍,而我兵損半,雖復使伊、管圖之,未可如何。今不達遠慮者,必以此言為迂。夫禍難未至而豫憂慮,此固眾人之所迂也。及於難至,然後頓顙,雖有智者,又不能圖。此乃古今所病,非獨一時。昔吳始以伍員為迂,故難至而不可救。劉景升不能慮十年之後,故無以詒其子孫。今恪無具臣之才,而受大吳蕭、霍之任,智與眾同,思不經遠,若不及今日為國斥境,俛仰年老,而讎敵更彊,欲刎頸謝責,寧有補邪?今聞眾人或以百姓尚貧,欲務閒息,此不知慮其大危,而愛其小勤者也。昔漢祖幸已自有三秦之地,何不閉關守險,以自娛樂,空出攻楚,身被創痍,介冑生蟣蝨,將士厭困苦,豈甘鋒刃而忘安寧哉?慮於長久不得兩存者耳!每覽荊邯說公孫述以進取之圖,近見家叔父表陳與賊爭競之計,未嘗不喟然歎息也。夙夜反側,所慮如此,故聊疏愚言,以達二三君子之末。若一朝隕歿,志畫不立,貴令來世知我所憂,可思於後。」眾皆以恪此論欲必為之辭,然莫敢復難。

Dānyáng Administrator Niè Yǒu previously with [Zhūgě] Kè was friendly, wrote letter to remonstrate [Zhūgě] Kè that said: “The greatly departed Imperial Emperor originally had plan to restrain Dōngguān, the plan was not yet enacted. Now your excellency assists and supports a great enterprise, achieved the Former Emperor’s ambition, the bandits from afar delivered themselves, the officers and soldiers depend on authority and virtue, send out themselves to enact orders, in one morning had extraordinary achievement, how is it not the good fortune of the Ancestral Temples Divine Spirits State Altars? It is appropriate to for a time organize troops and care for and sharpen, watch for quarrel and move. Now to ride on this momentum, wishing to again greatly set out, the natural timing cannot yet be. To yet negligently enact excessive intentions, my private heart cannot be at ease.” After [Zhūgě] Kè wrote his discussion, he made a letter to reply to [Niè] Yǒu that said: “Though you sir have natural reasoning, however you have not yet seen the great calculations. Carefully examining this discussion, can open your understanding.” Therefore, he opposed the masses and set out the army, greatly sending provinces and prefectures forces of two hundred thousand, the Hundred Surnames were disturbed, and he began to lose the people’s hearts.

丹楊太守聶友素與恪善,書諫恪曰:「大行皇帝本有遏東關之計,計未施行。今公輔贊大業,成先帝之志,寇遠自送,將士憑賴威德,出身用命,一旦有非常之功,豈非宗廟神靈社稷之福邪!宜且案兵養銳,觀釁而動。今乘此勢,欲復大出,天時未可。而苟任盛意,私心以為不安。」恪題論後,為書答友曰:「足下雖有自然之理,然未見大數。熟省此論,可以開悟矣。」於是違眾出軍,大發州郡二十萬眾,百姓騷動,始失人心。

[Zhūgě] Kè’s intentions were to wish to shine authority in Huáinán, drive on and plunder the people, but of the various officers some criticized this saying: “Now leading the army to deeply penetrate, the people of the borders, will certainly lead one another to keep distant and away, and one fears the troops will toil and yet the achievements will be few, it is not as good at stopping to besiege Xīnchéng, Xīnchéng will be destitute, rescue will certainly arrive, arriving and plotting against them, then they can be greatly captured.” [Zhūgě] Kè followed this plan, turning the army to return to besiege Xīnchéng. Attacked and defended for continuous moons, the city was not taken. The soldiers were weary, and because of hot weather drank water, had dysentery and swelling, the ill were over half, the dead and injured filled the ground. The various camp officials daily reported the ill were increasing, [Zhūgě] Kè believed it deception, wished to behead them, and from this none dared report. [Zhūgě] Kè inside thought the plan had failed, and was ashamed the city was not taken, anger showing in his expression. General Zhū Yì had a quarrel, [Zhūgě] Kè was angry, and immediately took away his troops. Commandant Cài Lín repeatedly laid out army plans, [Zhūgě] Kè would not use them, and he whipped horse to flee to Wèi. Wèi knew the battlefield soldiers were ill, and so advanced rescue troops. [Zhūgě] Kè led the army and left. The soldiers injured and ill drifted and dragged on the roads, some falling into pits and ravines, some met with plunder and capture, the living and dead were angered and pained, large and small crying and sighing, but [Zhūgě] Kè was quiet and at ease. He went out to station a Jiāng’s bank for one moon, plotting to raise farms at Xúnyáng, Imperial Order summoned him continuously, and gradually then he returned the forces. Because of this the masses lost hope, and complaints and insults rose.

恪意欲曜威淮南,驅略民人,而諸將或難之曰:「今引軍深入,疆埸之民,必相率遠遁,恐兵勞而功少,不如止圍新城。新城困,救必至,至而圖之,乃可大獲。」恪從其計,迴軍還圍新城。攻守連月,城不拔。士卒疲勞,因暑飲水,泄下流腫,病者大半,死傷塗地。諸營吏日白病者多,恪以為詐,欲斬之,自是莫敢言。恪內惟失計,而恥城不下,忿形於色。將軍朱異有所是非,恪怒,立奪其兵。都尉蔡林數陳軍計,恪不能用,策馬奔魏。魏知戰士罷病,乃進救兵。恪引軍而去。士卒傷病,流曳道路,或頓仆坑壑,或見略獲,存亡忿痛,大小呼嗟。而恪晏然自若。出住江渚一月,圖起田於潯陽,詔召相銜,徐乃旋師。由此眾庶失望,而怨黷興矣。

Autumn Eighth Moon the army returned, lining up the troops to guide and follow, returning to enter the Office buildings. At once summoned Internal Documents Director Sūn Hēi, and in stern voice said: “How dare you all recklessly make Imperial Orders repeatedly?” [Sūn] Hēi was frightened and asked to leave, and claiming illness returned home. After [Zhūgě] Kè went on campaign, the magistrates and chiefs and office managers that the departments had memorialized to install, were completely dismissed and again selected, to increase the governance of authority and strictness, many were punished and reprimanded, and of those that were about to advance to meet, none were not afraid and stopped. Also, he changed the Night Guard, employing his close and intimates, and again ordered the troops to be strict, wishing to head toward Qīng and Xú.

秋八月軍還,陳兵導從,歸入府館。即召中書令孫嘿,厲聲謂曰:「卿等何敢妄數作詔?」嘿惶懼辭出,因病還家。恪征行之後,曹所奏署令長職司,一罷更選,愈治威嚴,多所罪責,當進見者,無不竦息。又改易宿衛,用其親近,復敕兵嚴,欲向青、徐。

Sūn Jùn because the people had many complaints, the masses had many resentments, framed [Zhūgě] Kè as wishing to rebel, with [Sūn] Liàng plotted, and set liquor to invite [Zhūgě] Kè. The night before [Zhūgě] Kè was about to meet, he was agitated and disturbed, through the night he did not sleep. The next day when about to wash and rinse, he smelled in the water a putrid odor, the servants gave him his clothes, the clothes also had an odor. [Zhūgě] Kè was bewildered by this, changed clothes and changed water, the odor was as before, his thoughts were melancholy and displeased. When he finished and hastened to go out, his dog bit and pulled his clothes, [Zhūgě] Kè said: “The dog does not wish me to go?” He returned and sat, quickly then again rose, the dog again bit his clothes, [Zhūgě] Kè ordered the attendants to walk the dog, and therefore ascended carriage.

孫峻因民之多怨,眾之所嫌,搆恪欲為變,與亮謀,置酒請恪。恪將見之夜,精爽擾動,通夕不寐。明將盥漱,聞水腥臭,侍者授衣,衣服亦臭。恪怪其故,易衣易水,其臭如初,意惆悵不悅。嚴畢趨出,犬銜引其衣,恪曰:「犬不欲我行乎?」還坐,頃刻乃復起,犬又銜其衣,恪令從者逐犬,遂升車。

Previously, when [Zhūgě] Kè was about to campaign against Huáinán, there was a filial son wearing mourning hemp clothes that entered the side door, the attendants reported him, and ordered him outside to interrogate him, the filial son said: “I unconsciously entered.” At the time inside and outside were on guard, and also all had not seen him, the masses were all confused by this. After [Zhūgě Kè] went out, in the reception hall where he sat the pillars broke. Since Xīnchéng going out to station Dōngxīng, there was a white rainbow sighted at his boat, and when he returned to pay respects at Jiǎnglíng, a white rainbow again wrapped around his carriage.

初,恪將征淮南,有孝子著縗衣入其閤中,從者白之,令外詰問,孝子曰:「不自覺入。」時中外守備,亦悉不見,眾皆異之。出行之後,所坐廳事屋棟中折。自新城出住東興,有白虹見其船,還拜蔣陵,白虹復繞其車。

When about to meet, he stationed his chariot at the Palace gates, [Sūn] Jùn already hid troops in the curtains, feared [Zhūgě] Kè would not timely enter and the matter had leaked, personally went out to meet [Zhūgě] Kè and said: “If your honored body is not at ease, you can wait at the rear, and I [Sūn] Jùn will go report to the ruler above,” wishing to test [Zhūgě] Kè. [Zhūgě] Kè replied saying: “With my own strength I can enter.” Cavalier Regular Attendants Zhāng Yuē, Zhū Ēn and others secretly wrote letter to [Zhūgě] Kè saying: “Today’s set up is not ordinary, one suspects there is another reason.” [Zhūgě] Kè examined the letter and left. He had not yet gone out the gates, when he met Minister of Ceremonies Téng Yìn, [Zhūgě] Kè said: “Suddenly my stomach hearts, and I cannot enter.” [Téng] Yìn did not know of [Sūn] Jùn’s secret plan, and said to [Zhūgě] Kè: “You have come and are going without yet meeting, now the Ascended has set up liquor to invite you, you are already at the gates, you should put in the strength to enter.” [Zhūgě] Kè hesitated and returned, with sword and shoe ascending the Palace Hall, apologizing to [Sūn] Liàng, and returned to sit. The liquor was set out, [Zhūgě] Kè was suspicious and did not yet drink, [Sūn] Jùn therefore said: “If your illness is not yet recovered, you should regularly drink drugged liquor, and can yourself take it.” [Zhūgě] Kè’s thoughts were then settled, and he separately drank the offered liquor. (1) The liquor had several times been passed, [Sūn] Liàng returned inside. [Sūn] Jùn rose to go to the lavatory, took off his long robes, put on short clothes, and went out saying: “There is Imperial Order to arrest Zhūgě Kè!” (2) [Zhūgě] Kè was alarmed and rose, was about to draw his sword, but [Sūn] Jùn’s blade already came down. Zhāng Yuē from the side chopped at [Sūn] Jùn, cutting and injuring his left hand, [Sūn] Jùn in answer personally chopped at [Zhāng] Yuē, cutting off the right arm. The Martial Guard soldiers all hurried up the Hall, [Sūn] Jùn said: “The one to arrest was [Zhūgě] Kè, now he is already dead.” All were ordered to sheathe blades, and then clean the ground and again drink. (3)

及將見,駐車宮門,峻已伏兵於帷中,恐恪不時入,事泄,自出見恪曰:「使君若尊體不安,自可須後,峻當具白主上。」欲以嘗知恪。恪答曰:「當自力入。」散騎常侍張約、朱恩等密書與恪曰:「今日張設非常,疑有他故。」恪省書而去。未出路門,逢太常滕胤,恪曰:「卒腹痛,不任入。」胤不知峻陰計,謂恪曰:「君自行旋未見,今上置酒請君,君已至門,宜當力進。」恪躊躇而還,劍履上殿,謝亮,還坐。設酒,恪疑未飲,峻因曰:「使君病未善平,當有常服藥酒,自可取之。」恪意乃安,別飲所齎酒。〔一〕酒數行,亮還內。峻起如廁,解長衣,著短服,出曰:「有詔收諸葛恪!」〔二〕恪驚起,拔劍未得,而峻刀交下。張約從旁斫峻,裁傷左手,峻應手斫約,斷右臂。武衛之士皆趨上殿,峻云:「所取者恪也,今已死。」悉令復刃,乃除地更飲。〔三〕

  • (1) Wú lì states: Zhāng Yuē and Zhū Ēn secretly memorialized to report to [Zhūgě] Kè, [Zhūgě] Kè showed this to Téng Yìn, [Téng] Yìn advised [Zhūgě] Kè to return, [Zhūgě] Kè said: “[Sūn] Jùn the little fellow has what ability to do evil? I only fear because of drink he will hit.” Therefore he with drug liquor entered.
  • Sūn Shèng’s Píng states: [Zhūgě] Kè with [Téng] Yìn were very close, [Zhāng] Yuē and the rest were distant, it was an unusual great affair, in the situation he should show it to [Téng] Yìn, together plan safety and danger. However, [Zhūgě] Kè by nature was domineering, and formerly had ridiculed [Sūn] Jùn, himself did not believe it, and therefore entered, how could [Téng] Yìn’s little advice then lead him to recklessly face disaster? Wú lì is superior.

〔一〕 吳歷曰:張約、朱恩密疏告恪,恪以示滕胤,胤勸恪還,恪曰:「峻小子何能為邪!但恐因酒食中人耳。」乃以藥酒入。孫盛評曰:恪與胤親厚,約等疏,非常大事,勢應示胤,共謀安危。然恪性強梁,加素侮峻,自不信,故入,豈胤微勸,便為之冒禍乎?吳歷為長。

  • (2) Wú lù states: [Sūn] Jùn carrying saber claimed Imperial Order to arrest [Zhūgě] Kè, [Sūn] Liàng stood up and said: “Not my doing! Not my doing!” The wet nurse led [Sūn] Liàng back inside.
  • Wú lì says [Sūn] Jùn first led [Sūn] Liàng inside, and afterward went out to claim Imperial Order. It is with the base biography the same. Your Servant Sōngzhī believes [Sūn] Jùn in wishing to claim Imperial Order, should be as in the base biography and Wú lì, it could not have been like Wú lù

〔二〕 吳錄曰:峻提刀稱詔收恪,亮起立曰:「非我所為!非我所為!」乳母引亮還內。吳歷云:峻先引亮入,然後出稱詔。與本傳同。臣松之以為峻欲稱詔,宜如本傳及吳歷,不得如吳錄所言。

  • (3) Sōushén jì states: [Zhūgě] Kè had entered and had already been killed, his wife was at home, and said to a maidservant: “Why do you smell like blood?” The maidservant said: “I don’t.” After a while it became all the stronger, and she again asked the maidservant: “Your eyes in looking out, why is it out of the ordinary?” The maidservant stumbled and jumped up, head striking a pillar, waving arms and gnashing teeth and saying: “Excellency Zhūgě has been killed by Sūn Jùn!” Therefore, the large and small knew [Zhūgě] Kè had died, and officials and troops quickly arrived.
  • Zhìlín states: Previously [Sūn] Quán was critically ill, and summoned [Zhūgě] Kè to assist the government. When about to go, Marshal-in-Chief Lǚ Dài warned him saying: “The world will soon have many troubles, you in every affair must think ten times.” [Zhūgě] Kè replied saying: “In the past Jì Wén-zǐ thought three times and afterward acted, the master said: ‘Thinking two times is enough,’ now you tell me to think ten times, it is to mean that I am inferior.” [Lǚ] Dài was without a reply. At the time all said he misspoke.
  • Yú Xǐ states: To be entrusted with Heaven’s Under is utmost severity, to as a servant of men enact a ruler’s authority is utmost difficulty. To combine these two and manage all affairs, those able to succeed in this are few. If it is not one who can choose and accept out of various plans, inquiring after the wood cutters, empty oneself in receiving others, always feel what is not sufficient, then accomplishment and fame are not achieved, merits and exploits are not established. Moreover, Lord Lǚ [Dài] was the state’s foremost elder, wise in judgement and his understanding far-reaching, but to with thinking ten times warn him, and then to for revealing inferiority be met with refusal, this is [Zhūgě Kè] Yuánxùn’s negligence, and so ingenuity and wisdom are not the same. If he had followed the meaning of thinking ten times, widely consulting the present time’s affairs, listening for the good as quickly as thunder, following remonstration as eagerly as wind, how could he lose his head in the palace halls, and die by a vicious petty man’s blade? The time’s people wondered at his outstanding debating, its speed could be admired, but to sneer at Lord Lǚ [Dài] being without reply as vulgarity, to not think of the considerations of safety and danger from beginning to end, is to rejoice in the flourishing of spring flowers, and forget the sweet tastes of autumn fruits. In the past the Wèi men attacked Shǔ, the Shǔ men resisted them, the elite and strict set out, the Six Armies like clouds disturbed, soldiers and horses wearing armor, feathered dispatches continuously moving, Fèi Yī at the time was the primary commander, carrying the state’s heavy burden, but with Lái Mǐn played encircling chess, his thoughts without weariness. [Lái] Mǐn on taking leave said to [Fèi] Yī: “You certainly are one able to handle the rebels,” speaking of his understanding of strategy and inner determination, his appearance without worried expression. Kuàng Chángníng believed a gentleman in overlooking affairs and fearing, is one is good at planning and succeeds. Moreover, Shǔ was a small state, but was about to face a large enemy, what it planned and what it plotted, was only defending or battling, how could one boast of oneself with abundance, and be at ease without sorrow? This then was the lenience and simplicity of his character, to not guard against the minute, and in the end he by the surrendered man Guō Xiū was harmed, how was it not an omen seen there and disaster completed here? In the past one heard of Chángníng’s evaluation of [Fèi Yī] Wénwěi, now seeing [Zhūgě Kè] Yuánxùn’s opposition to Lord Lǚ [Dài], the two matters in form are the same, and therefore combining and recording them, can be a mirror for warning to posterity, to forever for the world to reflect.

〔三〕 搜神記曰:恪入,已被殺,其妻在室,〔語〕使婢(語)曰:「汝何故血臭?」婢曰:「不也。」有頃愈劇,又問婢曰:「汝眼目視瞻,何以不常?」婢蹷然起躍,頭至于棟,攘臂切齒而言曰:「諸葛公乃為孫峻所殺!」於是大小知恪死矣,而吏兵尋至。志林曰:初權病篤,召恪輔政。臨去,大司馬呂岱戒之曰:「世方多難,子每事必十思。」恪答曰:「昔季文子三思而後行,夫子曰『再思可矣』,今君令恪十思,明恪之劣也。」岱無以答,當時咸謂之失言。虞喜曰:夫託以天下至重也,以人臣行主威至難也,兼二至而管萬機,能勝之者鮮矣。自非採納群謀,詢于芻蕘,虛己受人,恆若不足,則功名不成,勳績莫著。況呂侯國之先耆,智度經遠,而甫以十思戒之,而便以示劣見拒,此元遜之疏,乃機神不俱者也。若因十思之義,廣諮當世之務,聞善速於雷動,從諫急於風移,豈得隕首殿堂,死凶豎之刃?世人奇其英辯,造次可觀,而哂呂侯無對為陋,不思安危終始之慮,是樂春藻之繁華,而忘秋實之甘口也。昔魏人伐蜀,蜀人禦之,精嚴垂發,六軍雲擾,士馬擐甲,羽檄交馳,費禕時為元帥,荷國任重,而與來敏圍碁,意無厭倦。敏臨別謂禕:「君必能辦賊者也。」言其明略內定,貌無憂色,況長寧以為君子臨事而懼,好謀而成者。且蜀為蕞爾之國,而方向大敵,所規所圖,唯守與戰,何可矜己有餘,晏然無戚?斯乃性之寬簡,不防細微,卒為降人郭脩所害,豈非兆見於彼而禍成於此哉?往聞長寧之甄文偉,今睹元遜之逆呂侯,二事體同,故並而載之,可以鏡誡于後,永為世鑒。

Before this, a child’s rhyme said: “Zhūgě Kè, reed mat robed and bamboo splint gōuluò, why seek the Chéngzǐ Hé?” Chéngzǐ Hé reversed says Shízǐ Gāng. Jiànyè’s south had a mountain ridge, named Shízǐ Gāng [‘Stone Ridge’], where burials were made. Gōuluò is a buckle ornament leather belt, at the time called a Gōuluò belt. [Zhūgě] Kè indeed had his body wrapped in a reed mat with bamboo splints binding the waist, and thrown into this ridge.

先是,童謠曰:「諸葛恪,蘆葦單衣篾鉤落,於何相求成子閤。」成子閤者,反語石子岡也。建業南有長陵,名曰石子岡,葬者依焉。鉤落者,校飾革帶,世謂之鉤絡帶。恪果以葦席裹其身而篾束其腰,投之於此岡。〔一〕

  • (1) Wú lù states: [Zhūgě] Kè at the time was aged fifty-one.

〔一〕 吳錄曰:恪時年五十一。

[Zhūgě] Kè’s eldest son Chuò was a Cavalry Commandant, in connection to the King of Lǔ affair, [Sūn] Quán sent him to [Zhūgě] Kè, ordering him to instruct him, [Zhūgě] Kè poisoned and killed him. Middle son [Zhūgě] Sǒng was Cháng River Colonel. Youngest son [Zhūgě] Jiàn was Infantry Colonel. Hearing that [Zhūgě] Kè was executed, they with a carriage brought their mother and fled. [Sūn] Jùn sent cavalry commander Liú Chéng to pursue and beheaded [Zhūgě] Sǒng at Báidū. [Zhūgě] Jiàn was able to cross the Jiāng, wishing to flee north to Wèi, went several tens of lǐ, and was by pursuing troops seized. [Zhūgě] Kè’s sister’s sons, capital village Lord Zhāng Zhèn and Regular Attendant Zhū Ēn and others, were all exterminated three clans.

恪長子綽,騎都尉,以交關魯王事,權遣付恪,令更教誨,恪鴆殺之。中子竦,長水校尉。少子建,步兵校尉。聞恪誅,車載其母而走。峻遣騎督劉承追斬竦於白都。建得渡江,欲北走魏,行數十里,為追兵所逮。恪外甥都鄉侯張震及常侍朱恩等,皆夷三族。

Previously, [Zhūgě] Sǒng had repeatedly remonstrated [Zhūgě] Kè, [Zhūgě] Kè did not listen, and he was always apprehensive of disaster. When he died, Línhuái’s Zāng Jūn memorialized begging to collect and bury [Zhūgě] Kè saying:

“I your servant have heard that shaking lightning and thunder arousing, does not end in one morning; great wind charging and blowing, rarely has the utmost sun. However, yet it continues in cloud and rain, and therefore moistens things, and therefore then the authority of Heaven and Earth, cannot continue for days and drench through time, and the anger of Emperors and kings, should not be complete in feeling and exhaustive in intention. As I your servant am mad and foolish, not knowing to avoid taboos, I dare brave punishments of destruction, and invite the meeting of wind and rain. In prostration remembering that former Grand Tutor Zhūgě Kè carried on his ancestor’s flowing intensity, his various uncles and father encountered the exhaustion of Hàn’s blessings, the Nine Provinces were set in a tripod, divided into three sides, and together they walked in loyalty and diligence, glorifying the era’s enterprise. Then reaching to [Zhūgě] Kè, born and grown in the state, raised and educated by sagely cultivation, so that his name was outstanding and great, he served in affairs for accumulated ages, a disastrous heart never sprouted, the Former Emperor entrusted him with the appointment of Yī and Zhōu, assigned all affairs. [Zhūgě] Kè by nature was stubborn, esteemed himself and disparaged others, could not venerate and defend the Divine Vessels, quiet and calm the country’s interior; raising achievement and deploying armies, in not even a year three times setting out, in vain spending soldiers and people, emptying and exhausting the government stores, usurping control of the state, removing and changing by his wishes, wielding punishments to move the masses, large and small holding breath. Attendant Internal and Martial Guard General capital village Lord [Sūn Jùn] also received the Former Emperor’s Imperial Order of entrustment, saw his treachery and oppressiveness, day and moon growing more extreme, feared it was about to sweep through and shake the cosmos, overturn and endanger the State Altars, exerted his authority and anger, vitality piercing the clear sky, planned and thought first of the divine intelligences, wisdom and valor a hundred that of Jīng [Kē] and Niè [Zhèng], personally wielding bare blade, beheading [Zhūgě] Kè in the Palace Hall, the merit exceeding Zhū Xū, the achievement surpassing Dōngmóu. The state’s foremost harm in one morning was greatly removed, sending the head to display it, the Six Armies leapt in joy, the sun and moon, the sun and moon increased in light, wind and dust did not move, this truly was the Ancestral Temple’s divine spirits, Heaven and Men together verifying. Now [Zhūgě] Kè father and his sons of three heads are hung in the market for accumulated days, those that have seen are several tens of thousands, the sounds of curses becoming wind. The state’s great punishment, none have not been shaken, the grown and old and children and young, none have not completely seen it. Human feelings in grading, when joy is utmost then sorrow appears, observing that [Zhūgě] Kè’s nobility was flourishing, of the world none did not with him share in treachery, he himself occupied the terrace as assistant, at central for successive years, now that he has been exterminated, he is no different from birds and beasts, when the watching finishes then feelings will reverse, can they not but be sorrowful and pity? Moreover, a man who has already died, is of the same domain as soil and dirt, chiseling and digging and copping and stabbing, is to add nothing. May the Sagely Court examine the nature of heaven and earth, and have anger not extend for long, and have his townsmen or former officials and people, collect with common soldier uniform, and endow with three cùn coffin. In the past Xiàng Jí received land for burial, Hán Xìn obtained grace of body collection, this then was how Hàn Gāo [Liú Bāng] enacted the acclaim of the divine intelligences. Considering that Your Majesty is kind as the Three August’s benevolence, pass down sorrowful and pitying heart, to have the state’s generosity be applied to the bones of a dead criminal, to have it again receive unending grace, to thus raise acclaim to distant regions, stop the warnings of Heaven’s Under, would it not be grand? In the past Luán Bù violated order for Péng Yuè, I your servant humbly regret this, that he did not first request from the Ruler Above, and seized reputation by private feeling, that he was not executed, truly was only by fortune. Now I your servant do not dare announce my foolish feelings, to reveal Heaven’s grace, and cautiously submit hand-written letter, to presumptuously explain report, and beg the Sagely Court to pity and investigate.”

Therefore [Sūn] Liàng and [Sūn] Jùn agreed to have [Zhūgě] Kè’s former subordinates collect for burial, and therefore sought it from Shízǐ gāng.

初,竦數諫恪,恪不從,常憂懼禍。及亡,臨淮臧均表乞收葬恪曰:「臣聞震雷電激,不崇一朝,大風衝發,希有極日,然猶繼以雲雨,因以潤物,是則天地之威,不可經日浹辰,帝王之怒,不宜訖情盡意。臣以狂愚,不知忌諱,敢冒破滅之罪,以邀風雨之會。伏念故太傅諸葛恪得承祖考風流之烈,伯叔諸父遭漢祚盡,九州鼎立,分託三方,並履忠勤,熙隆世業。爰及於恪,生長王國,陶育聖化,致名英偉,服事累紀,禍心未萌,先帝委以伊、周之任,屬以萬機之事。恪素性剛愎,矜己陵人,不能敬守神器,穆靜邦內,興功暴師,未期三出,虛耗士民,空竭府藏,專擅國憲,廢易由意,假刑劫眾,大小屏息。侍中武衛將軍都鄉侯俱受先帝囑寄之詔,見其奸虐,日月滋甚,將恐蕩搖宇宙,傾危社稷,奮其威怒,精貫昊天,計慮先於神明,智勇百於荊、聶,躬持白刃,梟恪殿堂,勳超朱虛,功越東牟。國之元害,一朝大除,馳首徇示,六軍喜踊,日月增光,風塵不動,斯實宗廟之神靈,天人之同驗也。今恪父子三首,縣市積日,觀者數萬,詈聲成風。國之大刑,無所不震,長老孩幼,無不畢見。人情之於品物,樂極則哀生,見恪貴盛,世莫與貳,身處台輔,中閒歷年,今之誅夷,無異禽獸,觀訖情反,能不憯然!且已死之人,與土壤同域,鑿掘斫刺,無所復加。願聖朝稽則乾坤,怒不極旬,使其鄉邑若故吏民,收以士伍之服,惠以三寸之棺。昔項籍受殯葬之地,韓信獲收斂之恩,斯則漢高發神明之譽也。惟陛下敦三皇之仁,垂哀矜之心,使國澤加於辜戮之骸,復受不已之恩,於以揚聲遐方,沮勸天下,豈不弘哉!昔欒布矯命彭越,臣竊恨之,不先請主上,而專名以肆情,其得不誅,實為幸耳。今臣不敢章宣愚情,以露天恩,謹伏手書,冒昧陳聞,乞聖朝哀察。」於是亮、峻聽恪故吏斂葬,遂求之於石子岡。〔一〕

  • (1) Jiāngbiǎo zhuàn states: The Court ministers had some request to for [Zhūgě] Kè establish a stele to engrave his achievements, Academic Scholar Shèng Chōng believed it was not appropriate. Sūn Xiū said: “In the height of summer he set out the army, the soldiers were wounded and injured, without any measure of achievement, so he cannot be said to be able; he received appointment to be entrusted with the orpham, but died at a petty fellow’s hand, so he cannot be called wise. [Shèng] Chōng’s commentary is correct.” Therefore, it was put to rest.

〔一〕 江表傳曰:朝臣有乞為恪立碑以銘其勳績者,博士盛沖以為不應。孫休曰:「盛夏出軍,士卒傷損,無尺寸之功,不可謂能;受託孤之任,死於豎子之手,不可謂智。沖議為是。」遂寢。

Previously when [Zhūgě] Kè retreated and the army returned, Niè Yǒu knew he was about to be destroyed, and in a letter to Téng Yìn said: “When the man was strong and flourishing, he could pull out rivers and mountains. In one morning, he is lean and reduced, human feelings are all ended, speaking of it is sorrowful.” After [Zhūgě] Kè was executed, Sūn Jùn feared [Niè] Yǒu, and wished to appoint him Yùlín Administrator, [Niè] Yǒu fell ill and in anxiety died. [Niè] Yǒu appellation Wéntì was a Yùzhāng man. (1)

始恪退軍還,聶友知其將敗,書與滕胤曰:「當人彊盛,河山可拔,一朝羸縮,人情萬端,言之悲歎。」恪誅後,孫峻忌友,欲以為鬱林太守,友發病憂死。友字文悌,豫章人也。〔一〕

  • (1) Wú lù states: [Niè] Yǒu had ability in speech, when young became a county official. When Yú Fān was exiled to Jiāo province, the county magistrate sent [Niè] Yǒu to send him off, [Yú] Fān with him spoke and was impressed with him, and wrote a letter to Yùzhāng Administrator Xiè Fěi, ordering him to be a Merit Officer. The prefecture at the time had a Merit Officer, [Xiè] Fěi met him, and asked: “County official Niè Yǒu can undertake what office?” Replied saying: “This man in the county is only a minor official, but he can be a Merit Officer’s assistant.” [Xiè] Fěi said: “Commentators believe he should be a Merit Officer; you can vacate it.” Thus, employed him as a Merit Officer. He was sent to the capital, Zhūgě Kè befriended him. At the time discussers said that Gù [Tán] Zǐhēi and [Gù Chéng] Zǐzhí could not have anyone else come among them [in Zhūgě Kè’s circle of friends], [Zhūgě] Kè wished to have [Niè] Yǒu join among them, and because of this he became famed. Later he became a military officer, suppressed Dān’ěr, returned and was appointed Dānyáng Administrator, aged thirty-three he died.

〔一〕 吳錄曰:友有脣吻,少為縣吏。虞翻徙交州,縣令使友送之,翻與語而奇焉,為書與豫章太守謝斐,令以為功曹。郡時見有功曹,斐見之,問曰:「縣吏聶友,可堪何職?」對曰:「此人縣閒小吏耳,猶可堪曹佐。」斐曰:「論者以為宜作功曹,君其避之。」乃用為功曹。使至都,諸葛恪友之。時論謂顧子嘿、子直,其閒無所復容,恪欲以友居其閒,由是知名。後為將,討儋耳,還拜丹楊太守,年三十三卒。

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