(57.1) Yú Fān 虞翻 [Zhòngxiáng 仲翔]

Yú Fān appellation Zhòngxiáng was a Kuàijī Yúyáo man, (1) the Administrator Wáng Lǎng mandated him as Merit Officer. Sūn Cè campaigned against Kuàijī, Fān at the time encountered his father’s passing, in mourning garments and headscarf visited the government office, [Wáng] Lǎng wished to meet him, Fān then removed his mourning garments and entered to meet, advising [Wáng] Lǎng to flee from [Sūn] Cè. [Wáng] Lǎng did not listen, resisted in battle and was utterly defeated, fleeing into the sea. Fān accompanied the camp protectors, arrived at the eastern part’s Hòuguān, the Hòuguān Chief closed the city and would not receive them, Fān went and persuaded him, and afterward they met with acceptance. (2) [Wáng] Lǎng said to Fān: “You have an aged mother, you can return.” (3) Fān then returned, [Sūn] Cè again mandated him as Merit Officer, treating him with the courtesy of making friends, personally visiting Fān’s mansion. (4)

虞翻字仲翔,會稽餘姚人也,〔一〕太守王朗命為功曹。孫策征會稽,翻時遭父喪,衰絰詣府門,朗欲就之,翻乃脫衰入見,勸朗避策。朗不能用,拒戰敗績,亡走浮海。翻追隨營護,到東部候官,候官長閉城不受,翻往說之,然後見納。〔二〕朗謂翻曰:「卿有老母,可以還矣。」〔三〕翻既歸,策復命為功曹,待以交友之禮,身詣翻第。〔四〕

  • (1) Wúshū states: Fān when young enjoyed scholarship, had high air. Aged twelve, there was a guest waiting for his elder brother, did not pass Fān, Fān sent a letter after him that said: “I have heard amber does not attract decayed plants, magnets do not draw bent needles, to pass and not obtain, is it not also appropriate?” The guest obtained the letter and was impressed with him, and from this he met with praise.

〔一〕 吳書曰:翻少好學,有高氣。年十二,客有候其兄者,不過翻,翻追與書曰:「僕聞虎魄不取腐芥,磁石不受曲鍼,過而不存,不亦宜乎!」客得書奇之,由是見稱。

  • (2) Wúshū states: Fān first wished to escort [Wáng] Lǎng to Guǎnglíng, [Wáng] Lǎng was deceived by Wáng Fāngpíng’s note saying “Danger comes seeking me, the southern peaks seek one another,” and therefore then went south. When reaching Hòuguān, he again wished to flee to Jiāo province, Fān remonstrated Lǎng: “This is only an absurd document. Jiāo province is without southern peaks, how can you flee there?” Thus he stopped.

  〔二〕 吳書曰:翻始欲送朗到廣陵,朗惑王方平記,言「疾來邀我,南岳相求」,故遂南行。既至候官,又欲投交州,翻諫朗曰:「此妄書耳,交州無南岳,安所投乎?」乃止。

  • (3) Fān Biézhuàn states: [Wáng] Lǎng sent Fān to meet Yùzhāng Administrator Huà Xīn, plotting to raise righteous troops. Fān had not yet reached Yùzhāng, heard Sūn Cè was heading toward Kuàijī, Fān thus returned. It happened he encountered his father’s passing, as a minister envoy having integrity, he did not dare pass home, in the night going and pursuing [Wáng] Lǎng to Hòuguān. [Wáng] Lǎng sent Fān back, and afterward he went to hold mourning.
  • But the biography says that at Sūn Cè’s coming, Fān in mourning garments and headscarf visited the office gates, urging [Wáng] Lǎng to avoid [Sūn] Cè, then this is a huge difference.

〔三〕 翻別傳曰:朗使翻見豫章太守華歆,圖起義兵。翻未至豫章,聞孫策向會稽,翻乃還。會遭父喪,以臣使有節,不敢過家,星行追朗至候官。朗遣翻還,然後奔喪。而傳云孫策之來,翻衰絰詣府門,勸朗避策,則為大異。

  • (4) Jiāngbiǎo zhuàn states: [Sūn] Cè’s letter said to Fān: “In today’s affairs, I and you will share in them, do not say that Sūn Cè treats you as [only] a prefecture official.”

〔四〕 江表傳曰:策書謂翻曰:「今日之事,當與卿共之,勿謂孫策作郡吏相待也。」


[Sūn] Cè enjoyed charging ahead in hunting expeditions, Fān remonstrated saying: “Your enlightened administratorship employs forces of crow gatherings, drives on dispersed and attached servicemen, all able to use their to-the-death strength, even Hàn Emperor Gāo does not match. As for recklessly going out in trivial travels, the following officials have no opportunity to be strict, the officials and soldiers always suffer from it. For a lord of men to not be serious then is to not be authoritative, and therefore the white dragon dressed as a fish was trapped by Yùqiě, the white serpent was at ease and Liú Jì armed it, may you give it some small consideration.” [Sūn] Cè said: “Your words are true. However at times I have thoughts, sitting upright in anxiety, having Pí Chén’s rough beginning plans, and therefore I go.” (1)

策好馳騁遊獵,翻諫曰:「明府用烏集之眾,驅散附之士,皆得其死力,雖漢高帝不及也。至於輕出微行,從官不暇嚴,吏卒常苦之。夫君人者不重則不威,故白龍魚服,困於豫且,白蛇自放,劉季害之,願少留意。」策曰:「君言是也。然時有所思,端坐悒悒,有裨諶草創之計,是以行耳。」〔一〕

  • (1) Wú shū states: [Sūn] Cè suppressed Shānyuè, beheading their chief commander, ordering all his left and right to separately go in pursuit of rebels, riding alone and meeting Fān in the mountains. Fān asked where his left and right attendants were, [Sūn] Cè said: “All going in pursuit of rebels.” Fān said: “This is dangerous!” He told [Sūn] Cè to dismount horse: “These grasses are deep, if suddenly there is an alarm, the horse will not be able to turn around, only lead it, holding bow and arrow on foot. I Fān am skilled in using lance, and request to go at the front.” They found flat ground, and urged [Sūn] Cè to mount horse. [Sūn] Cè said: “You are without horse, what about that?” Replied: “I Fān am able to go on foot, in a day I can go two hundred lǐ, from since the suppression campaigns, of the officials and troops none have been able to keep up with me Fān, your enlightened administratorship try spurring the horse, I Fān am able to on foot follow it.” Going they reached a large road, finding one drum official, [Sūn] Cè took a horn and personally sounded it, the division retainers noted the sound, and small and large all went out, and so followed all around, pacifying and settling three prefectures.
  • Jiāngbiǎo zhuàn states: [Sūn] Cè suppressed Huáng Zǔ, turned the army wishing to pass and take Yùzhāng, specially requesting Fān saying: “Huà Zǐyú personally has reputation, however he is not my match. Moreover one hears his battle preparations are extremely little, if he does not open the gates and yield the city, once the metal and drums shake, there cannot be lack of injury and harm, you then go at the front to announce my intentions.” Fān at once accepted the orders and took leave, directly arriving at the prefecture, requesting in plain robe and hemp headcloth to meet together with [Huà] Xīn, and said to Xīn: “In your own judgment of reputation within the seas, how do you compare with my humble prefecture’s former adminsitratorship Wáng [Lǎng]?” [Huà] Xīn said: “I do not match.” Fān said: “Are Yùzhāng’s supplies and provisions much or few? The equipment and weapons sharp or not? The servicemen and civilians in valor and resolution how do they compare with my humble prefecture?” Again said: “It does not compare.” Fān said: “Suppressing Rebels General [Sūn Cè]’s wisdom and strategy surpasses the age, he uses troops like a spirit, previously drove away Liú [Yáo, Governor of] Yángzhōu, this you personally witnessed, to the south settled my humble prefecture, and this you also have heard of. Now to wish defend an isolated city, you have yourself measured supplies and provisions, already know it is not enough, to not early make plans, the regret would be too late. Now the main army already goes to Jiāoqiū, I will then return and leave, tomorrow at noon if a welcome dispatch does not arrive, I will say goodbye to you.” Fān then left, Xīn in the next morning went out of the city, sending officials to welcome [Sūn] Cè. [Sūn] Cè then settled Yùzhāng, led the army back to Wú, feasted and bestowed on the officers and soldiers, calculated achievements to enact rewards, saying to Fān: “I in the past twice reached Shòuchūn, met Mǎ Mìdī, and with the central province’s scholar officials gathered, saying that our eastern region’s people only had many talents, but dislike learning and are not extensive, and in discussing meanings, there are things that are lacking. My thinking yet say it is not so. You are extensively learned with much heard, and therefore I previously wished to have you once visit Xǔ, to meet with the Court servicemen, to break the central state’s absurdly talking brats. You were not willing to go, so then I sent [Zhāng Hóng] Zǐgāng; I fear Zǐgāng cannot bind the brats and stop their tongues.” Fān said: “I Fān am your enlightened administratorship’s family treasure, and if I were show to others, and supposing others detained me, then I would leave your enlightened administratorship’s good assistance, and therefore previously I did not go.” [Sūn] Cè laughed and said: “Indeed.” Therefore he said: “I have suppression campaign matters, and cannot yet return to the office, you again as the merit officer will be my Xiāo Hé, and defend Kuàijī.” After three days, then sent Fān back to the prefecture.
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī believes: Wáng [Lǎng] and Huà [Xīn] two excellencies in troubled times, resisting ferocious and sharps edges was what both were not able to do. [Huà] Xīn’s reputation and virtue truly was higher than [Wáng] Lǎng, but Jiāngbiǎozhuàn narrates that Fān persuaded Huà [Xīn] saying ‘Within the seas in fame and reputation how do you compare to Wáng,’ this report is wrong. However, that Excellency Wáng [Lǎng] resisted in battle and Huà [Xīn] instead requested to submit, truly it was because when Sūn Cè first rose, his reputation was small and his forces few, and therefore Wáng [Lǎng] was able to raise troops, how was it being superior in warfare? [Sūn] Cè later had his authority and strength become flourishing, his power could not be matched, Huà [Xīn] estimating strength and stopping, was not necessarily because of [Yú Fān] Zhòngxiáng’s persuasion. If they had exchanged ground and position, also Huà [Xīn] would battle and Wáng [Lǎng] submit.
  • According to Wú lì it records Fān saying to [Huà] Xīn: “I have humbly heard that your enlightened administratorship with his administratorship Wáng [Lǎng] have equal fame in the central provinces, exemplars within the seas, and though I was away in the east, I always harbored reverence.” [Huà] Xīn replied: “I do not compare to Wáng [Lǎng, Administrator of] Kuàijī.” Fān again asked: “Have you to examined Yùzhāng’s elite troops, how does it compare to Kuàijī?” Replied: “It greatly does not compare.” Fān said: “Your enlightened adminsitratorship saying you do not compare to Wáng Kuāiji, is only modest talk; your elite troops not comparing to Kuàijī, truly is as you say.” Therefore he explained how exceptional was Sūn Cè’s talent and strategy, uniqueness in using troops, [Huà] Xīn then replied saying he would go. Fān went out, Xīn sent officials to welcome [Sūn] Cè.
  • The two reports have things not the same, this report is superior.

〔一〕 吳書曰:策討山越,斬其渠帥,悉令左右分行逐賊,獨騎與翻相得山中。翻問左右安在,策曰:「悉行逐賊。」翻曰:「危事也!」令策下馬:「此草深,卒有驚急,馬不及縈策,但牽之,執弓矢以步。翻善用矛,請在前行。」得平地,勸策乘馬。策曰:「卿無馬奈何?」答曰:「翻能步行,日可二百里,自征討以來,吏卒無及翻者,明府試躍馬,翻能疏步隨之。」行及大道,得一鼓吏,策取角自鳴之,部曲識聲,小大皆出,遂從周旋,平定三郡。江表傳曰:策討黃祖,旋軍欲過取豫章,特請翻語曰:「華子魚自有名字,然非吾敵也。加聞其戰具甚少,若不開門讓城,金鼓一震,不得無所傷害,卿便在前具宣孤意。」翻即奉命辭行,徑到郡,請被〈衤冓〉葛巾與(敵)〔歆〕相見,謂歆曰:「君自料名聲之在海內,孰與鄙郡故王府君?」歆曰:「不及也。」翻曰:「豫章資糧多少?器仗精否?士民勇果孰與鄙郡?」又曰:「不如也。」翻曰:「討逆將軍智略超世,用兵如神,前走劉揚州,君所親見,南定鄙郡,亦君所聞也。今欲守孤城,自料資糧,已知不足,不早為計,悔無及也。今大軍已次椒丘,僕便還去,明日日中迎檄不到者,與君辭矣。」翻既去,歆明旦出城,遣吏迎策。策既定豫章,引軍還吳,饗賜將士,計功行賞,謂翻曰:「孤昔再至壽春,見馬日磾,及與中州士大夫會,語我東方人多才耳,但恨學問不博,語議之間,有所不及耳。孤意猶謂未耳。卿博學洽聞,故前欲令卿一詣許,交見朝士,以折中國妄語兒。卿不願行,便使子綱;恐子綱不能結兒輩舌也。」翻曰:「翻是明府家寶,而以示人,人倘留之,則去明府良佐,故前不行耳。」策笑曰:「然。」因曰:「孤有征討事,未得還府,卿復以功曹為吾蕭何,守會稽耳。」後三日,便遣翻還郡。臣松之以為王、華二公於擾攘之時,抗猛銳之鋒,俱非所能。歆之名德,實高於朗,而江表傳述翻說華,云「海內名聲,孰與於王」,此言非也。然王公拒戰,華逆請服,實由孫策初起,名微眾寡,故王能舉兵,豈武勝哉?策後威力轉盛,勢不可敵,華量力而止,非必用仲翔之說也。若使易地而居,亦華戰王服耳。按吳歷載翻謂歆曰:「竊聞明府與王府君齊名中州,海內所宗,雖在東垂,常懷瞻仰。」歆答曰:「孤不如王會稽。」翻復問:「不審豫章精兵,何如會稽?」對曰:「大不如也。」翻曰:「明府言不如王會稽,謙光之譚耳;精兵不如會稽,實如尊教。」因述孫策才略殊異,用兵之奇,歆乃答云當去。(此說為勝也)翻出,歆遣吏迎策。二說有不同,〔此說為勝也〕。


Fān was sent out as Fùchūn Chief. [When Sūn] Cè died, the various chief clerks all wished to go out to visit the mourning, Fān said: “One fears in neighboring counties of the mountain peoples some are treacherous, to distantly leave the city walls, is certainly to cause the unexpected.” Therefore he remained set mourning dress and enacting mourning. The various counties all imitated this, so all was at peace. (1) Later Fān’s province recommended him as Abundant Talent, Hàn summoned him as Attendant Censor, Excellency Cáo as Excellency of Works recruited him, all he did not accept. (2)

翻出為富春長。策薨,諸長吏並欲出赴喪,翻曰:「恐鄰縣山民或有姦變,遠委城郭,必致不虞。」因留制服行喪。諸縣皆效之,咸以安寧。〔一〕後翻州舉茂才,漢召為侍御史,曹公為司空辟,皆不就。〔二〕

  • (1) Wúshū states: [Sūn] Cè died, [Sūn] Quán presided affairs. Settling Warfare Internal Cadet General [Sūn] Gǎo was [Sūn] Cè’s elder cousin, garrisoned Wūchéng, organized and commanded officials and troops, wishing to take Kuàijī. Kuàijī heard this, sent the people to defend the cities to wait for the successor ruler’s commands, and therefore ordered someone to inform [Sūn] Gǎo.
  • Kuàijī Diǎnlù records Fān persuading [Sūn] Gǎo: “His enlightened administratorship Supressing Rebels [General Sūn Cè] unexpectedly departed. Now the taking over of matters and presiding over of the forces, should be on the Filial and Incorrupt [candidate Sūn Quán], I Fān already with the whole prefecture’s officials and troops hold to the cities to firmly defend, certainly wishing to go out in a moment’s command, to for the Filial and Incorrupt remove harm, may you consider this.” Therefore [Sūn] Gǎo retreated.
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī notes: these two books say at the time of [Sūn] Cè’ death, Fān still was Merit Officer, with the base biography not the same.

〔一〕 吳書曰:策薨,權統事。定武中郎將暠,策之從兄也,屯烏程,整帥吏士,欲取會稽。會稽聞之,使民守城以俟嗣主之命,因令人告諭暠。會稽典錄載翻說暠曰:「討逆明府,不竟天年。今攝事統眾,宜在孝廉,翻已與一郡吏士,嬰城固守,必欲出一旦之命,為孝廉除害,惟執事圖之。」於是暠退。臣松之案:此二書所說策亡之時,翻猶為功曹,與本傳不同。

  • (2) Wúshū states: Fān heard Excellency Cáo’s recruitment and said: “Does Bandit Zhí wish to use his excess wealth to defile a good family?” Therefore he refused and would not accept.

〔二〕 吳書曰:翻聞曹公辟,曰:「盜跖欲以餘財污良家邪?」遂拒不受。


Fān to Minister Treasurer Kǒng Róng wrote letter, and further showed the annotations he had written. [Kǒng] Róng’s reply letter said: “Hearing of Yánlíng’s music, seeing your management of the Yì, is to then know of the southeast’s beauty, it is not only Kuàijī’s bamboo arrows. Also [your] observing images of cloud forms, examining answer of cold and warmth, originating their disaster or fortune, with divinity joining in accord, it can be said to explore the mysterious with exhaustive understanding.”

Kuàijī East Division Commandant Zhāng Hóng also with [Kǒng] Róng wrote letter that said: “Yú Zhòngxiáng formerly tended to be criticized by commentators; a beautiful treasure is his character: engraving and polishing it increases its brightness, it is not enough to damage it.”

翻與少府孔融書,并示以所著易注。融答書曰:「聞延陵之理樂,睹吾子之治易,乃知東南之美者,非徒會稽之竹箭也。又觀象雲物,察應寒溫,原其禍福,與神合契,可謂探賾窮通者也。」會稽東部都尉張紘又與融書曰:「虞仲翔前頗為論者所侵,美寶為質,彫摩益光,不足以損。」


Sūn Quán appointed him Cavalry Commandant. Fān repeatedly was offensive and remonstrated and argued, [Sūn] Quán could not be pleased, and also by nature he was not cooperative with people, often met with slander and defamation, and in connection was exiled to Dānyáng’s Jīng county. Lǚ Méng plotted to take Guān Yǔ, claimed illness and returned to Jiànyè, and as Fān also was knowledgeable in medical techniques, invited him to personally accompany, also wishing to take advantage of this to have Fān obtain release. Later [Lǚ] Méng raised army going west upstream, Nán prefecture administrator Mí Fāng  opened the city and went out to surrender. [Lǚ] Méng had not yet occupied the prefecture city and yet made merry on the sand, Fān said to Méng: “Now we have a trifling one heart of General Mí, of the people inside the city how can they be completely trusted, why not urgently enter the city to grab their keys?” [Lǚ] Méng at once followed this. At the time in the city there was an ambush plan, due to Fān’s plan it could not be enacted. When Guān Yǔ was defeated, [Sūn] Quán had Fān divine it, obtaining Duì bottom Kǎn top, Jié, five lines changing to Lín. Fān said: “In not more than two days, he certainly will have head cut off.” Indeed it was as Fān said. [Sūn] Quán said: “[Even if] you do not match Fú Xī, you can be with Dōngfāng Shuò compared.”

孫權以為騎都尉。翻數犯顏諫爭,權不能悅,又性不協俗,多見謗毀,坐徙丹楊涇縣。呂蒙圖取關羽,稱疾還建業,以翻兼知醫術,請以自隨,亦欲因此令翻得釋也。後蒙舉軍西上,南郡太守麋芳開城出降。蒙未據郡城而作樂沙上,翻謂蒙曰:「今區區一心者麋將軍也,城中之人豈可盡信,何不急入城持其管籥乎?」蒙即從之。時城中有伏計,賴翻謀不行。關羽既敗,權使翻筮之,得兌下坎上,節,五爻變之臨,翻曰:「不出二日,必當斷頭。」果如翻言。權曰:「卿不及伏羲,可與東方朔為比矣。」


Wèi officer Yú Jīn was by [Guān] Yǔ captured, bound inside the city, [Sūn] Quán arrived and released him, and invited him to meet. On another day, [Sūn] Quán rode horse and went out, leading [Yú] Jīn to go together, Fān shouted at [Yú] Jīn: “You surrendered caitiff, how dare you with my master have equal horse head?” He wished to raise whip to strike [Yú] Jīn, [Sūn] Quán shouted to stop him. Later [Sūn] Quán in a tower ship gathered the various ministers to drink, [Yú] Jīn on hearing the music shed tears, Fān again said: “You wish to by this falsely seek pardon?” [Sūn] Quán was displeased and dissatisfied. (1)

魏將于禁為羽所獲,繫在城中,權至釋之,請與相見。他日,權乘馬出,引禁併行,翻呵禁曰:「爾降虜,何敢與吾君齊馬首乎!」欲抗鞭擊禁,權呵止之。後權于樓船會群臣飲,禁聞樂流涕,翻又曰:「汝欲以偽求免邪?」權悵然不平。〔一〕

  • (1) Wú shū states: Later [Sūn] Quán with Wèi made peace, and wished to send [Yú] Jīn back to return north, Fān again remonstrated saying: “[Yú] Jīn lost a force of several tens of thousands, himself is a surrendered caitiff, and also could not die. The north is accustomed to military government, and obtaining him certainly will not use him. Returning him though is not a loss, yet it is releasing a bandit, it is not as good as beheading him to warn the Three Armies, to show to those servants of men who have two hearts.” [Sūn] Quán did not listen. The various ministers sent off [Yú] Jīn, Fān said to [Yú] Jīn: “You do not say Wú is without men, it is only that my plan happened to not be used.” [Yú] Jīn though was by Fān hated, however he yet sighed in praise of Fān, Wèi Emperor Wén [Cáo Pī] always for Fān prepared an empty seat.

〔一〕 吳書曰:後權與魏和,欲遣禁還歸北,翻復諫曰:「禁敗數萬眾,身為降虜,又不能死。北習軍政,得禁必不如所規。還之雖無所損,猶為放盜,不如斬以令三軍,示為人臣有二心者。」權不聽。群臣送禁,翻謂禁曰:「卿勿謂吳無人,吾謀適不用耳。」禁雖為翻所惡,然猶盛歎翻,魏文帝常為翻設虛坐。


When [Sūn] Quán became King of Wú, at the end of a feast, he personally rose to pass the alcohol, Fān lay on the ground and acted intoxicated, not accepting. [Sūn] Quán left, Fān rose and sat. [Sūn] Quán because of this was greatly furious, hand wielding sword wishing to strike him, of the attendants and the seated none were not frightened, only Minister of Agriculture Liú Jī rose and embraced [Sūn] Quán remonstrating: “If you great king after three goblets personally kill an excellent serviceman, even though Fān is guilty, Under Heaven who will understand that? Moreover you Great King due to your ability to tolerate the worthy and care for the masses therefore have those within the seas looking on. To now in one morning abandon it, can it be?” [Sūn] Quán said: “Cáo [Cāo] Mèngdé yet killed Kǒng [Róng] Wénjǔ, what about me and Yú Fān?” [Liú] Jī said: “[Cáo Cāo] Mèngdé recklessly harmed a serviceman and all Under Heaven criticized it. You Great King personally act in virtue and righteousness, wishing to with Yáo and Shùn have comparable greatness, how can you compare yourself to that other?” Fān because of this obtained escape. [Sūn] Quán therefore ordered his left and right attendants, that from now if after drinking alcohol he said to kill, all were not to be killed.

權既為吳王,歡宴之末,自起行酒,翻伏地陽醉,不持。權去,翻起坐。權於是大怒,手劍欲擊之,侍坐者莫不惶遽,惟大(司)農劉基起抱權諫曰:「大王以三爵之後(手)殺善士,雖翻有罪,天下孰知之?且大王以能容賢畜眾,故海內望風,今一朝棄之,可乎?」權曰:「曹孟德尚殺孔文舉,孤於虞翻何有哉?」基曰:「孟德輕害士人,天下非之。大王躬行德義,欲與堯、舜比隆,何得自喻於彼乎?」翻由是得免。權因敕左右,自今酒後言殺,皆不得殺。


Fān once rode a boat, and with Mí Fāng encountered one another, on [Mí] Fāng’s boat of the people many wished to order Fān to get out of the way, first ordering: “Get out of the way of the General’s boat!” Fān in stern voice said: “To lose loyalty and faith, how can one serve a master? To give over two cities to another and yet be called a General, can it be?” [Mí] Fāng closed the doors and did not answer and hurriedly got out of the way from him. Later Fān rode a carriage, again passed [Mí] Fāng’s camp gates, the official closed the gates, the carriage could not pass. Fān again angrily said: “When you should close you instead open, when you should open you instead close, how is this appropriate?” [Mí] Fāng heard this and had shamed appearance.

翻嘗乘船行,與麋芳相逢,芳船上人多欲令翻自避,先驅曰:「避將軍船!」翻厲聲曰:「失忠與信,何以事君?傾人二城,而稱將軍,可乎?」芳闔戶不應而遽避之。後翻乘車行,又經芳營門,吏閉門,車不得過。翻復怒曰:「當閉反開,當開反閉,豈得事宜邪?」芳聞之,有慚色。


Fān by nature was negligent and frank, repeatedly was disrespectful after drinking alcohol. [Sūn] Quán with Zhāng Zhāo discussed divine immortals, Fān pointed at [Zhāng] Zhāo and said: “Those are all dead men, and yet are called divine immortals, in the world what immortals are there?” [Sūn] Quán’s accumulated anger was not just one time, and therefore he exiled Fān to Jiāo province. Though he had position as a released criminal, yet he lectured and studied without tiring, his gate disciples always were several hundred people. (1) Also he made for the Láo-zǐ, Lúnyǔ, and Guóyǔ teaching annotations, all passed through the ages. (2)

翻性疏直,數有酒失。權與張昭論及神仙,翻指昭曰:「彼皆死人,而語神仙,世豈有仙人(也)〔邪〕!」權積怒非一,遂徙翻交州。雖處罪放,而講學不倦,門徒常數百人。〔一〕又為老子、論語、國語訓注,皆傳於世。〔二〕

  • (1) Fān Biézhuàn states: When [Sūn] Quán took Honored Title, Fān therefore sent up letter that said: “Your Majesty receives enlightened sagely virtue, embodies the filial piety of Shùn and Yǔ, in the phase of changing fortunes, following Heaven to relieve all things. Reverently learning of your mandate, I your servant only applaud and dance, a criminal abandoned and cut off, bowing and congratulating without limit, looking up to view the august utmost, both joyous and grieved. I your servant in submission self examine, my life as light as a sparrow or mouse, my nature trifling as a fine hair, my crimes have none greater, not containable by execution, the clear heavens have none greater, to spare and forgive me nine years, withdrawing to consider death, repeatedly I received life, and again stole sight and breath. I your servant am at the year of obedient ear [sixty], think of my faults in sorrow and anger, my appearance is dried up and haggard, my hair white and my teeth falling out, though I was not able to die, in lamentation I have ended and passed, not seeing the fortune of the palace and hundred bureaus, not witnessing the ornaments of the Imperial carriage and golden chariots, looking up to observe the murmurs of the countless numerous people, nearby hearing the music of the bells and drums, forever perishing by the sea, abandoned bones in cut off land, I cannot bear the sorrow, hearing of the great celebrations, I am pleased enough to forget my punishments.”

〔一〕 翻別傳曰:權即尊號,翻因上書曰:「陛下膺明聖之德,體舜、禹之孝,歷運當期,順天濟物。奉承策命,臣獨抃舞。罪棄兩絕,拜賀無階,仰瞻宸極,且喜且悲。臣伏自刻省,命輕雀鼠,性輶毫釐,罪惡莫大,不容於誅,昊天罔極,全宥九載,退當念戮,頻受生活,復偷視息。臣年耳順,思咎憂憤,形容枯悴,髮白齒落,雖未能死,自悼終沒,不見宮闕百官之富,不睹皇輿金軒之飾,仰觀巍巍眾民之謠,傍聽鍾鼓侃然之樂,永隕海隅,棄骸絕域,不勝悲慕,逸豫大慶,悅以忘罪。」

  • (2) Fān Biézhuàn states: Fān first set annotations, memorializing up stating:
    • “I your servant have heard that of the origins of the Six Classics, none are greater than Yīn and Yáng, and therefore Fú Xī looked up to the heavens’ hanging signs, and so established the Eight Trigrams, observed the changing six lines to form the Sixty-four, to comprehend the divine intelligence, to categorize all things. Your servant’s great-great-grandfather former Línglíng Administrator [Yú] Guāng, when young researched Mèng shì’s , great-grandfather former Píngyú Magistrate [Yú] Chéng, carried on this enterprise, reaching to your servant’s grandfather [Yú] Fèng who made it the most comprehensive. Your servant’s late father former Rìnán Administrator [Yú] Xīn, received the base from [Yú] Fèng, most having the ancient writings, through the generations passing on this enterprise, reaching to your servant as the fifth generation. The predecessors in communicating the explanations, often played with sections and clauses, though there were secret sayings, to the classic it was distant and loose. Your servant was born in a world of chaos, grew up in the army, and practiced the classic between mallets and drums, explained theories atop military horses, immersed in the sayings of former teachers, and following the classics established annotations. Also your servant’s prefecture official Chén Táo dreamed of your servant and a Dào mystic meeting one another, releasing hair and wearing deer fur coat, spreading the six lines, taking three to give your servant to drink, and I your servant begged to swallow all of it. The Dào mystic said the Yì’s Dào was with Heaven, and three lines was enough. How can I your servant accept the mandate, it should be to understand the classic! What I have read of the various school’s explanations do not diverge from common customs, their meanings have some that are not accurate, and at once I revise and settle it all, to reach to the correct. Kǒng-zǐ said: ‘Qián Yuán uses nine and Heaven’s Under is governed.’ The sagely man faces south, covering and taking those separating, this truly is the Way that Heaven’s Son should harmonize with Yīn and Yáng to deliver the unicorn and phoenix. Solemnly standardizing the books to complement the above, I believe it not to be wrong.”
  • Fān also memorialized stating:
    • “Of the classics in greatness, none surpass the . From Hàn’s beginning onward, of the outstanding talents within the seas, of those that read the , those who understand it are very few. Reaching to the time of Xiào-Líng, Yǐngchuān’s Xún Xū was titled as Knowing the Yì, I your servant obtained his annotations, and it was better than the common classicists, but as for its saying the southwest obtaining friends, the northeast losing friends, inverting and reversing, its understanding cannot be known. Kǒng-zǐ sighed of the stating: “Those that understand the Way of changes, they understand the actions of the spirits!” to praise the creation of the great enveloping four images, and yet [Xún Xū] took the above as the section head, especially bewildering and laughable. Also Nán prefecture Administrator Mǎ Róng, was famed as an eminent talent, but his explanations further do not reach [Xún] Xū’s. Kǒng-zǐ said: “[There are those who] can study together, but cannot follow the way,” is it not correct! As for Běihǎi’s Zhèng Xuán, Nányáng’s Sòng Zhōng, though each set annotations, [Sòng] Zhōng slightly differs from [Zhèng] Xuán and both are not able to find the gate, and is difficult to show to the world.”
  • Also he memorialized a catalogue of criticisms and failings of Zhèng Xuán’s explanation of the Shàng shū:
    • “I your servant have heard Zhōu gōng systematized ritual to distinguish superior and subordinate, Kǒng-zǐ said: ‘There is ruler and subject and afterward there is superior and subordinate, there is superior and subordinate and afterward ritual meaning is engraved,” and therefore the honoring of ruler and lowering of subject is the great management of ritual. In prostration I have seen the former scholar Běihǎi’s Zhèng Xuán’s annotations to the Shàng shū, in the Gù Mìng [chapter] Kāng-wáng took up the jade vessel, the ancient [form of the word] ‘moon’ resembles [the word] ‘same,’ and so was mistakenly made ‘same,’ so it was without awareness was settled, and further taught to mean cup, calling it an alcohol cup; Chéng-wáng was severely ill and leaning on a table, using the cleansing wash for purifying, to rinse clothes to achieve affairs; the word ‘cleansing’ was falsely changed to be ‘purifying,’ and so lead to the incorrectness; also the ancient large seal script word guàn’s reading should be ‘liǔ,’ the ancient liǔ and guàn were the same word, and it was believed to be ‘darkened.’ In ‘dividing north the three miáo,’ ‘north’ in the past was the word ‘distinguish,’ he also teaches ‘north’ saying ‘north’ is like ‘distinguishing.’ With these examples, it truly is bewildering. Yùrén Zhí states Heaven’s Son takes up jade vessel to hold Court with the various lords, is called an alcohol cup; Heaven’s Son washing face, is called cleansing clothes, the ancient script ‘guàn’ instead becomes ‘darkened.’ It is extremely unaware and conceals deficiencies in meaning. In these several matters, the mistakes have none greater, and it is appropriate to order scholar officials to settled these three matters. Also Mǎ Róng’s teaching annotations believe the ‘same’ to be ‘great unification of Heaven’s Under,’ and present classics add ‘metal’ to then create the word ‘copper,’ explaining and teaching it speaks of Heaven’s Son’s secondary seal, and though all are wrong, yet it is more excessive than [Zhèng] Xuán. If these are not settled, after I your servant die, I will exhort it to later generations, and though in the world there are those aware, they hold to modesty and none memorialize to correct it. Also [Zhèng] Xuán’s annotations to the Five Classics, the violations of meaning that are exceptionally extreme are one hundred sixty seven things, and cannot be not corrected. To send it to the schools, and pass them down to the yet to come, I your servant am ashamed of this.”
  • When Fān was exiled to the southern regions, he said: “I personally regret being negligent of integrity, my bones and body without flattery, offending superiors and committing crime, to forever be lost by the sea, living there was none I could speak with, dying with only black flies as funeral guests, if Under Heaven there was one person that understood me, it would be enough to not regret.” Using ancient books to comfort himself, he consulted the to form signs, to divine good and bad fortune. Also as the Sòng shì explanations of [Zhèng] Xuán tended to have errors and mistakes, he further established systems, altogether writing Míng Yáng [Understanding Yáng] and Shì Sòng [Explaining Sòng] to reason its failings.
  • Your servant Sōngzhī notes: Fān says ‘the ancient large seal script guàn word should be read as liǔ, the ancient liǔ and guàn are the same word.’ I humbly say Fān’s saying is correct. Therefore liú, liú, liǎo, liǔ are used the same as this word, because they have the same pronunciation, with the word for sunrise mǎo having the same word and different pronunciation. However Hàn shū‘s Wáng Mǎng zhuàn discussing mǎo metal knife, therefore should be the sunrise mǎo, and to now it still cannot be comprehensively corrected. However as the era had confused most of it, therefore Fān spoke of it. Xún Xū is Xún Shuǎng’s other name.

〔二〕 翻別傳曰:翻初立易注,奏上曰:「臣聞六經之始,莫大陰陽,是以伏羲仰天縣象,而建八卦,觀變動六爻為六十四,以通神明,以類萬物。臣高祖父故零陵太守光,少治孟氏易,曾祖父故平輿令成,纘述其業,至臣祖父鳳為之最密。臣亡考故日南太守歆,受本於鳳,最有舊書,世傳其業,至臣五世。前人通講,多玩章句,雖有祕說,於經疏闊。臣生遇世亂,長於軍旅,習經於枹鼓之間,講論於戎馬之上,蒙先師之說,依經立注。又臣郡吏陳桃夢臣與道士相遇,放髮被鹿裘,布易六爻,撓其三以飲臣,臣乞盡吞之。道士言易道在天,三爻足矣。豈臣受命,應當知經!所覽諸家解不離流俗,義有不當實,輒悉改定,以就其正。孔子曰:『乾元用九而天下治。』聖人南面,蓋取諸離,斯誠天子所宜協陰陽致麟鳳之道矣。謹正書副上,惟不罪戾。」翻又奏曰:「經之大者,莫過於易。自漢初以來,海內英才,其讀易者,解之率少。至孝靈之際,潁川荀諝號為知易,臣得其注,有愈俗儒,至所說西南得朋,東北喪朋,顛倒反逆,了不可知。孔子歎易曰:『知變化之道者,其知神之所為乎!』以美大衍四象之作,而上為章首,尤可怪笑。又南郡太守馬融,名有俊才,其所解釋,復不及諝。孔子曰『可與共學,未可與適道』,豈不其然!若乃北海鄭玄,南陽宋忠,雖各立注,忠小差玄而皆未得其門,難以示世。」又奏鄭玄解尚書違失事目:「臣聞周公制禮以辨上下,孔子曰『有君臣然後有上下,有上下然後禮義有所錯』,是故尊君卑臣,禮之大司也。伏見故徵士北海鄭玄所注尚書,以顧命康王執瑁,古『月』似『同』,從誤作『同』,既不覺定,復訓為杯,謂之酒杯;成王疾困憑几,洮頮為濯,以為澣衣成事,『洮』字虛更作『濯』,以從其非;又古大篆『丱』字讀當為『柳』,古『柳』『丱』同字,而以為昧;『分北三苗』,『北』古『別』字,又訓北,言北猶別也。若此之類,誠可怪也。玉人職曰天子執瑁以朝諸侯,謂之酒杯;天子頮面,謂之澣衣;古篆『丱』字,反以為昧。甚違不知蓋闕之義。於此數事,誤莫大焉,宜命學官定此三事。又馬融訓註亦以為同者大同天下,今經益『金』就作『銅』字,詁訓言天子副璽,雖皆不得,猶愈於玄。然此不定,臣沒之後,而奮乎百世,雖世有知者,懷謙莫或奏正。又玄所注五經,違義尤甚者百六十七事,不可不正。行乎學校,傳乎將來,臣竊恥之。」翻放棄南方,云「自恨疏節,骨體不媚,犯上獲罪,當長沒海隅,生無可與語,死以青蠅為弔客,使天下一人知己者,足以不恨。」以典籍自慰,依易設象,以占吉凶。又以宋氏解玄頗有繆錯,更為立法,并著明楊、釋宋以理其滯。臣松之案:翻云「古大篆『丱』字讀當言『柳』,古『柳』『丱』同字」,竊謂翻言為然。故「劉」「留」「聊」「柳」同用此字,以從聲故也,與日辰「卯」字字同音異。然漢書王莽傳論卯金刀,故以為日辰之「卯」,今未能詳正。然世多亂之,故翻所說云。荀諝,荀爽之別名。


Previously, Shānyīn’s Dīng Lǎn and Tàimò’s Xú Líng, one was among the county officials, one was among the masses and not yet known, Fān in one meeting with them, then with them became friends, and in the end they achieved famed reputations. (1)

初,山陰丁覽,太末徐陵,或在縣吏之中,或眾所未識,翻一見之,便與友善,終成顯名。〔一〕

  • (1) Kuàijī Diǎnlù states:
  • Lǎn appellation Xiàolián, at eight years was fatherless, the family also was alone and small, was pure in self and established conduct, in purpose was not lax, deferring wealth to his younger cousin, and for righteously yielding was praised. In serving the prefecture he reached Merit Officer, observing Shǐpíng Chief. As a man he was profound and pure, his gates without mixed guests. Sūn Quán extremely valued and treated him, he had not yet been selected for employment, when it happened he of illness died, extremely met with lamentation, unique for his family status. Lǎn’s son Gù appellation Zǐjiàn, originally named Mì, to avoid [the name taboo of] Téng Mì, changed it to Gù. When Gù was in swaddling clothes, Kàn Zé met and was impressed with him, saying: “This child later will certainly reach to the Excellencies and Assistants.” Gù when young lost father, alone resided with his mother, the family was poor and held to frugality, and he cared [for his mother] with devotion, his younger cousins were fatherless and young, and with him shared cold and warmth. Fān wrote letter to Gù’s co-worker that said: “Dīng Zǐjiàn is honest and deep and enjoys virtue, his house is subdued in construction, his fields without extra firewood, this restrained conduct, its beauty is exceptional. Of Língdé’s posterity, only this sir is most excellent.” He successively held prominent position, in Sūn Xiū’s time Gù became Left Censorate Grandee, when Sūn Hào succeeded the throne, promoted to Excellency over the Masses. [Sūn] Hào was oppressive, Gù with Lù Kǎi and Mèng Zōng were of the same heart in worrying for the state, aged seventy-six years he died. His on Mí appellation Qīnyuǎn served Jìn, reaching Liáng province Inspector. Grandson Tán, Merit Grandee.
  • Xú Líng appellation Yuándà, successively was chief in three counties, wherever he was he was praised, promoted to Línglíng Administrator. At the time the Court treated him as to the ranks of the Ministers, and therefore Fān wrote letter that said: “Yuándà receiving treatment as to an Upper Minister, from Shūxiàng at Jìn, there has never been as now.” He met with heavy value like this. Líng died, of his servants and guests and lands and fields some were seized away, Luò Tǒng for Líng’s family petitioned this, seeking to use Dīng Lǎn and Bǔ Qīng and others as comparison, and [Sūn] Quán agreed. Líng’s son Píng, appellation Bóxiān, from childhood was well known, Fān extremely loved him, frequently praising and sighing. When Zhūgě Kè became Dānyáng Administrator, suppressing Shānyuè, as Píng had heavy authority and thoughtful consideration, and could with him devote effort, requested Píng to be his deputy, gradually promoted to Wǔchāng Left Division Commander, he devoted his heart to attending to things, and the soldiers all gave all their strength. Previously, Píng became [Zhūgě] Kè’s attending official, his intentions were extremely meager, and reaching to [Zhūgě] Kè assisting the government, his treatment of Píng increased in distance. When [Zhūgě] Kè was harmed, his son [Zhūgě] Jiàn fled away, and was by Píng’s division retainers captured, Píng had him released, and he as by another army captured. When Píng’s two female relatives returned to the family, his respectful treatment was excessive in generosity. His conduct and righteousness kind and sincere, was all of this sort.

〔一〕 會稽典錄曰:覽字孝連,八歲而孤,家又單微,清身立行,用意不苟,推財從弟,以義讓稱。仕郡至功曹,守始平長。為人精微絜淨,門無雜賓。孫權深貴待之,未及擢用,會病卒,甚見痛惜,殊其門戶。覽子固,字子賤,本名密,避滕密,改作固。固在襁褓中,闞澤見而異之,曰:「此兒後必致公輔。」固少喪父,獨與母居,家貧守約,色養致敬,族弟孤弱,與同寒溫。翻與固同僚書曰:「丁子賤塞淵好德,堂構克舉,野無遺薪,斯之為懿,其美優矣。令德之後,惟此君嘉耳。」歷顯位,孫休時固為左御史大夫,孫皓即位,遷司徒。皓悖虐,固與陸凱、孟宗同心憂國,年七十六卒。子彌,字欽遠,仕晉,至梁州刺史。孫潭,光祿大夫。徐陵字元大,歷三縣長,所在著稱,遷零陵太守。時朝廷俟以列卿之位,故翻書曰:「元大受上卿之遇,叔向在晉,未若於今。」其見重如此。陵卒,僮客土田或見侵奪,駱統為陵家訟之,求與丁覽、卜清等為比,權許焉。陵子平,字伯先,童齔知名,翻甚愛之,屢稱歎焉。諸葛恪為丹楊太守,討山越,以平威重思慮,可與效力,請平為丞,稍遷武昌左部督,傾心接物,士卒皆為盡力。初,平為恪從事,意甚薄,及恪輔政,待平益疏。恪被害,子建亡走,為平部曲所得,平使遣去,別為佗軍所獲。平兩婦歸宗,敬奉情過乎厚。其行義敦篤,皆此類也。


In the south for over ten years, aged seventy he died. (1) Returning for burial at the old mausoleum, his wives and children were able to return. (2)

在南十餘年,年七十卒。〔一〕歸葬舊墓,妻子得還。〔二〕

  • (1) Wú shū states: Fān though was exiled and abandoned, his heart did not forget the state, and he always worried that the Wǔxī should be suppressed, and as Liáodōng was separated by seas, hearing that people had come to submit, yet it was not worth taking, and to now give the people’s wealth to seek horses, was both not to the state’s benefit, and also a fear of no gains. He wished to remonstrate but did not dare, composed a memorial to show Lǚ Dài, [Lǚ] Dài did not report it, he was by a resenter reported, and again exiled to Cāngwú Měnglíng.
  • Jiāngbiǎo zhuàn states: Later [Sūn] Quán sent officers and soldiers to reach Liáodōng, on the sea they encountered winds, and many were drowned and lost, [Sūn] Quán regretted it, and then his Order said: “In the past Zhào Jiǎn-zǐ said the various sir’s mumblings were not as good as Zhōu Shě’s honest talk. Yú Fān is bright and upright, good at exhaustive speech, the state’s Zhōu Shě. Formerly if Fān were here, this campaign would not have happened.” He urgently sent down inquiries to Jiāo province, that if Fān was still alive, to give him men and boats, and send him back to the capital; if he were dead, to send the body back to his home prefecture, and have his sons serve as officials. It happened that Fān had already died.

〔一〕 吳書曰:翻雖在徙棄,心不忘國,常憂五谿宜討,以遼東海絕,聽人使來屬,尚不足取,今去人財以求馬,既非國利,又恐無獲。欲諫不敢,作表以示呂岱,岱不報,為愛憎所白,復徙蒼梧猛陵。江表傳曰:後權遣將士至遼東,於海中遭風,多所沒失,權悔之,乃令曰:「昔趙簡子稱諸君之唯唯,不如周舍之諤諤。虞翻亮直,善於盡言,國之周舍也。前使翻在此,此役不成。」促下問交州,翻若尚存者,給其人船,發遣還都;若以亡者,送喪還本郡,使兒子仕宦。會翻已終。

  • (2) Kuàijī Diǎnlù states: In Sūn Liàng’s time, there was Shānyīn’s Zhū Yù, when young enjoyed unusual writing characters, all that was special he collected, organizing by form and appearance, compiling unusual characters of over a thousand words. Served the prefecture as Below the Gates Documents Aide.
  • The Administrator Púyáng Xīng on the new years day banquet met the officials, speaking [with them] in order, asking: “I the Administrator in the past heard Zhū [Administrator of] Yǐngchuān asked about servicemen to Zhèng Shàogōng, Hán [Administrator of] Wú prefecture asked about servicemen to Liú Shèngbó, Wáng [Lǎng] Jǐngxīng asked about servicemen to Yú [Fān] Zhòngxiáng. I once saw the two answers of Zhèng and Liú but have not seen Zhòngxiáng’s reply. Admiring and hearing of a state worthy, I’ve thought of seeing of seeing his flourishing wonder for many days, does the Documents Aide know of it?” Yù replied saying:
  • “I previously memorized it. In the past in Chūpíng’s final years, his governorship Wáng as a profound and wondrous talent was promoted to oversee the prefecture, longed for worthies and commended the good, enjoying selecting out the famed and eminent, and asked Merit Officer Yú Fān saying: ‘One hears jade is produced by Kūnsān, pearls are produced by Nánhǎi. Distant regions and different lands, each produce treasures. Moreover one has heard scholars sigh of and beautify your noble country, of old there were many outstanding eminents, coming from afar to the capital region, only the contained fragrance could not cross. Merit Officer you are refined and enjoy the extensive and ancient, do you know of these people?’ Fān replied saying: ‘Kuàijī above answers to the constellation of Qiānniú, below matches to the seat of Shàoyáng, to the east imbues the vast sea, to the west connects the five lakes, to the south free without barrier, to the north banked by the Zhè and Jiāng, where the southern mountains reside, truly are the province’s defenses, in the past Yǔ gathered [kuài] the various ministers, and therefore by this named it [Kuàijī]. The mountains have abundance of metals and trees and birds and beasts, the rivers have wealth of fish and salt and pearls and clams, the sea’s and peaks’ vital fluids excel at producing the eminent and unusual, and therefore loyal ministers connected paths, filial sons linked villages, below reaching worthy women, to not be infertile.’
  • His governorship Wáng laughed and said: ‘The terrain is so; can the names of the servicemen and women all be known?’
  • Fān replied saying: ‘One does not dare go so far, so one will only roughly speak of the near. Formerly of filial sons was Gōuzhāng’s Dong Àn, wholeheartedly serving in caring, mourning arrived leading to sorrow, alone in the woods and fields, the birds and beasts submitted to his laments; resenting his parent’s disgraces, in open daylight he took revenge, within the seas heard his name, shining his glory. Grand Central Grandee Shānyīn’s Chén Xiāo, when fishing reformed thieves, when residing then deferred to neighbors, when discovering trespassing moved back the fence, and so achieved righteous reason, taking in and caring for the cart old woman, conduct sufficient to sharpen custm, from Yáng Zǐyún and others send up letter to recommend him, clear and bright passed through the ages. Excellency Commandant Shānyīn’s Excellency Zhèng was pure and bright, direct and straightforward, did not fear the strong’s resistance. Lǔ Chancellor Shānyīn’s Zhōnglí Yì was endowed with unique and special disposition, filial at home and loyal at court, governing counties and administering states, wherever he was leaving benefits, therefore seeking and raising those of nobleman’s character, Lǔ state had the faith of red letter. As for Chén Gōng and Fèi Qí all above upheld heaven’s heart, achievements and virtues governing form, recorded in Hàn’s registers. Having the Way [candidate] Shānyīn’s Zhào Yè, campaign soldier Shàngyú’s Wáng Chōng, each had vast talent and deep virtue, studying the way’s origins, writing books bequeathing elegance, relaying a hundred piān, explaining the former doubts of the classics and traditions, resolving the present age’s knots, perhaps above reaching the mysteries of yīn and yáng, below spreading the returning utmost of human condition. Jiāo province inspector Shàngyú’s Qíwú Jùn, rescued a whole prefecture, declined enfeoffment of rank and territory. Determination Department official Shàngyú’s Mèng Yīng, for three generations died for righteousness. Registrar Gōuzhāng’s Liáng Hóng, Merits Department Scribe Yúyáo’s Sì Xūn, Registrar Gōuzhāng’s Zhèng Yùn, all held to righteousness end and beginning, citing guilt expelled and resided. Below the Gate Commander bandit Yúyáo’s Wǔ Lóng, Registrar Rén Guāng, Zhāng’ān minor official Huáng Tā, personally faced naked blades, saving lord from troubles. Yáng province attending official Gōuzhāng’s Wáng Xiū, devoted self to serve command, bequeathing fame to coming ages. Hénèi Administrator Shàngyú’s Wèi Shǎoyīng, encountering the age defended Jiǎn, forgetting family to worry for the state, ranked among the Eight Eminents, becoming the age’s outstanding and accomplished. Secrtariat Documenter Wūshāng’s Yáng Qiáo, was by Emperor Huán wed to a princess, he declined claiming illness and would not accept. Recently former Excellency Commandant Shàngyú’s Excllency Zhū had heavenly disposition and intelligence bright, venerable enlightenment and divine warfare, strategies without failings, campaigns without remaining worries, and therefore of Heaven’s Under the righteous troops thought to take him as head. Shàngyú woman Cáo É’s father drowned in the Jiāng’s flow, she threw herself into the waters and died, they established a stone stele to record and make manifest her prominence.’
  • His governorship Wáng said: ‘It is thus. Yǐngchuān has Cháo’s and Xǔ’s remaining course, Wú has Tàibó’s three refusals, your noble prefecture though has servicemen in multitudes, these are sufficient.’
  • Fān replied saying: ‘Therefore I formerly sad these were only the near, if then drawing the matters of higher ages, reaching to men of resistance and integrity, there also were such men. In the past Yuè King Yì yielded throne, fleeing to the caves of Wūshān, the Yuè men smoked him out, was this not comparable to Tàibó? Moreover Tàibó was a lord that came from the outside, not a man of that land. If speaking of those that came, then Dà Yǔ also came to here and was buried here. Yín’s Dàlǐ Huánggōng purified himself in the era of the cruel Qín, Gāozǔ ascended the throne, and could not bring him out, Emperor Huì respectfully yielded, he went out and then relieved the troubles. Campaign soldier Yúyáo’s Yán Zūn was by Wáng Mǎng repeatedly  recruited, he resisted in integrity and would not go, in Guāng-Wǔ’s restoration afterward offered office, holding hands he would not bow [accept], his will in the hills cloud and sun. All were written of in transmitted registers, clear and obvious, how are they as Cháo and Xǔ, remaining only in common speech, and not seen in the classics and legacies?’
  • His governorship Wáng laughed and said: ‘Excellent speech! The worthies, if not for your explanation, I the administrator would not have previously heard.'”
  • His overnorship Púyáng said: “From what the censorate said, it is to hear his person. From then on down, does the Documents Aide remember them?”
  • Yù said: “Looking up to shining conduct, dare I not remember them? Recently was Administrator Shàngyú’s Chén Yè, cleansed self and pure conduct, will maintained in frost and snow, chaste and bright faith, also maintaining Liǔxià, encountered Hàn in the middle of decline, left office and abandoned salary, fleeing to Yī and Shè to seek his will, his high and profound subtle traces all under Heaven heard of, and therefore Huán Wénlín was only left a stack of letters, comparable indeed to the three high. As for intelligence and greaty strategy, loyal directness and honest speech, then there were Attendant Censor Yúyáo’s Yú Fān, Assistant General Wūshāng’s Luò Tǒng. As for profound virtue and pure morality, then there was Heir-Apparent’s Junior Tutor Shānyīn’s Kàn Zé, scholarship comprehensive and conduct flourishing, serving as Emperor’s teacher and scholar. As for imposing disposition and martial resolution, establishing achievement in his age, then there was Rear General Hè Qí, merits achieved and accomplishments outstanding. As for exploring the utmost secret techniques, speech uniting with the divine intelligences, then there was Grand Scribe Director Shàngyú’s Wú Fàn. As for servicemen of letters, establishing speech splendid and flourishing, then Censorate Internal Deputy Gōuzhāng’s Rén Yì, Póyáng Administrator Zhāng’ān’s Yú Xiáng, each spread literary orders, sparkling like spring glory. Resident scholar Mào Lúxù, his younger brother violated public statues, he killed himself as substitution. Wúníng’s Sī Dūn, Shānyīn’s Qí Gēng, Shàngyú’s Fán Zhèng, all substituted their fathers’ death penalty. As for women then there were Sōngyáng’s Liǔ Zhū, Yǒngníng’s Dí Sù, one sacrificing to uphold integrity, losing self without looking back, one encountering bandit thieves, dying to not defile conduct. All are affairs of recent times, still in ears and eyes.”
  • His governorship said: “All are the outstanding within the seas. I heard in Qín Shǐhuáng’s Twenty-Fifth year [220 BC], he had Wú and Yuè become Kuàijī prefecture, capital at Wú. Hàn enfeoffed it to the various lords and kings, in what years was it reverted to a prefecture, and divided to govern it thus?”
  • Yù replied saying: “Liú Jiǎ became King of Jīng, Jiǎ was by Yīng Bù killed, and also Liú Bì became King of Wú. Emperor Jǐng’s Fourth Year [153 BC], [Liú] Bì rebelled and was executed, and then it was reverted to a prefecture, capital at Wú. Yuándīng Fifth Year, [112 BC] expelled the eastern Yuè, and therefore had this land become the capital, all subordinate to here, but establishing an eastern part commandant, later moved to Zhāng’ān. Yángshuò Inaugural Year [24 BC], again moved capital to Yín, there were some bandit troubles, again moved to Gōuzhāng. Arriving at Yǒngjiàn Fourth Year [129], his governorship Liú sent up letter, to have Zhèjiáng on north become Wú prefecture, Kuàijī returning capital to Shānyīn. From Yǒngjiàn Fourth Year, the year was a Jǐsì, reaching to this year, it has accumulated one hundred twenty nine years.”
  • His governorship declared “excellent!”
  • That year was Wú’s Tàipíng Third Year, the year a Dīngchǒu. Yù later served the Court, always in the Terrace Pavilion, became East Watchtower Director, distantly appointed Qīnghé Administrator, added rank as Attendant Internal, investigated divination, many writings and arts understood.

〔二〕 會稽典錄曰:孫亮時,有山陰朱育,少好奇字,凡所特達,依體象類,造作異字千名以上。仕郡門下書佐。太守濮陽興正旦宴見掾吏,言次,問:「太守昔聞朱潁川問士於鄭召公,韓吳郡問士於劉聖博,王景興問士於虞仲翔,嘗見鄭、劉二答而未睹仲翔對也。欽聞國賢,思睹盛美有日矣,書佐寧識之乎?」育對曰:「往過習之。昔初平末年,王府君以淵妙之才,超遷臨郡,思賢嘉善,樂采名俊,問功曹虞翻曰:『聞玉出崑山,珠生南海,遠方異域,各生珍寶。且曾聞士人歎美貴邦,舊多英俊,徒以遠於京畿,含香未越耳。功曹雅好博古,寧識其人邪?』翻對曰:『夫會稽上應牽牛之宿,下當少陽之位,東漸巨海,西通五湖,南暢無垠,北渚浙江,南山攸居,實為州鎮,昔禹會群臣,因以命之。山有金木鳥獸之殷,水有魚鹽珠蚌之饒,海嶽精液,善生俊異,是以忠臣係踵,孝子連閭,下及賢女,靡不育焉。』王府君笑曰:『地勢然矣,士女之名可悉聞乎?』翻對曰:『不敢及遠,略言其近者耳。往者孝子句章董黯,盡心色養,喪致其哀,單身林野,鳥獸歸懷,怨親之辱,白日報讎,海內聞名,昭然光著。太中大夫山陰陳囂,漁則化盜,居則讓鄰,感侵退藩,遂成義里,攝養車嫗,行足厲俗,自揚子雲等上書薦之,粲然傳世。太尉山陰鄭公,清亮質直,不畏彊禦。魯相山陰鍾離意,稟殊特之姿,孝家忠朝,宰縣相國,所在遺惠,故取養有君子之謩,魯國有丹書之信。及陳宮、費齊皆上契天心,功德治狀,記在漢籍,有道山陰趙曄,徵士上虞王充,各洪才淵懿,學究道源,著書垂藻,駱驛百篇,釋經傳之宿疑,解當世之槃結,或上窮陰陽之奧祕,下攄人情之歸極。交阯刺史上虞綦毋俊,拔濟一郡,讓爵土之封。決曹掾上虞孟英,三世死義。主簿句章梁宏,功曹史餘姚駟勳,主簿句章鄭雲,皆敦終始之義,引罪免居。門下督盜賊餘姚伍隆,鄮莫候反。主簿任光,章安小吏黃他,身當白刃,濟君於難。揚州從事句章王脩,委身授命,垂聲來世。河內太守上虞魏少英,遭世屯蹇,忘家憂國,列在八俊,為世英彥。尚書烏傷楊喬,桓帝妻以公主,辭疾不納。近故太尉上虞朱公,天姿聰亮,欽明神武,策無失謨,征無遺慮,是以天下義兵,思以為首。上虞女子曹娥,父溺江流,投水而死,立石碑紀,炳然著顯。』王府君曰:『是既然矣,潁川有巢、許之逸軌,吳有太伯之三讓,貴郡雖士人紛紜,於此足矣。』翻對曰:『故先言其近者耳,若乃引上世之事,及抗節之士,亦有其人。昔越王翳讓位,逃于巫山之穴,越人薰而出之,斯非太伯之儔邪?且太伯外來之君,非其地人也。若以外來言之,則大禹亦巡於此而葬之矣。鄞大里黃公,絜己暴秦之世,高祖即阼,不能一致,惠帝恭讓,出則濟難。徵士餘姚嚴遵,王莽數聘,抗節不行,光武中興,然後俯就,矯手不拜,志陵雲日。皆著於傳籍,較然彰明,豈如巢、許,流俗遺譚,不見經傳者哉?』王府君笑曰:『善哉話言也!賢矣,非君不著。太守未之前聞也。』」濮陽府君曰:「御史所云,既聞其人,亞斯已下,書佐寧識之乎?」育曰:「瞻仰景行,敢不識之?近者太守上虞陳業,絜身清行,志懷霜雪,貞亮之信,同操柳下,遭漢中微,委官棄祿,遁跡黟歙,以求其志,高邈妙蹤,天下所聞,故(桓文)〔桓文林〕遺之尺牘之書,比竟三高。其聰明大略,忠直謇諤,則侍御史餘姚虞翻、偏將軍烏傷駱統。其淵懿純德,則太子少傅山陰闞澤,學通行茂,作帝師儒。其雄姿武毅,立功當世,則後將軍賀齊,勳成績著。其探極祕術,言合神明,則太史令上虞吳範。其文章之士,立言粲盛,則御史中丞句章任奕,鄱陽太守章安虞翔,各馳文檄,曄若春榮。處士(鄧)〔鄮〕盧敘,弟犯公憲,自殺乞代。吳寧斯敦、山陰祁庚、上虞樊正,咸代父死罪。其女則松陽柳朱、永寧(瞿素)〔翟素〕,或一醮守節,喪身不顧,或遭寇劫賊,死不虧行。皆近世之事,尚在耳目。」府君曰:「皆海內之英也。吾聞秦始皇二十五年,以吳越地為會稽郡,治吳。漢封諸侯王,以何年復為郡,而分治於此?」育對曰:「劉賈為荊王,賈為英布所殺,又以劉濞為吳王。景帝四年,濞反誅,乃復為郡,治於吳。元鼎五年,除東越,因以其地為治,并屬於此,而立東部都尉,後徙章安。陽朔元年,又徙治鄞,或有寇害,復徙句章。到永建四年,劉府君上書,浙江之北,以為吳郡,會稽還治山陰。自永建四年歲在己巳,以至今年,積百二十九歲。」府君稱善。是歲,吳之太平三年,歲在丁丑。育後仕朝,常在臺閣,為東觀令,遙拜清河太守,加位侍中,推刺占射,文藝多通。


Fān had eleven sons, the fourth son Sì was the most famed, at Yǒng’ān’s beginning, from Selections Department Cadet he became Cavalier Internal Regular Attendant, later became Supervisor of the Army Envoy, suppressed Fú Yán, of illness died. (1) Sì’s younger brothers Zhōng was Yídū Administrator; (2) Sǒng was Surpassing Cavalary Colonel, gradually promoted to Minister of Justice, Xiāngdōng and Héjiān Administrator; (3) Bǐng was Minister of Justice Secretariat Documenter, Jǐyīn Administrator. (4)

翻有十一子,第四子汜最知名,永安初,從選曹郎為散騎中常侍,後為監軍使者,討扶嚴,病卒。〔一〕汜弟忠,宜都太守;〔二〕聳,越騎校尉,累遷廷尉,湘東、河間太守;〔三〕昺,廷尉尚書,濟陰太守。〔四〕

  • (1) Kuàijī Diǎnlù states: Sì appellation Shìhóng was born in Nánhǎi, aged sixteen years, his father died, returned to his [registered] hometown. Sūn Chēn deposed the young ruler [Sūn Liàng], and welcomed and enthroned King of Lángyé [Sūn] Xiū. [Sūn] Xiū had not yet arrived, [Sūn] Chēn wished to enter the palace, plotting to act errant, summoning the hundred officials of meet to discuss, all were firghtened and lost color, only agreeing and nothing more. Sì replied saying: “Your enlightened excellency is the state’s Yī [Yǐn] and Zhōu [gōng], occpying the ranks of generals and ministers, wielding the power to depose and enthrone, about to above secure the ancestral temple and below comfort the hundred surnames, large and small are eager for Yi [Yǐn] and Huò Guāng] are again to be seen. Now the welcomed king has not yet arrived, yet you wish to enter the palace, if it is so, the varous subordinates will be shaken, the masses on hearing will be confused, it is not how to forever to the end be loyal and filial, raising fame for later generations.” [Sūn] Chēn was not pleased, indeed enthroned [Sūn] Xiū. When [Sūn] Xiū first succeeded the throne, Sì with Hè Shào, Wáng Fán, Xuē Yíng all became Cavalier Internal Regular Attendants, for the achievement of suppressing Fúyán was appointed Jiāo province Inspector, Crowning Army General, Yúyáo marquis, then died.

〔一〕 會稽典錄曰:汜字世洪,生南海,年十六,父卒,還鄉里。孫綝廢幼主,迎立琅邪王休。休未至,綝欲入宮,圖為不軌,召百官會議,皆惶怖失色,徒唯唯而已。汜對曰:「明公為國伊周,處將相之位,擅廢立之威,將上安宗廟,下惠百姓,大小踴躍,自以伊霍復見。今迎王未至,而欲入宮,如是,群下搖蕩,眾聽疑惑,非所以永終忠孝,揚名後世也。」綝不懌,竟立休。休初即位,汜與賀邵、王蕃、薛瑩俱為散騎中常侍。以討扶嚴功拜交州刺史、冠軍將軍、餘姚侯,尋卒。

  • (2) Kuàijī Diǎnlù states: Zhōng appellation Shìfāng was Fān’s fifth son. Chaste and firm in handlin affairs, enjoyed remembering people, met Wú prefecture’s Lù Jī in years of childhood, praised Shàngyú’s Wèi Qiān at his beginning in obscurity, in the end they all reached far, becoming famed servicemen. He befriended the same county’s Wáng Qí of an isolated clan, his servce advanced first to reach Yìdū Administator, Zhōng then succeeded him. Jìn campaigned against Wú, Zhōng with Yídào Supervisor Lù Yàn, Yàn’s younger brother Zhōngxià Commander Jǐng firmly defended and would not submit, the city was breached and they came to harm.
  • Zhōng’s son Tán appellation Sī’ào. Jìn Yángqiū appraises Tán as pure and having restraint on conduct, outside seeming deferential and weak, inside firm and upright with guts and courage. Served Jìn, successively ranked inside and outside, ending as Guard General, posthumously titled Attendant Internal Left Merit Grandee, Opening Office Ceremonies equal to Three Excellencies.

〔二〕 會稽典錄曰:忠字世方,翻第五子。貞固幹事,好識人物,造吳郡陸機於童齔之年,稱上虞魏遷於無名之初,終皆遠致,為著聞之士。交同縣王岐於孤宦之族,仕進先至宜都太守,忠乃代之。晉征吳,忠與夷道監陸晏、晏弟中夏督景堅守不下,城潰被害。忠子譚,字思奧。晉陽秋稱譚清貞有檢操,外如退弱,內堅正有膽幹。仕晉,歷位內外,終於衛將軍,追贈侍中左光祿大夫,開府儀同三司。

  • (3) Kuàijī Diǎnlù states: Sǒng appellation Shìlóng was Fān’s sixth son. Pure and without desires, advancing and withdrawing y propriety, in Wú was successively a pure official, entered Jìn, sent out as Héjiān Chancellor, Wáng Sù heard Sǒng’s reputation, generously respected him. Sǒng drew out people, attending to those in seclusion and obscurity. At the time Wáng Qí criticized Sǒng, believing that the attainment of high servicemen certainly coincided with the refined and unusual. Sǒng’s letter with his cousin’s son Chá said: “The era in attaining servicemen, not once recruits the not yet toothed [mature] in the hills and parks or searches for good talents in the humble and rustic, those acclaimed are already successful, those defamed already ruined, this is why I sigh [in despair].” Sǒng hated that the customs of funeral and sacrifice were without limit, when his younger brother Bǐng died, he sacrificed with lesser liestock, liquor and food and nothing more, at the time his clan and associates all followed this.

〔三〕 會稽典錄曰:聳字世龍,翻第六子也。清虛無欲,進退以禮,在吳歷清官,入晉,除河間相,王素聞聳名,厚敬禮之。聳抽引人物,務在幽隱孤陋之中。時王岐難聳,以高士所達,必合秀異,聳書與族子察曰:「世之取士,曾不招未齒於丘園,索良才於總猥,所譽依已成,所毀依已敗,此吾所以歎息也。」聳疾俗喪祭無度,弟昺卒,祭以少牢,酒飯而已,當時族黨並遵行之。

  • (4) Kuàijī Diǎnlù states: Bǐng appellation Shìwén was Fān’s eight son. When young he had elegant will, served Wú as Yellow Gate Cadet, for quick replies was seen as exceptional, increased appointment to Secretariat Documenter Attendant Internal. The Jìn army came to attack, sent Bǐng Wielding Staff as Regional Commander of Wǔchāng and upstream’s various military affairs, Bǐng first sent up and returned his staff and canopy and seal and ribbon, and afterward surrendered. At Jǐyīn he restrained the strong and supported the weak, extremely known for authoritative presence.

〔四〕 會稽典錄曰:昺字世文,翻第八子也。少有倜儻之志,仕吳黃門郎,以捷對見異,超拜尚書侍中。晉軍來伐,遣昺持節都督武昌已上諸軍事,昺先上還節蓋印綬,然後歸順。在濟陰,抑彊扶弱,甚著威風。

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