Miào Xí 繆襲 [Xībó 熙伯]
Zhòngcháng Tǒng 仲長統 [Gōnglǐ 公理]
Sū Lín 蘇林 [Xiàoyǒu 孝友], Wéi Dàn 韋誕 [Zhòngjiāng 仲將], Xiàhóu Huì 夏侯惠, Sūn Gāi 孫該 [Gōngdá 公達], Dù Zhì 杜摯 [Délǔ 德魯]
Liú Shào appellation Kǒngcái was a Guǎngpíng Hándān man.
During Jiàn’ān [196-220], became a Calculations Clerk, visited Xǔ, the Grand Scribe sent up word: “New Years Day will have solar eclipse.” Shào at the time was where Secretariat Documents Director Xún Yù was, the seated were several tens of people, some said they should cancel Court, some said they should still meet. Shào said: “Zǐ Shèn and Pí Zào were the ancient’s excellent scribes, yet in divining water and fire, they were mistaken in heaven’s timing. The Lǐjì states that when the vassal lords travel to meet Heaven’s Son, on reaching the gates the cases where they cannot finish the rituals are four; a solar eclipse is one. However, the passed down regulations of the sages, do not change to in advance cancel court ceremonies, as perhaps the disaster will disappear, or perhaps the applied methods are in error.” [Xún] Yù praised this speech, and ordered the Court meeting as before, and the sun also was not eclipsed. (1)
- (1) During Jìn’s Yǒnghé [345 – 356], Minister of Justice Wáng Biāo’s letter to Yáng province Inspector Yīn Hào said: “The Grand Scribe sent up that there would be a New Years Day solar-lunar conjunction, of those discussing some had doubts of if they should still meet or not. In the past at Jian’an Inaugural Year  there also was a New Years Day solar-lunar conjunction, Chariots and Cavalry [General] Yǔ writes that Liú Kǒngcái discussed it to show to eight seats. At the time the Court commentators said what Kǒngcái discussed could not be a comment on the Lǐ, [but] Director Xún followed it; it was a superior man’s one failing. Why? The Lǐ says when the vassal lords travel to meet Heaven’s Son, on entering the gate the reasons they cannot finish ceremonies and cancel are four: Grand Temple fire, solar eclipse, later mourning, rain soaking clothes to lose appearance. Considering the intentions of these four things, it says that though the vassal lords have already entered the gates if there suddenly are these, then they cannot finish ceremonies. It was not that they first preserved this matter, and by luck the scribe official’s method was in error, and therefore did not in advance cancel Court ceremonies. Of the three times having disasters, none are greater than solar eclipse. The scribe official reporting reprimand, and yet having no appearance of fear, is not to cultivate propriety of anticipation and prevention, but to abandon methods of elimination and rescue, just when greatly entertaining Huá and Yí, ruler and servants mutually celebrating, how is it to speak of about to reside natural disaster and guilt on oneself? Moreover examining this matter, the ceremonies of solar-lunar conjunction, the Utmost Honored quiets body in the palace hall, does not listen to government matters, the regulations of cap and dress and managed seating and gates and doors, is with the ceremonies of the New Year meeting different. As one cannot enact both, then it should use expedience in the arrangement. The ceremony of the solar-lunar conjunction, is not lighter than than the New Year meeting. The New Year meeting has standards that it can be declined, the solar-lunar conjunction has no meaning that it can be cancelled. To say to comply with Jiànyuán precedent, decline the New Year meeting.” Hào followed this, and indeed declined the meeting.
Censorate Grandee Chī Lǜ recruited Shào, it happened [Chī] Lǜ was dismissed, [instead] appointed Heir-Apparent Resident, transferred to Confidential Documents Cadet. During Huángchū [220-226], became Secretariat Documents Cadet, Cavalier Attendant Cadet. Received Imperial Order to compile the Five Classics and various books, connecting them together by their categories, making the Huánglǎn. When Emperor Míng succeeded the throne , sent out to be Chénliú Administrator, was kindly and lofty in teaching and cultivation, the Hundred Surnames praised him. Summoned and appointed Cavalry Commandant, with Consultant Cadet Yǔ Yí, Xún Shēn, and others determined law orders, creating the Xīn Lǜ [“New Law”] in eighteen piān, writing Lǜ Lüè Lùn [“Law General Discussion”]. Promoted Cavalier Regular Attendant.
At the time hearing that Gōngsūn Yuān received from Sūn Quán title as King of Yān, commentators wished to detain [Gōngsūn] Yuān’s Calculations Clerk and send troops to suppress him. Shào believed:”In the past Yuán Shàng and his brothers submitted to [Gōngsūn] Yuān’s father [Gōngsūn] Kāng, [Gōngsūn] Kāng beheaded them and sent their heads; it was [Gōngsūn] Yuān’s previous generation’s act of loyalty. Also from what is heard the false and the true cannot yet be examined and known. The ancients in seeking the uncultivated and not yet submitted, cultivated virtue and did not campaign, due to valuing the labors of the people. It is appropriate to apply tolerance, to allow them to reform themselves.” Later [Gōngsūn] Yuān indeed beheaded and sent the heads of [Sūn] Quán’s envoy Zhāng Mí and others.
Shào once made Zhào Dū fù [“Rhapsody on the Zhào capital”], Emperor Míng praised it, Imperial Order on Shào to make a Xǔ Dū and Luò Dū Fù [Rhapsody on Luò capital and on Xǔ capital]. At the time outside was raising of armies, inside were building of palaces and residences, Shào made the two rhapsodies, all to remonstrate.
During Qīnglóng [233 – 237], Wú besieged Héféi. At the time the east’s officials and soldiers were all divided on leave, Campaigning East General Mǎn Chǒng memorialized to request Central Army troops, and also summon the officers and soldiers on leave, to wait to gather and strike them. Shào’s discussion believed: “The rebel masses have newly arrived, their hearts concentrated and aura acute. [Mǎn] Chǒng with a few people personally contests that ground; if it is suitable to advance and strike, it is not certain they can overcome. [Mǎn] Chǒng requesting to wait for troops, is that he has not yet lost. [I] believe one can first send infantry of five thousand, elite cavalry of three thousand, the army advancing out, raising sound and advancing on roads, shaking and dazzling the situation. The cavalry on arriving at Héféi, spreading their lines and teams, with many banners and drums, dazzling the troops below the city, to draw out the rebel rear, pressure their return route, and intercept their provisions routes. The rebels on hearing the main army is coming, the cavalry cutting off their rear, will certainly be shaken and afraid and flee, and without battles they will on their own defeat the rebels.” The Emperor followed this. The troops were about to reach Héféi, the rebels indeed withdrew and returned.
At the time Imperial Order letter was spread seeking multitudes of worthies. Cavalier Attendant Cadet Xiàhóu Huì recommended Shào saying: “In prostration, seeing Regular Attendant Liú Shào, he is deeply loyal and sincere in thought, his form complete in number, in everything intricate, his flow and development vast and far-reaching, and therefore in various talents large and small, all seek what is the same and thoroughly deliberate. Therefore servicemen of true nature submit to his plain harmony and good uprightness, men of pure tranquility admire his mysterious concession, servicemen of literary learning commend his forward steps detailed and meticulous, servicemen of law and order understand his proficient calculations, servicemen of reasoning know his depth and sincerity, servicemen of literary composition love his written discussions and essays, servicemen of regulation esteem his cultivation and comparison, servicemen of strategy praise his enlightened thinking and understanding of the minute. Altogether these sorts of discussions seek to fit one’s own strengths and raise their supporting branches. I your servant have repeatedly listened to his pure conversation, observed his sincere discussions, gradually immersed for successive years, embracing it completely for a long time, truly the Court is amazed by his capacity. One believes if it is this man, he should assist and support critical matters, accept plans in the tents, and should with the state’s way both flourish, not what the common world will often have. Only Your Majesty bequeaths superior traveling listening, having Shào carry on pure and idle joy, obtaining self exhaustive ahead, then virtuous sound will above connect, brilliant glory daily renewing.” (1)
- (1) Your Servant Sōngzhī believes generally mutual praising recommendations, usually have many overflowing beautiful words, those able to not oppose within are perhaps few. [Xiàhóu] Huì’s praise of Shào saying “mysterious concession” and “enlightened thinking and understanding of the minute.,” are close to mistaken.
During Jǐngchū, received Imperial Order to create Dū Guān Kǎo Kè [“Exam Program for Capital Government Offices”]. Shào sent up memorial that said: “The exam programs of the hundred officials, is the great comparison of the ruling government; however for successive ages it was not attended to, and therefore governing standards were deficient and not yet repaired, the able and the not confused and mutually immersed. Your Majesty by your upper sagely grand strategizing, pitied that the ruling order was slackened and decaying, divine thinking inwardly reflecting, enlightened Imperial Order outwardly issuing. I your servant received this grace and expansion, to be able to instruct the young, and at once composed the Dū Guān Kǎo Kè in seventy two tiáo, and also composed the Shuō Lüè in one piān. I your servant’s learning is scant and knowledge shallow, truly not sufficient to spread freely the sagely intent, to make known determination of standard and regulation.”
Also he believed it was appropriate to regulate ritual and composition of music, to alter social customs, writing Yuè lùn “Music Discussion” in fourteen piān, the matter was complete and not yet presented up, when it happened Emperor Míng passed away, and it was not put into effect.
During Zhèngshǐ, managed classics and lectured, bestowed noble rank as Marquis Within the Passes. Altogether his selections and narrations Fǎ lùn “Law Discussion” and Rénwù zhì “Treatise on Humans” and their sort were over a hundred piān. Died, posthumously bestowed Minister of Merits. Son Lín succeeded.
At the same time as Shào was Dōnghǎi’s Miào Xí, also had talent and learning, with many writings and narrations, office reached Secretariat Documenter, Minister of Merits. (1)
- (1) Xiānxián Xíngzhuàng states: Miào Fěi appellation Wényǎ, when reading classic works, the matters he personally cultivated. Summoned as Academic Scholar, six times recruited to the Excellency Offices. The Hàn Emperor was at Cháng’ān, the Excellencies and Minsiters widely nominated famed Classicists. At the time nominated Fěi to be appointed Attendant Internal, all he did not accept.
- This was Xí’s father.
- Wénzhāng zhì states: Xí appellation Xībó. Recruited to the Censorate Grandee’s Office, successively served Wèi for four reigns. Zhèngshǐ Sixth Year , aged sixty he died. Son Yuè appellation Kǒngyì, Jìn Merit Grandee. Xí’s grandsons Shào, Bō, Zhǐ, Yìn and others, all were influential.
Xí’s friend Shānyáng’s Zhòngcháng Tǒng, at Hàn’s end was Secretariat Documenter Cadet, early died. Wrote Chāngyán, its word beautiful and worth examining. (1)
- (1) Xí’s compilation of Tǒng’s Chāngyán memorial says: Tǒng appellation Gōnglǐ, when young enjoyed study, widely waded writings and records, providing for literary works. Aged over twenty, traveled and studied about Qīng, Xú, Bìng, and Jì [provinces], and of those that interacted with him many were impressed with him. Bìng province Inspector Gāo Gàn by nature was noble and had fame, recruited the Four Quarters’ traveling servicemen, and many joined him. Tǒng passed by [Gāo] Gàn, [Gāo] Gàn treated him well, and asked him about the world’s affairs. Tǒng said to [Gāo] Gàn: “You have imposing ambition but are without imposing talent, enjoy servicemen but are not able to select men, and so I deeply warn you.” [Gāo] Gàn valued himself much and did not accept Tǒng’s words. Tǒng left him, and soon after [Gāo] Gàn was defeated. Bìng’s and Jì’s servicemen because of this took note of Tǒng. Minister of Agriculture Cháng Lín with Tǒng both were at Shàngdǎng, and he for your servant explained that Tǒng by nature was free and casual, dared speak bluntly, did not care for small integrity, every time in the prefectures was summoned, and at once claimed illness and did not accept. His silence and speech was without constancy, of the time’s people some said he was mad. When the Hàn Emperor was at Xǔ, Secretariat Documents Director Xún Yù managed and ordered the critical, enjoyed servicemen and loved the unique, heard Tǒng’s reputation, and summoned him as Secretariat Documenter. Later he was Advisor to Tàizǔ’s military affairs, again returned as Cadet. Yánkāng Inaugural Year  died, at the time his years over forty. Tǒng every time in discussing and speaking of the ancient to present worldly customs and enacted affairs, was passionate and sighed, at once made it a Discussion, named as Chāngyán, altogether twenty-four piān.
Cavalier Regular Attendant Chénliú’s Sū Lín, (1) Merit Grandee Jīngzhào’s Wéi Dàn, (2) Lè’ān Administrator Qiáoguó’s Xiàhóu Huì, (3) Chénjùn Administrator Rènchéng’s Sūn Gāi, (4) Cadet Internal Hédōng’s Dù Zhì and others also had outstanding writings and rhapsodies, tending to be passed down through the ages. (5)
- (1) Wèilüè states: Lín appellation Xiàoyǒu, widely learned, understood many of the ancient to present character indications, all the various books and narratives and writings that had uncertainties, Lín all explained them. During Jiàn’ān [196-220] became Five Office General’s [Cáo Pī] Literary Scholar, deeply met with courteious treatment. During Huángchū [220-226] became Academic Scholar Dispensing Affairs Internal. The Sū Lín praised in Emperor Wén’s Diǎnlùn is him. Due to old age returned home, every time the country sent someone to meet and ask after him, repeatedly applied bestowments. Over eighty years old he died.
- (2) Wénzhāng Xùlù states: Dàn appellation Zhòngjiāng was Minister Charioteer [Wéi] Duān’s son. Had literary talent, enjoyed composing poetry and prose. During Jiàn’ān [196-220] became prefecture upper calculations clerk, specially appointed Cadet Internal, gradually promoted to Attendant Internal, Internal Documents Supervisor, as Merit Grandee resigned position, aged seventy-five years died at home. Previously, Hándān Chún and Wèi Jì with Dàn all were skilled in calligraphy, had fame.
- [Wèi] Jì’s grandson Héng compiled Sì tǐ shū shì [“Trends of Four Forms of Calligraphy”], its preface on Ancient Script stating: “From Qín’s use of Seal Script, they burned previous canons, and Ancient Script was cut off. In Hàn Emperor Wǔ’s time, Lǔ King Gōng demolished Kǒng-zǐ’s residence, obtaining the Shàng Shū, Chūnqiū, Lúnyǔ, Xiàojīng. At the time people already no longer knew there was an Ancient Script, and called it Tadpole Script. The Hàn age stored it away, few obtained and saw it. At Wèi’s beginning the transmission of Ancient Script came from Hándān Chún. Marquis Jìng wrote [Hándān] Chún a Shàng Shū, later showed it to [Hándān] Chún, but [Hándān] Chún did not distinguish it. Reaching to during Zhèngshǐ [240-249], established the Three Character Stone classic, the transfer lost [Hándān] Chún’s methods. Because of the Tadpole name, they then imitated his methods. Tàikāng Inaugural Year , a Jí county civilian robbed and excavated Wèi King Xiāng’s burial mound, obtaining books of over a hundred thousand words. Comparing to what Marquis Jìng’s calligraphy, it yet has similarities.” Marquis Jìng refers to [Wèi] Jì.
- Its preface on Seal Script states: “In Qín’s time Lǐ Sī was called as ‘Worker Seal,’ the various mountain and copper statue engravings were all [Lǐ] Sī’s calligraphy. During Hàn’s Jiànchū [76-84], Fúfēng’s Cáo Xǐ was a bit different from [Lǐ] Sī [in calligraphy] and yet also was declared excellent. Hándān Chún modeled it, and roughly investigated its subleties. Wéi Dàn modeled [Hándān] Chún but did not match him. During Tàihé [227 – 233], [Wéi] Dàn became Wǔdū Administrator, for ability in calligraphy remained to fill vacancy as Attendant Internal, the Wèi clan’s treasure and vessel engravings and titles are all Dàn’s calligraphy. At Hàn’s end also there was Cài Yōng selecting from the methods of [Lǐ] Sī and [Cáo] Xǐ, become a mixed form of ancient and present, however its refinement and simplicity did not match [Hándān] Chún.”
- Its preface on Clerical Script is already summarized, see Wǔjì. It also states: “Shīyí Guān made large characters, Hándān Chún made small characters. Liáng Gǔ said [Hándān] Chún obtained Cì Zhòng’s method, however [Liáng] Gǔ’s use of brush was thorough in its momentum.”
- Its preface on Cursive Script states: “At Hàn’s rise there was Cursive Script, unknown are its author’s family and personal name. Reaching to Emperor Zhāng’s time, Qí Chancellor Dù Dù was declared excellent in writing, later there was Cuī Yuàn, Cuī Shì also praised as skilled. The Dù clan in joining characters was extremely secure and its script style small and thin. The Cuī clan extremely obtained brush momentum and joined characters small and sparse. Hóngnóng’s Zhāng Bóyīng therefore transferred and refined their skill. All the houses’ clothes and silk, he certainly wrote on and afterward scoured it, facing the pond studying calligraphy, the pond’s water was completely black. On using brush he certainly made model forms, called ‘hurriedly with no time for cursive,’ not an inch of paper omitted, to the present the world’s people especially treasure him, Wéi Zhòngjiāng calls him the Cursive Sage. [Zhāng] Bóyīng’s younger brother Wénshū was next after Bóyīng. Also there was Jiāng Mèngyǐng, Liáng Kǒngdá, Tián Yànhé, and Wéi Zhòngjiāng’s sort, all Bóyīng’s disciples, with fame in the world., however they were different and did not reach his relaxed writing style.”
- (3) Huì was [Xiàhóu] Yuān’s son. The matter is in Yuān’s biography.
- (4) Wénzhāng Xù lù states: Gāi appellation Gōngdá, had strong will and enjoyed study. Aged twenty years, was upper calculations official, summoned as Cadet Internal, wrote a Wèi shū. Promoted Academic Scholar Excellency over the Masses’ Right Chief Clerk, again returned and entered writing. Jǐngyuán Second Year  died in office.
- (5) Wénzhāng Xùlù states: Zhì appellation Délǔ. First sent up Jiāfù [“Rhapsody on Reed Whistles”], installed as Excellency over the Masses’ Army Planning Clerk. Later nominated Xiàolián [“filial and incorrupt”], appointed Lángzhōng, transferred to fill vacancy in Investigative Documenter. Zhì with Guànqiū Jiǎn were of the same hometown and mutually close, and therefore made a poem for [Guànqiū] Jiǎn, about seeking a celestial man’s drug of one pill, wishing to move [Guànqiū] Jiǎn to seek his help. His poem said: “Refined thoroughbred horse not tested, swirling among trees and oaks, the warrior’s will is not yet extended, pits and barriers with many miseries. Yī Zhì was escorting servant, Lǚ Wàng’s body grasped staff, Yíwú trapped in Shāngfàn, Níngqī facing ox sighed; eating at a Gatekeeper’s, Huáiyīn [Hán Xìn] hungered but did not dine. Buying an servant old bearing salary, wife on edge calling and not returning, released officials ten years, rank not expanding from former office. Talent not on the order of the eight masters, and yet equal to their suffering. Not knowing where he was, Yuán Àng had no words. Suffering illness like this for long time, Róng Wèi moved not at ease, hearing there is Hán Zhòng drug, trusting to come give one pill.” [Guànqiū] Jiǎn’s reply states: “Phoenix soaring in the capital city, wailing calls of its thoughts, talent for the sagely era comes out, how is virtuous sound not harmonizing? Eight masters not yet encountered, the present meets enlightened times. Hú Kāng left Lǒngmǔ, Yáng Wěi was without foundation, flying and soaring through the cloudy sky, exerting speed joining with bright light. Refined thoroughbreds are different in bone form, Bó Yuè observed and understood this, yet to grow feather quills, the goose rising certainly has its time. Body without wasting disease, what use is asking a good doctor? Wave after wave of light perching gatherings, returning to be mocked by small sparrows. Hán Zhòng’s drugs though are good, perhaps yet they cannot cure. Feelings stretching a thousand leagues, weak words answering an excellent poem. Trust in heart moved within, the within truly has no reply.” Zhì indeed was not able to be promoted, dying as Confidential Documenter.
- Lújiāng Héshì Jiāzhuàn states: In Emperor Míng’s time, there was a Qiáo man Hú Kāng, aged fifteen years, for unusual talent met with escort, and also explained gains and losses, requesting to be tested in a county. Imperial Order specially called him to meet. The multitude of discussions called him as a divine youth. Imperial Order assigned him to the Confidential Documents, sent to extensively read the books. The Emperor asked Confidential Documents Deputy Hé Zhēn: “How is Kāng’s talent?” [Hé] Zhēn replied: “Kāng though has talent, his character is not honorable, he certainly will be defeated.” Later he indeed due to a mistake met with censure.
- Your Servant Sōngzhī notes: In the Wèi Court of those from obscurity and yet prominent, one does not hear of a Hú Kāng; on suspects it is Mèng Kāng. For [Mèng] Kāng’s matter see Dù Shù’s biography [SGZ 16]. For Yáng Wěi see Cáo Shuǎng’s biography [SGZ 9].