(21.4) Liú Shào 劉劭 [Kǒngcái 孔才]

Miào Xí 繆襲 [Xībó 熙伯]

Zhòngcháng Tǒng 仲長統 [Gōnglǐ 公理]

Sū Lín 蘇林 [Xiàoyǒu 孝友], Wéi Dàn 韋誕 [Zhòngjiāng 仲將], Xiàhóu Huì 夏侯惠, Sūn Gāi 孫該 [Gōngdá 公達], Dù Zhì 杜摯 [Délǔ 德魯]

Liú Shào appellation Kǒngcái was a Guǎngpíng Hándān man.

During Jiàn’ān [196-220], became a Calculations Clerk, visited Xǔ, the Grand Scribe sent up word: “New Years Day will have solar eclipse.” Shào at the time was where Secretariat Documents Director Xún Yù was, the seated were several tens of people, some said they should cancel Court, some said they should still meet. Shào said: “Zǐ Shèn and Pí Zào were the ancient’s excellent scribes, yet in divining water and fire, they were mistaken in heaven’s timing. The Lǐjì states that when the vassal lords travel to meet Heaven’s Son, on reaching the gates the cases where they cannot finish the rituals are four; a solar eclipse is one. However, the passed down regulations of the sages, do not change to in advance cancel court ceremonies, as perhaps the disaster will disappear, or perhaps the applied methods are in error.” [Xún] Yù praised this speech, and ordered the Court meeting as before, and the sun also was not eclipsed. (1)

劉劭字孔才,廣平邯鄲人也。建安中,為計吏,詣許。太史上言:「正旦當日蝕。」劭時在尚書令荀彧所,坐者數十人,或云當廢朝,或云宜卻會。劭曰:「梓慎、裨灶,古之良史,猶占水火,錯失天時。禮記曰諸侯旅見天子,及門不得終禮者四,日蝕在一。然則聖人垂制,不為變〔異〕豫廢朝禮者,或災消異伏,或推術謬誤也。」彧善其言。敕朝會如舊,日亦不蝕。〔一〕

  • (1) During Jìn’s Yǒnghé [345 – 356], Minister of Justice Wáng Biāo’s letter to Yáng province Inspector Yīn Hào said: “The Grand Scribe sent up that there would be a New Years Day solar-lunar conjunction, of those discussing some had doubts of if they should still meet or not. In the past at Jian’an Inaugural Year [196] there also was a New Years Day solar-lunar conjunction, Chariots and Cavalry [General] Yǔ writes that Liú Kǒngcái discussed it to show to eight seats. At the time the Court commentators said what Kǒngcái discussed could not be a comment on the , [but] Director Xún followed it; it was a superior man’s one failing. Why? The says when the vassal lords travel to meet Heaven’s Son, on entering the gate the reasons they cannot finish ceremonies and cancel are four: Grand Temple fire, solar eclipse, later mourning, rain soaking clothes to lose appearance. Considering the intentions of these four things, it says that though the vassal lords have already entered the gates if there suddenly are these, then they cannot finish ceremonies. It was not that they first preserved this matter, and by luck the scribe official’s method was in error, and therefore did not in advance cancel Court ceremonies. Of the three times having disasters, none are greater than solar eclipse. The scribe official reporting reprimand, and yet having no appearance of fear, is not to cultivate propriety of anticipation and prevention, but to abandon methods of elimination and rescue, just when greatly entertaining Huá and Yí, ruler and servants mutually celebrating, how is it to speak of about to reside natural disaster and guilt on oneself? Moreover examining this matter, the ceremonies of solar-lunar conjunction, the Utmost Honored quiets body in the palace hall, does not listen to government matters, the regulations of cap and dress and managed seating and gates and doors, is with the ceremonies of the New Year meeting different. As one cannot enact both, then it should use expedience in the arrangement. The ceremony of the solar-lunar conjunction, is not lighter than than the New Year meeting. The New Year meeting has standards that it can be declined, the solar-lunar conjunction has no meaning that it can be cancelled. To say to comply with Jiànyuán precedent, decline the New Year meeting.” Hào followed this, and indeed declined the meeting.

〔一〕 晉永和中,廷尉王彪之與揚州刺史殷浩書曰:「太史上元日合朔,談者或有疑,應卻會與不?昔建元元年,亦元日合朔,庾車騎寫劉孔才所論以示八座。于時朝議有謂孔才所論為不得禮議,荀令從之,是勝人之一失也。何者?禮云,諸侯旅見天子,入門不得終禮而廢者四:太廟火,日蝕,后之喪,雨霑服失容。尋此四事之指,自謂諸侯雖已入門而卒暴有之,則不得終禮。非為先存其事,而徼倖史官推術錯謬,故不豫廢朝禮也。夫三辰有災,莫大日蝕,史官告譴,而無懼容,不脩豫防之禮,而廢消救之術,方大饗華夷,君臣相慶,豈是將處天災罪己之謂?且檢之事實,合朔之儀,至尊靜躬殿堂,不聽政事,冕服御坐門闥之制,與元會禮異。自不得兼行,則當權其事宜。合朔之禮,不輕於元會。元會有可卻之準,合朔無可廢之義。謂應依建元故事,卻元會。」浩從之,竟卻會。


Censorate Grandee Chī Lǜ recruited Shào, it happened [Chī] Lǜ was dismissed, [instead] appointed Heir-Apparent Resident, transferred to Confidential Documents Cadet. During Huángchū [220-226], became Secretariat Documents Cadet, Cavalier Attendant Cadet. Received Imperial Order to compile the Five Classics and various books, connecting them together by their categories, making the Huánglǎn. When Emperor Míng succeeded the throne [227], sent out to be Chénliú Administrator, was kindly and lofty in teaching and cultivation, the Hundred Surnames praised him. Summoned and appointed Cavalry Commandant, with Consultant Cadet Yǔ Yí, Xún Shēn, and others determined law orders, creating the Xīn Lǜ [“New Law”] in eighteen piān, writing Lǜ Lüè Lùn [“Law General Discussion”]. Promoted Cavalier Regular Attendant.

At the time hearing that Gōngsūn Yuān received from Sūn Quán title as King of Yān, commentators wished to detain [Gōngsūn] Yuān’s Calculations Clerk and send troops to suppress him. Shào believed:”In the past Yuán Shàng and his brothers submitted to [Gōngsūn] Yuān’s father [Gōngsūn] Kāng, [Gōngsūn] Kāng beheaded them and sent their heads; it was [Gōngsūn] Yuān’s previous generation’s act of loyalty. Also from what is heard the false and the true cannot yet be examined and known. The ancients in seeking the uncultivated and not yet submitted, cultivated virtue and did not campaign, due to valuing the labors of the people. It is appropriate to apply tolerance, to allow them to reform themselves.” Later [Gōngsūn] Yuān indeed beheaded and sent the heads of [Sūn] Quán’s envoy Zhāng Mí and others.

Shào once made Zhào Dū fù [“Rhapsody on the Zhào capital”], Emperor Míng praised it, Imperial Order on Shào to make a Xǔ Dū and Luò Dū Fù [Rhapsody on Luò capital and on Xǔ capital]. At the time outside was raising of armies, inside were building of palaces and residences, Shào made the two rhapsodies, all to remonstrate.

御史大夫郗慮辟劭,會慮免,拜太子舍人,遷祕書郎。黃初中,為尚書郎、散騎侍郎。受詔集五經群書,以類相從,作皇覽。明帝即位,出為陳留太守,敦崇教化,百姓稱之。徵拜騎都尉,與議郎庾嶷、荀詵等定科令,作新律十八篇,著律略論。遷散騎常侍。時聞公孫淵受孫權燕王之號,議者欲留淵計吏,遣兵討之,劭以為「昔袁尚兄弟歸淵父康,康斬送其首,是淵先世之效忠也。又所聞虛實,未可審知。古者要荒未服,脩德而不征,重勞民也。宜加寬貸,使有以自新。」後淵果斬送權使張彌等首。劭嘗作趙都賦,明帝美之,詔劭作許都、洛都賦。時外興軍旅,內營宮室,劭作二賦,皆諷諫焉。


During Qīnglóng [233 – 237], Wú besieged Héféi. At the time the east’s officials and soldiers were all divided on leave, Campaigning East General Mǎn Chǒng memorialized to request Central Army troops, and also summon the officers and soldiers on leave, to wait to gather and strike them. Shào’s discussion believed: “The rebel masses have newly arrived, their hearts concentrated and aura acute. [Mǎn] Chǒng with a few people personally contests that ground; if it is suitable to advance and strike, it is not certain they can overcome. [Mǎn] Chǒng requesting to wait for troops, is that he has not yet lost. [I] believe one can first send infantry of five thousand, elite cavalry of three thousand, the army advancing out, raising sound and advancing on roads, shaking and dazzling the situation. The cavalry on arriving at Héféi, spreading their lines and teams, with many banners and drums, dazzling the troops below the city, to draw out the rebel rear, pressure their return route, and intercept their provisions routes. The rebels on hearing the main army is coming, the cavalry cutting off their rear, will certainly be shaken and afraid and flee, and without battles they will on their own defeat the rebels.” The Emperor followed this. The troops were about to reach Héféi, the rebels indeed withdrew and returned.

青龍中,吳圍合肥,時東方吏士皆分休,征東將軍滿寵表請中軍兵,并召休將士,須集擊之。劭議以為「賊眾新至,心專氣銳。寵以少人自戰其地,若便進擊,不必能制。寵求待兵,未有所失也。以為可先遣步兵五千,精騎三千,軍前發,揚聲進道,震曜形勢。騎到合肥,疏其行隊,多其旌鼓,曜兵城下,引出賊後,擬其歸路,要其糧道。賊聞大軍來,騎斷其後,必震怖遁走,不戰自破賊矣。」帝從之。兵比至合肥,賊果退還。


At the time Imperial Order letter was spread seeking multitudes of worthies. Cavalier Attendant Cadet Xiàhóu Huì recommended Shào saying: “In prostration, seeing Regular Attendant Liú Shào, he is deeply loyal and sincere in thought, his form complete in number, in everything intricate, his flow and development vast and far-reaching, and therefore in various talents large and small, all seek what is the same and thoroughly deliberate. Therefore servicemen of true nature submit to his plain harmony and good uprightness, men of pure tranquility admire his mysterious concession, servicemen of literary learning commend his forward steps detailed and meticulous, servicemen of law and order understand his proficient calculations, servicemen of reasoning know his depth and sincerity, servicemen of literary composition love his written discussions and essays, servicemen of regulation esteem his cultivation and comparison, servicemen of strategy praise his enlightened thinking and understanding of the minute. Altogether these sorts of discussions seek to fit one’s own strengths and raise their supporting branches. I your servant have repeatedly listened to his pure conversation, observed his sincere discussions, gradually immersed for successive years, embracing it completely for a long time, truly the Court is amazed by his capacity. One believes if it is this man, he should assist and support critical matters, accept plans in the tents, and should with the state’s way both flourish, not what the common world will often have. Only Your Majesty bequeaths superior traveling listening, having Shào carry on pure and idle joy, obtaining self exhaustive ahead, then virtuous sound will above connect, brilliant glory daily renewing.” (1)

時詔書博求眾賢。散騎侍郎夏侯惠薦劭曰:「伏見常侍劉劭,深忠篤思,體周於數,凡所錯綜,源流弘遠,是以群才大小,咸取所同而斟酌焉。故性實之士服其平和良正,清靜之人慕其玄虛退讓,文學之士嘉其推步詳密,法理之士明其分數精比,意思之士知其沈深篤固,文章之士愛其著論屬辭,制度之士貴其化略較要,策謀之士贊其明思通微,凡此諸論,皆取適己所長而舉其支流者也。臣數聽其清談,覽其篤論,漸漬歷年,服膺彌久,實為朝廷奇其器量。以為若此人者,宜輔翼機事,納謀幃幄,當與國道俱隆,非世俗所常有也。惟陛下垂優游之聽,使劭承清閒之歡,得自盡於前,則德音上通,煇燿日新矣。」〔一〕

  • (1) Your Servant Sōngzhī believes generally mutual praising recommendations, usually have many overflowing beautiful words, those able to not oppose within are perhaps few. [Xiàhóu] Huì’s praise of Shào saying “mysterious concession” and “enlightened thinking and understanding of the minute.,” are close to mistaken.

〔一〕 臣松之以為凡相稱薦,率多溢美之辭,能不違中者或寡矣。惠之稱劭云「玄虛退讓」及「明思通微」,近於過也。


During Jǐngchū, received Imperial Order to create Dū Guān Kǎo Kè [“Exam Program for Capital Government Offices”]. Shào sent up memorial that said: “The exam programs of the hundred officials, is the great comparison of the ruling government; however for successive ages it was not attended to, and therefore governing standards were deficient and not yet repaired, the able and the not confused and mutually immersed. Your Majesty by your upper sagely grand strategizing, pitied that the ruling order was slackened and decaying, divine thinking inwardly reflecting, enlightened Imperial Order outwardly issuing. I your servant received this grace and expansion, to be able to instruct the young, and at once composed the Dū Guān Kǎo Kè in seventy two tiáo, and also composed the Shuō Lüè in one piān. I your servant’s learning is scant and knowledge shallow, truly not sufficient to spread freely the sagely intent, to make known determination of standard and regulation.”

Also he believed it was appropriate to regulate ritual and composition of music, to alter social customs, writing Yuè lùn “Music Discussion” in fourteen piān, the matter was complete and not yet presented up, when it happened Emperor Míng passed away, and it was not put into effect.

During Zhèngshǐ, managed classics and lectured, bestowed noble rank as Marquis Within the Passes. Altogether his selections and narrations Fǎ lùn “Law Discussion” and Rénwù zhì “Treatise on Humans” and their sort were over a hundred piān. Died, posthumously bestowed Minister of Merits. Son Lín succeeded.

景初中,受詔作都官考課。劭上疏曰:「百官考課,王政之大較,然而歷代弗務,是以治典闕而未補,能否混而相蒙。陛下以上聖之宏略,愍王綱之弛頹,神慮內鑒,明詔外發。臣奉恩曠然,得以啟矇,輒作都官考課七十二條,又作說略一篇。臣學寡識淺,誠不足以宣暢聖旨,著定典制。」又以為宜制禮作樂,以移風俗,著樂論十四篇,事成未上。會明帝崩,不施行。正始中。執經講學,賜爵關內侯。凡所選述,法論、人物志之類百餘篇。卒,追贈光祿勳。子琳嗣。


At the same time as Shào was Dōnghǎi’s Miào Xí, also had talent and learning, with many writings and narrations, office reached Secretariat Documenter, Minister of Merits. (1)

劭同時東海繆襲亦有才學,多所述敘,官至尚書、光祿勳。〔一〕

  • (1) Xiānxián Xíngzhuàng states: Miào Fěi appellation Wényǎ, when reading classic works, the matters he personally cultivated. Summoned as Academic Scholar, six times recruited to the Excellency Offices. The Hàn Emperor was at Cháng’ān, the Excellencies and Minsiters widely nominated famed Classicists. At the time nominated Fěi to be appointed Attendant Internal, all he did not accept.
  • This was Xí’s father.
  • Wénzhāng zhì states: Xí appellation Xībó. Recruited to the Censorate Grandee’s Office, successively served Wèi for four reigns. Zhèngshǐ Sixth Year [245], aged sixty he died. Son Yuè appellation Kǒngyì, Jìn Merit Grandee. Xí’s grandsons Shào, Bō, Zhǐ, Yìn and others, all were influential.

〔一〕 先賢行狀曰:繆斐字文雅。該覽經傳,事親色養。徵博士,六辟公府。漢帝在長安,公卿博舉名儒。時舉斐任侍中,並無所就。即襲父也。文章志曰:襲字熙伯。辟御史大夫府,歷事魏四世。正始六年,年六十卒。子悅字孔懌,晉光祿大夫。襲孫紹、播、徵、胤等,並皆顯達。


Xí’s friend Shānyáng’s Zhòngcháng Tǒng, at Hàn’s end was Secretariat Documenter Cadet, early died. Wrote Chāngyán, its word beautiful and worth examining. (1)

襲友人山陽仲長統,漢末為尚書郎,早卒。著昌言,詞佳可觀省。〔一〕

  • (1) Xí’s compilation of Tǒng’s Chāngyán memorial says: Tǒng appellation Gōnglǐ, when young enjoyed study, widely waded writings and records, providing for literary works. Aged over twenty, traveled and studied about Qīng, Xú, Bìng, and Jì [provinces], and of those that interacted with him many were impressed with him. Bìng province Inspector Gāo Gàn by nature was noble and had fame, recruited the Four Quarters’ traveling servicemen, and many joined him. Tǒng passed by [Gāo] Gàn, [Gāo] Gàn treated him well, and asked him about the world’s affairs. Tǒng said to [Gāo] Gàn: “You have imposing ambition but are without imposing talent, enjoy servicemen but are not able to select men, and so I deeply warn you.” [Gāo] Gàn valued himself much and did not accept Tǒng’s words. Tǒng left him, and soon after [Gāo] Gàn was defeated. Bìng’s and Jì’s servicemen because of this took note of Tǒng. Minister of Agriculture Cháng Lín with Tǒng both were at Shàngdǎng, and he for your servant explained that Tǒng by nature was free and casual, dared speak bluntly, did not care for small integrity, every time in the prefectures was summoned, and at once claimed illness and did not accept. His silence and speech was without constancy, of the time’s people some said he was mad. When the Hàn Emperor was at Xǔ, Secretariat Documents Director Xún Yù managed and ordered the critical, enjoyed servicemen and loved the unique, heard Tǒng’s reputation, and summoned him as Secretariat Documenter. Later he was Advisor to Tàizǔ’s military affairs, again returned as Cadet. Yánkāng Inaugural Year [220] died, at the time his years over forty. Tǒng every time in discussing and speaking of the ancient to present worldly customs and enacted affairs, was passionate and sighed, at once made it a Discussion, named as Chāngyán, altogether twenty-four piān.

〔一〕 襲撰統昌言表,稱統字公理,少好學,博涉書記,贍於文辭。年二十餘,游學青、徐、并、冀之間,與交者多異之。并州刺史高幹素貴有名,招致四方游士,多歸焉。統過幹,幹善待遇之,訪以世事。統謂幹曰:「君有雄志而無雄才,好士而不能擇人,所以為君深戒也。」幹雅自多,不納統言。統去之,無幾而幹敗。并、冀之士,以是識統。大司農常林與統共在上黨,為臣道統性倜儻,敢直言,不矜小節,每列郡命召,輒稱疾不就。默語無常,時人或謂之狂。漢帝在許,尚書令荀彧領典樞機,好士愛奇,聞統名,啟召以為尚書。後參太祖軍事,復還為郎。延康元年卒,時年四十餘。統每論說古今世俗行事,發憤歎息,輒以為論,名曰昌言,凡二十四篇。


Cavalier Regular Attendant Chénliú’s Sū Lín, (1) Merit Grandee Jīngzhào’s Wéi Dàn, (2) Lè’ān Administrator Qiáoguó’s Xiàhóu Huì, (3) Chénjùn Administrator Rènchéng’s Sūn Gāi, (4) Cadet Internal Hédōng’s Dù Zhì and others also had outstanding writings and rhapsodies, tending to be passed down through the ages. (5)

散騎常侍陳留蘇林、〔一〕光祿大夫京兆韋誕、〔二〕樂安太守譙國夏侯惠、〔三〕陳郡太守任城孫該、郎中令河東杜摯等亦著文賦,頗傳於世。〔五〕

  • (1) Wèilüè states: Lín appellation Xiàoyǒu, widely learned, understood many of the ancient to present character indications, all the various books and narratives and writings that had uncertainties, Lín all explained them. During Jiàn’ān [196-220] became Five Office General’s [Cáo Pī] Literary Scholar, deeply met with courteious treatment. During Huángchū [220-226] became Academic Scholar Dispensing Affairs Internal. The Sū Lín praised in Emperor Wén’s Diǎnlùn is him. Due to old age returned home, every time the country sent someone to meet and ask after him, repeatedly applied bestowments. Over eighty years old he died.

〔一〕 魏略曰:林字孝友,博學,多通古今字指,凡諸書傳文閒危疑,林皆釋之。建安中,為五官將文學,甚見禮待。黃初中,為博士給事中。文帝作典論所稱蘇林者是也。以老歸第,國家每遣人就問之,數加賜遺。年八十餘卒。

  • (2) Wénzhāng Xùlù states: Dàn appellation Zhòngjiāng was Minister Charioteer [Wéi] Duān’s son. Had literary talent, enjoyed composing poetry and prose. During Jiàn’ān [196-220] became prefecture upper calculations clerk, specially appointed Cadet Internal, gradually promoted to Attendant Internal, Internal Documents Supervisor, as Merit Grandee resigned position, aged seventy-five years died at home. Previously, Hándān Chún and Wèi Jì with Dàn all were skilled in calligraphy, had fame.
  • [Wèi] Jì’s grandson Héng compiled Sì tǐ shū shì [“Trends of Four Forms of Calligraphy”], its preface on Ancient Script stating: “From Qín’s use of Seal Script, they burned previous canons, and Ancient Script was cut off. In Hàn Emperor Wǔ’s time, Lǔ King Gōng demolished Kǒng-zǐ’s residence, obtaining the Shàng Shū, Chūnqiū, Lúnyǔ, Xiàojīng. At the time people already no longer knew there was an Ancient Script, and called it Tadpole Script. The Hàn age stored it away, few obtained and saw it. At Wèi’s beginning the transmission of Ancient Script came from Hándān Chún. Marquis Jìng wrote [Hándān] Chún a Shàng Shū, later showed it to [Hándān] Chún, but [Hándān] Chún did not distinguish it. Reaching to during Zhèngshǐ [240-249], established the Three Character Stone classic, the transfer lost [Hándān] Chún’s methods. Because of the Tadpole name, they then imitated his methods. Tàikāng Inaugural Year [280], a Jí county civilian robbed and excavated Wèi King Xiāng’s burial mound, obtaining books of over a hundred thousand words. Comparing to what Marquis Jìng’s calligraphy, it yet has similarities.” Marquis Jìng refers to [Wèi] Jì.
  • Its preface on Seal Script states: “In Qín’s time Lǐ Sī was called as ‘Worker Seal,’ the various mountain and copper statue engravings were all [Lǐ] Sī’s calligraphy. During Hàn’s Jiànchū [76-84], Fúfēng’s Cáo Xǐ was a bit different from [Lǐ] Sī [in calligraphy] and yet also was declared excellent. Hándān Chún modeled it, and roughly investigated its subleties. Wéi Dàn modeled [Hándān] Chún but did not match him. During Tàihé [227 – 233], [Wéi] Dàn became Wǔdū Administrator, for ability in calligraphy remained to fill vacancy as Attendant Internal, the Wèi clan’s treasure and vessel engravings and titles are all Dàn’s calligraphy. At Hàn’s end also there was Cài Yōng selecting from the methods of [Lǐ] Sī and [Cáo] Xǐ, become a mixed form of ancient and present, however its refinement and simplicity did not match [Hándān] Chún.”
  • Its preface on Clerical Script is already summarized, see Wǔjì. It also states: “Shīyí Guān made large characters, Hándān Chún made small characters. Liáng Gǔ said [Hándān] Chún obtained Cì Zhòng’s method, however [Liáng] Gǔ’s use of brush was thorough in its momentum.”
  • Its preface on Cursive Script states: “At Hàn’s rise there was Cursive Script, unknown are its author’s family and personal name. Reaching to Emperor Zhāng’s time, Qí Chancellor Dù Dù was declared excellent in writing, later there was Cuī Yuàn, Cuī Shì also praised as skilled. The Dù clan in joining characters was extremely secure and its script style small and thin. The Cuī clan extremely obtained brush momentum and joined characters small and sparse. Hóngnóng’s Zhāng Bóyīng therefore transferred and refined their skill. All the houses’ clothes and silk, he certainly wrote on and afterward scoured it, facing the pond studying calligraphy, the pond’s water was completely black. On using brush he certainly made model forms, called ‘hurriedly with no time for cursive,’ not an inch of paper omitted, to the present the world’s people especially treasure him, Wéi Zhòngjiāng calls him the Cursive Sage. [Zhāng] Bóyīng’s younger brother Wénshū was next after Bóyīng. Also there was Jiāng Mèngyǐng, Liáng Kǒngdá, Tián Yànhé, and Wéi Zhòngjiāng’s sort, all Bóyīng’s disciples, with fame in the world., however they were different and did not reach his relaxed writing style.”

〔二〕 文章敘錄曰:誕字仲將,太僕端之子。有文才,善屬辭章。建安中,為郡上計吏,特拜郎中,稍遷侍中中書監,以光祿大夫遜位,年七十五卒於家。初,邯鄲淳、衛覬及誕並善書,有名。覬孫恆撰四體書勢,其序古文曰:「自秦用篆書,焚燒先典,而古文絕矣。漢武帝時,魯恭王壞孔子宅,得尚書、春秋、論語、孝經,時人已不復知有古文,謂之科斗書,漢世祕藏,希得見之。魏初傳古文者,出於邯鄲淳。敬侯寫淳尚書,後以示淳,而淳不別。至正始中,立三字石經,轉失淳法。因科斗之名,遂效其法。太康元年,汲縣民盜發魏襄王冢,得策書十餘萬言。案敬侯所書,猶有髣彿。」敬侯謂覬也。其序篆書曰:「秦時李斯號為工篆,諸山及銅人銘皆斯書也。漢建初中,扶風曹喜少異於斯而亦稱善。邯鄲淳師焉,略究其妙。韋誕師淳而不及也。太和中,誕為武都太守,以能書留補侍中,魏氏寶器銘題皆誕書云。漢末又有蔡邕采斯、喜之法,為古今雜形,然精密簡理不如淳也。」其序錄隸書,已略見武紀。又曰:「師宜官為大字,邯鄲淳為小字。梁鵠謂淳得次仲法,然鵠之用筆盡其勢矣。」其序草書曰:「漢興而有草書,不知作者姓名。至章帝時,齊相杜度號善作篇,後有崔瑗、崔寔亦皆稱工。杜氏結字甚安而書體微瘦,崔氏甚得筆勢而結字小疏。弘農張伯英者因而而轉精其巧。凡家之衣帛,必書而後練之,臨池學書,池水盡黑。下筆必為楷則,號『匆匆不暇草』,寸紙不見遺,至今世人尤寶之,韋仲將謂之草聖。伯英弟文舒者,次伯英。又有姜孟潁、梁孔達、田彥和及韋仲將之徒,皆伯英弟子,有名於世,然殊不及文舒也。」

〔三〕 惠,淵子。事在淵傳。

  • (4) Wénzhāng Xù lù states: Gāi appellation Gōngdá, had strong will and enjoyed study. Aged twenty years, was upper calculations official, summoned as Cadet Internal, wrote a Wèi shū. Promoted Academic Scholar Excellency over the Masses’ Right Chief Clerk, again returned and entered writing. Jǐngyuán Second Year [261] died in office.

〔四〕 文章敘錄曰:該字公達。彊志好學。年二十,上計掾,召為郎中。著魏書。遷博士司徒右長史,復還入著作。景元二年卒官。

  • (5) Wénzhāng Xùlù states: Zhì appellation Délǔ. First sent up Jiāfù [“Rhapsody on Reed Whistles”], installed as Excellency over the Masses’ Army Planning Clerk. Later nominated Xiàolián [“filial and incorrupt”], appointed Lángzhōng, transferred to fill vacancy in Investigative Documenter. Zhì with Guànqiū Jiǎn were of the same hometown and mutually close, and therefore made a poem for [Guànqiū] Jiǎn, about seeking a celestial man’s drug of one pill, wishing to move [Guànqiū] Jiǎn to seek his help. His poem said: “Refined thoroughbred horse not tested, swirling among trees and oaks, the warrior’s will is not yet extended, pits and barriers with many miseries. Yī Zhì was escorting servant, Lǚ Wàng’s body grasped staff, Yíwú trapped in Shāngfàn, Níngqī facing ox sighed; eating at a Gatekeeper’s, Huáiyīn [Hán Xìn] hungered but did not dine. Buying an servant old bearing salary, wife on edge calling and not returning, released officials ten years, rank not expanding from former office. Talent not on the order of the eight masters, and yet equal to their suffering. Not knowing where he was, Yuán Àng had no words. Suffering illness like this for long time, Róng Wèi moved not at ease, hearing there is Hán Zhòng drug, trusting to come give one pill.” [Guànqiū] Jiǎn’s reply states: “Phoenix soaring in the capital city, wailing calls of its thoughts, talent for the sagely era comes out, how is virtuous sound not harmonizing? Eight masters not yet encountered, the present meets enlightened times. Hú Kāng left Lǒngmǔ, Yáng Wěi was without foundation, flying and soaring through the cloudy sky, exerting speed joining with bright light. Refined thoroughbreds are different in bone form, Bó Yuè observed and understood this, yet to grow feather quills, the goose rising certainly has its time. Body without wasting disease, what use is asking a good doctor? Wave after wave of light perching gatherings, returning to be mocked by small sparrows. Hán Zhòng’s drugs though are good, perhaps yet they cannot cure. Feelings stretching a thousand leagues, weak words answering an excellent poem. Trust in heart moved within, the within truly has no reply.” Zhì indeed was not able to be promoted, dying as Confidential Documenter.
  • Lújiāng Héshì Jiāzhuàn states: In Emperor Míng’s time, there was a Qiáo man Hú Kāng, aged fifteen years, for unusual talent met with escort, and also explained gains and losses, requesting to be tested in a county. Imperial Order specially called him to meet. The multitude of discussions called him as a divine youth. Imperial Order assigned him to the Confidential Documents, sent to extensively read the books. The Emperor asked Confidential Documents Deputy Hé Zhēn: “How is Kāng’s talent?” [Hé] Zhēn replied: “Kāng though has talent, his character is not honorable, he certainly will be defeated.” Later he indeed due to a mistake met with censure.
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī notes: In the Wèi Court of those from obscurity and yet prominent, one does not hear of a Hú Kāng; on suspects it is Mèng Kāng. For [Mèng] Kāng’s matter see Dù Shù’s biography [SGZ 16]. For Yáng Wěi see Cáo Shuǎng’s biography [SGZ 9].

〔五〕 文章敘錄曰:摯字德魯。初上笳賦,署司徒軍謀吏。後舉孝廉,除郎中,轉補校書。摯與毌丘儉鄉里相親,故為詩與儉,求仙人藥一丸,欲以感切儉求助也。其詩曰:「騏驥馬不試,婆娑槽櫪間。壯士志未伸,坎軻多辛酸。伊摯為媵臣,呂望身操竿;夷吾困商販,甯戚對牛歎;食其處監門,淮陰飢不餐;買臣老負薪,妻畔呼不還,釋之宦十年,位不增故官。才非八子倫,而與齊其患。無知不在此,袁盎未有言。被此篤病久,榮衛動不安,聞有韓眾藥,信來給一丸。」儉答曰:「鳳鳥翔京邑,哀鳴有所思。才為聖世出,德音何不怡!八子未遭遇,今者遭明時。胡康出壟畝,楊偉無根基,飛騰沖雲天,奮迅協光熙。駿驥骨法異,伯樂觀知之,但當養羽翮,鴻舉必有期。體無纖微疾,安用問良醫?聯翩輕栖集,還為燕雀嗤。韓眾藥雖良,或更不能治。悠悠千里情,薄言答嘉詩。信心感諸中,中實不在辭。」摯竟不得遷,卒於祕書。廬江何氏家傳曰:明帝時,有譙人胡康,年十五,以異才見送,又陳損益,求試劇縣。詔特引見。眾論翕然,號為神童。詔付祕書,使博覽典籍。帝以問祕書丞何禎:「康才何如?」禎答曰:「康雖有才,性質不端,必有負敗。」後果以過見譴。臣松之案:魏朝自微而顯者,不聞胡康;疑是孟康。康事見杜恕傳。楊偉見曹爽傳。

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