(59.1) Sūn Dēng 孫登 [Zǐgāo 子高]

Xiè Jǐng 謝景 [Shūfā 叔發]

[last updated 2023 Mar 21]

Sūn Dēng appellation Zǐgāo was [Sūn] Quán’s eldest son. Wèi’s Huángchū Second Year [221], as [Sūn] Quán became King of Wú, appointed [Sūn] Dēng as East Internal Cadet General, enfeoffed a ten thousand household Marquis, Dēng declined citing illness and did not accept. That year, enthroned Dēng as Heir-Apparent, chose and installed a Teacher and Tutor, selected out exceptional servicemen to be his retainer-friends, and therefore Zhūgě Kè, Zhāng Xiū, Gù Tán, Chén Biǎo and the others were selected to enter, attending and lecturing on the Shī and Shū, going out to follow in riding and shooting. [Sūn] Quán wished Dēng read the Hàn shū, to study and understand the affairs of the recent era, as Zhāng Zhāo had teaching expertise, [to avoid?] doubling his labors, thus ordered [Zhāng] Xiū to from [Zhāng] Zhāo receive study, and return to educate Dēng. Dēng hosted and received the government office associates, generally using plain clothes commoner rituals, with [Zhūgě] Kè, [Zhāng] Xiū, [Gù] Tán and the rest sometimes sharing carriage in traveling, sometimes sharing tents in sleeping. [Heir-Apparent’s] Grand Tutor Zhāng Wēn said to [Sūn] Quán: “The [Heir-Apparent’s] Internal Companion office is the most intimate, in direct inquiries closely answering, it is appropriate to employ an outstanding virtue.” Therefore then employed [Chén] Biǎo and others as Internal Companions. Later also used the Companion rituals to constrain, further ordering organization of uniforms in attendant seats. Huánglóng Inaugural Year [229], [Sūn] Quán declared Honored Title, enthroned as Imperial Heir-Apparent, with [Zhūgě] Kè as Left Assistant, [Zhāng] Xiū as Right Aide, [Gù] Tán as Assisting Rectifier, [Chén] Biǎo as Wing Rectifier Commandants; these were the Four Friends. And Xiè Jǐng, Fàn Shèn, Diāo Xuán, Yáng Dào and others all were guest retainers, and therefore the East Palace was called as Duōshì [“Many Scholars”].


  • (1) Wú lù states: [Fàn] Shèn appellation Xiàojìng, Guǎnglíng man, exhaustively loyal to a lord who understood him, thoroughly bound to a friend of three increases, the people of the time glorified him. Wrote a discussion in twenty piān, named as Jiǎo Fēi [“Redressing Wrongs”]. Later became Attendant Internal, sent out to fill vacancy as Wǔchāng Left Division Commander, organized and drilled the army. Sūn Hào moved the capital, extremely feared him, Imperial Order said: “Shèn’s achievements and virtues are both abundant, what We respect and rely on. It is appropriate to raise him to the Excellencies, to accord with everyone’s expectations.” Appointed him Excellency Commandant. Shèn himself disliked being a [military] office for a long time, and therefore claimed age and senility. The army soldiers were attached to him, and all the camps for him shed tears. Fènghuáng Third Year [274] he died, his son Yào succeeded.
  • [Diāo] Xuán was a Dānyáng man.
  • [Yáng] Dào was a Nányáng man.
  • Wú shū states: [Yáng] Dào previously was Internal Companion, aged twenty. At the time the Ministry of Justice Supervisor Yǐn Fán associated with the powerful, from Guard General Quán Cóng and the rest all whole-heartedly respected and treated with him, only [Yáng] Dào and Announce Orders Cadet Yùzhāng’s Yáng Dí refused and would not connect with him. At the time people all were bewildered at this. But Fán later rebelled, and the masses all conceded to them.
  • Jiāngbiǎozhuàn states: [Sūn] Dēng had Attendant Internal Hú Zōng compose Bīn Yǒu Mù [“Catalogue of Friend Retainers”] that said: “Flowering talent lofty and excelling, surpassing over categorization, such is Zhūgě Kè. Proficient knowledge and opportune timing, attaining the remote and investigating the profound, such is Gù Tán. Concentrating recognition and vast attainment, speech able to undo knots, then is Xiè Jǐng. Investigative study evaluating the profound, roaming the heartlands of the same level, such is Fàn Shèn.” Dào then privately rebutted Zōng saying: “[Zhūgě Kè] Yuánxùn is talented but negligent, [Gù Tán] Zǐhēi proficient but cruel, [Xiè Jǐng] Shūfā discerning but superficial, [Fàn Shèn] Xiàojìng deep but narrow.” What he said all had its point, but [Yáng] Dào to the end because of this speech met with dislike, and was not close with [Zhūgě] Kè and the rest. Later those four men were all destroyed, and Wú’s people said [Yáng] Dào’s words had verification. His rank reached Guìyáng Administrator, died.

  〔一〕 吳錄曰:慎字孝敬,廣陵人,竭忠知己之君,纏綿三益之友,時人榮之。著論二十篇,名曰矯非。後為侍中,出補武昌左部督,治軍整頓。孫皓移都,甚憚之,詔曰:「慎勳德俱茂,朕所敬憑,宜登上公,以副眾望。」以為太尉。慎自恨久為將,遂託老耄。軍士戀之,舉營為之隕涕。鳳凰三年卒,子耀嗣。玄,丹楊人。茞,南陽人。吳書曰:茞初為中庶子,年二十。時廷尉監隱蕃交結豪傑,自衛將軍全琮等皆傾心敬待,惟茞及宣詔郎豫章楊迪拒絕不與通,時人咸怪之。而蕃後叛逆,眾乃服之。江表傳曰:登使侍中胡綜作賓友目曰:「英才卓越,超踰倫匹,則諸葛恪。精識時機,達幽究微,則顧譚。凝辨宏達,言能釋結,則謝景。究學甄微,游夏同科,則范慎。」茞乃私駁綜曰:「元遜才而疏,子嘿精而狠,叔發辨而浮,孝敬深而狹。」所言皆有指趣。而茞卒以此言見咎,不為恪等所親。後四人皆敗,吳人謂茞之言有徵。位至桂陽太守,卒。

[Sūn] Quán moved the capital to Jiànyè, summoning Upper General-in-Chief Lù Xùn to assist Dēng in defending Wǔchāng and managing Palace and Office remaining affairs.

Dēng sometimes went shooting and hunting, and when on the road, would always distance from and avoid the fertile fields, to not tread on sprouting grain, and when stopping to rest, also selected empty unused ground, his not wishing to trouble the commoners was like this. Once he rode a horse and went out, a crossbow bullet passed, his left and right [attendants] searched [for the shooter], and there was a person holding a crossbow and belted with bullets. All believed it was him, he denied and would not confess, and the followers wished to beat him. Dēng did not listen, and sent them to search for the bullet that passed by, compared it and it was not a match, and so released him. Also there was a lost water collecting golden horse basin, they found the thief, and it was an attendant’s doing, he could not bear to deliver him to punishment, shouted at and reprimanded him several times, sent him back home, and ordered his close intimates to not speak of it.

Later his younger brother [Sūn] Lǜ died, [Sūn] Quán because of this was devastated. Dēng traveled both day and night to arrive at Làixiāng and personally inquire, and at once was summoned to meet. Seeing [Sūn] Quán weeping in grief, he therefore remonstrated saying: “[Sūn] Lǜ lay ill and did not rise, this then was fate. Right now the northern lands are not unified [with us], the Four Seas watching expectantly, Heaven supports Your Majesty, but to for the mourning for offspring deprive your great body of food, is in excess of the ritual standards. I your servant humbly am anxious and afraid.” [Sūn] Quán accepted his words, and because of this ate. Stayed for over ten days, [Sūn Quán] wished to send him back west, [Sūn Dēng] deeply and personally explained and begged, that having been a long time separated from paying respects, the principles of a son had deficiencies, and also explained Lù Xùn was loyal and diligent, and there was nothing to worry about. [Sūn] Quán therefore kept him. Jiāhé Third Year [234], [Sūn] Quán campaigned against Xīnchéng, having Dēng remain to defend, presiding and understanding remaining affairs. At the time the year’s harvest was not plentiful, there tended to be robbery, and so be memorialized to determine laws and orders and prepare defenses, extremely understanding the essentials of stopping treachery.


Previously, Dēng was born by a lowly concubine. Lady Xú raised him as a mother from youth. Later lady Xú due to jealousy was deposed and kept in Wú, and lady Bù was the most favored. When Lady Bù gave bestowals, Dēng did not dare refuse, bowing to accept and nothing more. When lady Xú’s envoys arrived, when bestowed with clothes, he was certain to bathe and then wear them. When Dēng was about to be appointed as Heir-Apparent, he declined stating: “The root is established and then naturally there is growth. Wishing to enthrone an Heir-Apparent, it is appropriate to first enthrone an Empress.” [Sūn] Quán said: “Where is your mother?” Replied saying: “In Wú.” [Sūn] Quán was silent. (1)


  • (1) Wú shū states: His younger brother [Sūn] Hé was favored by [Sūn] Quán. Dēng was personally respectful, treating him like an elder brother, always having a heart of wishing to defer [to Sūn Hé].

  〔一〕 吳書曰:弟和有寵於權,登親敬,待之如兄,常有欲讓之心。

Enthroned altogether for twenty-one years, aged thirty-three he died. Facing the end, he sent up memorial that said:

I your servant am degenerate, from infancy have had critical illnesses, and self-examining myself as minute and inferior, I fear that I will at last perish and die. I your servant do not begrudge myself, I mourn that I shall depart away from providing support, buried bones in the earth, to no longer serve and look upon palace and parent, at Court paying respect daily and monthly, living I was of no benefit to the state, dying I will give Your Majesty a heavy sorrow, only for this am I choked and knotted. I your servant have heard that death and life are by fate, long or short are by Heaven, Zhōu Jìn and Yán Huí had the talent of superior wisdom, and yet still early died, so all the more for your servant, ignorant and foolish, the years pass the lifespan. Living as the state’s successor, not being able to enjoy the glorious blessings, for me your servant it was already too much, so yet why grieve and regret? Right now the Great Affair is yet not settled, the fleeing bandits not yet suppressed, all states watch expectantly, connecting their fates to Your Majesty, the endangered hope for security, the disturbed look up for governance. May Your Majesty abandon and forget your servant’s body, cut away the feelings for your offspring, cultivate the techniques of Huáng-Lǎo [to extend life], sincerely nourish your divine light, apply delicacies and gourmet meals, expand and open divinely enlightened considerations, to settle the boundless enterprise, then lead the lands to fortune, and I your servant will die without regret. Imperial son [Sūn] Hé is benevolent and filial, acute and wise, in virtue and conduct pure and abundant, and should be quickly established [as Heir-Apparent], to connect to the people’s expectations. Zhūgě Kè’s talent and strategy are ample and reaching, a vessel to be appointed to assist the times. Zhāng Xiū, Gù Tán, Xiè Jǐng are all thoroughly intelligent and have knowledge and determination, in entering should be entrusted like belly and heart, in exiting can serve as claws and teeth. Fàn Shèn, Huà Róng are valiant and strong in integrity, having the airs of state servicemen. Yáng Dào in debate is quick, having talents in expert reply. Diāo Xuán is superior and liberal, the will to tread the way to the true. Péi Qīn is widely knowledgeable, his writing selections sufficient for use. Jiǎng Xiū and Yú Fān have aspiration and integrity, understanding and enlightened. All these various ministers, some are suitable for the Court, some to be appointed military commanders, all are trained in the time’s affairs, understand and practiced in law and orders, hold to faith and firm in righteousness, having wills that cannot be seized away. These all are shined upon by Your Majesty’s sun and moon, selected and installed in your servant’s offices, so I was able to handle affairs with them, understand their feelings and natures, and dare to explain and report. I your servant heavily ponder that at present the outer regions have many worries, the brigades and regiments cannot yet rest. One should be strict with the Six Armies, to plan to advance and capture. The army takes people as multitudes, multitudes take wealth as precious, I humbly have heard the prefectures and counties tend to be desolate and damaged, the civilians and materials withered and harmed, treachery and chaos sprouting, and therefore law and orders are complex and growing, punishments and penalties heavy and exacting. I your servant have heard in enacting government and administering people, laws with the times develop and change, and truly it is appropriate to with the officers and officials and great ministers in detail select what suits the times, widely selecting out from the mass of suggestions, relaxing punishments and lightening taxation, be even and fair in labor conscription, to follow the people’s hopes. Lù Xùn is loyal and diligent in our time, devoting body to worry for the state, boldly speaking for the public, having selfless integrity. Zhūgě Jǐn, Bù Zhì, Zhū Rán, Quán Cóng, Zhū Jù, Lǚ Dài, Wú Càn, Kàn Zé, Yán Jùn, Zhāng Chéng, Sūn Yí are loyal to the state, thoroughly understand the form of government, and can be ordered to explain up what is convenient and avoid what is exacting and cumbersome, care for and nourish servicemen and horses, comfort and abide the common people. Beyond five years, within ten years, the distant will return to submission, the near will devote strength, the troops will not bloody blades and yet the Great Affair can be settled. I your servant have heard: ‘A bird about to die, its call is sorrowful. A man about to die, his words are good.’ Therefore Zǐ Náng in facing the end left behind words to warn of the times. Gentlemen believed it loyalty, so all the more for your servant Dēng, could I stop? May Your Majesty leave thought and listen and select. Though I your servant die in a day, it would be like living for a year.”

He died and afterward the letter was read, [Sūn] Quán was devastated, speaking and then shedding tears. That year was Chìwū Fourth Year [241]. Xiè Jǐng at the time was Yūzhāng Administrator, could not control his grief, and abandoned his office to come running. Bowed and memorialized a self-impeachment. [Sūn] Quán said: “You and the Heir-Apparent worked together, distinct from other officials.” Sent internal envoys to show appreciations and restore his former office, and send him back to the prefecture. Posthumous name on Dēng as Xuān Tàizǐ [“Renowned Heir-Apparent”]. (1)


  • (1) Wú shū states: First buried at Jùróng, installing a garden village to serve and guard following standards. After three years changed burial to Jiǎnglíng.

  〔一〕 吳書曰:初葬句容,置園邑,奉守如法,後三年改葬蔣陵。

Sons Fán and Xī both early died. Second son Yīng, enfeoffed as Marquis of Wú. Wǔfèng Inaugural Year [254], Yīng because General-in-Chief Sūn Jùn usurped power plotted to execute [Sūn] Jùn, the matter was discovered and he killed himself, state abolished.


  • (1) Wú lì states: As Sūn Hé without guilt had been killed, everyone all harbored indignant sighs, Front Major Huán Lǜ because of this recruited and gathered officers and officials, wishing to together kill [Sūn] Jùn and establish [Sūn] Yīng, the matter was discovered and all were killed, Yīng in fact had been unaware.

  〔一〕 吳歷曰:孫和以無罪見殺,眾庶皆懷憤歎,前司馬桓慮因此招合將吏,欲共殺峻立英,事覺,皆見殺,英實不知。

Xiè Jǐng appellation Shūfā was a Nányáng Wǎn man. In the prefecture he had governance legacies, the officials and commoners praised him, believing that previously there had been Gù Shào, and next they had Jǐng. In several years he died in office.


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