(11.3) Liáng Mào 涼茂 [Bófāng 伯方]

Liáng Mào, appellation Bófāng, was a Shānyáng Chāngyì man. From youth he was studious, and his advice was often based on the classics in deciding right and wrong. Tàizǔ [Cáo Cāo] appointed him an Official to the Excellency of Works, nominated as High Standard candidate, and had him fill an opening in the Censorate. At the time there were many criminals in Tàishān, and Mào was made Administrator of Tàishān. Within a month there were over a thousand families with people walking openly with child-harnesses. (1)


  • (1) Bówùjì states: Child-harness are woven from strands, eight cūn wide, 1.2 chǐ long, used to carry small children on the back, to carry them while walking.

〔一〕 博物記曰:襁,織縷為之,廣八寸,長尺二,以約小兒於背上,負之而行。

He was transferred to Administrator of Lèlàng. Gōngsūn Dù was at Liáodōng, and without authority detained Mào, and would not let him reach his post, but Mào to the end did not act wronged. [Gōngsūn] Dù said to Mào and to his officers: “I have heard Excellency Cáo is far away on campaign, and Yè has no defenses prepared. Now I wish to lead thirty thousand infantry and ten thousand cavalry to occupy Yè. Who could prevent this?”

All the officers said: “Right.” (2)


  • (2) Your servant Sōngzhī comments: The biography states Gōngsūn Dù had heard Excellency Cáo had gone away on campaign and Yè had no defenses prepared, so it must be after Tàizǔ settled Yè. According to [Gōngsūn] Dù’s biography, [Gōngsūn] Dù in Jiàn’ān ninth year [204] died. In this year Tàizǔ also settled Yè. After this the only distant campaign was the northern campaign in Liǔchéng and that is all. In the year of the campaign in Liǔchéng, [Gōngsūn] Dù was already no longer living.

〔二〕 臣松之案此傳云公孫度聞曹公遠征,鄴無守備,則太祖定鄴後也。案度傳,度以建安九年卒,太祖亦以此年定鄴,自後遠征,唯有北征柳城耳。征柳城之年,度已不復在矣。

Then he asked Mào: “What do you think, sir?”


Mào answered: “Recently the land within the Seas was in chaos, the State Altars were about to collapse, while you General commanded an army of a hundred thousand, peacefully held position and observed the struggles of others, acting as a vassal, was this not correct? Lord Cáo is concerned for the damage done to the state, pities the suffering of the common people, leads righteous troops to punish the realm’s traitors and bandits, with high achievements and broad virtues, and could be said to be without peer. The land within the Seas has just been settled, the people begin to gather in peace, so there is no crime for you to punish, General, and that is all. But if you, General, wish to lead troops west, then your survival or destruction could be decided within a morning. General, you must behave yourself!”


When the officers heard Mào’s words, they all trembled in fear. After a long while Dù said: “Sir Liáng‘s words are correct.”


Later he was summoned and transferred to Administrator of Wèi-jùn and Chancellor of Gānlíng, and in these posts he had merits. When Wén-dì became General for All Purposes [211], Mào was chosen to be his Chief Clerk, then promoted to his Master of the Army on the Left. When Wèi state was first established [213], he was transferred to Secretariat Servant-Archer, then Subaltern to the Minister of Ceremonies.

When Wén-dì was at the East Palace [as Heir-Apparent, 217], Mào returned as the Heir-Apparent’s Grand Tutor, and was deeply praised. He died in office. (3)


  • Yīngxióngjì states: (3) Mào’s name is listed among the Eight Friends.

〔三〕 英雄記曰:茂名在八友中。


〔一〕 博物記曰:襁,織縷為之,廣八寸,長尺二,以約小兒於背上,負之而行。

〔二〕 臣松之案此傳云公孫度聞曹公遠征,鄴無守備,則太祖定鄴後也。案度傳,度以建安九年卒,太祖亦以此年定鄴,自後遠征,唯有北征柳城耳。征柳城之年,度已不復在矣。

〔三〕 英雄記曰:茂名在八友中。

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