(9.1) Xiàhóu Dūn 夏侯惇 [Yuánràng 元讓]

Xiàhóu Dūn appellation Yuánràng was a Pèi state Qiáo man, Xiàhóu Yīng’s descendant.

夏侯惇字元讓,沛國譙人,夏侯嬰之後也。

At age 14 he was going through his studies, and a man dishonored his teacher. Dūn killed him, and because of this gained reputation for fierce spirit. When Tàizǔ [Cáo Cāo] first raised troops, Dūn always served as his vice commander and followed on campaign. When Tàizǔ became Acting General Exerting Martial Ability [190], Dūn was his Major, commanding a separate division at Báimǎ, was promoted to Colonel Breaking Charges, with office as Administrator of Dōng prefecture.

年十四,就師學,人有辱其師者,惇殺之,由是以烈氣聞。太祖初起,惇常為裨將,從征伐。太祖行奮武將軍,以惇為司馬,別屯白馬,遷折衝校尉,領東郡太守。

When Tàizǔ attacked Táo Qiān [193], he left Dūn to defend Púyáng. Zhāng Miǎo rebelled and invited Lǚ Bù. Tàizǔ’s family was at Juànchéng, and Dūn led light troops, encountered Bù, and fought battle. Bù retreated, and then entered Púyáng, attacking and capturing Dūn’s military and heavy supplies. He sent officers to falsely surrender, who seized Dūn, ransoming him for treasure, and Dūn’s army was shocked and frightened throughout.

太祖征陶謙,留惇守濮陽。張邈叛迎呂布,太祖家在鄄城,惇輕軍往赴,適與布會,交戰。布退還,遂入濮陽,襲得惇軍輜重。遣將偽降,共執持惇,責以寶貨,惇軍中震恐。

Dūn’s officer Hán Hào then led troops to occupy the gates of Dūn’s camp, convened with the various army commanders, and ordered that all troops stay in their divisions and not move under any circumstances, and so the various camps were settled. Then he went to where Dūn was held, and shouted at the hostage-takers saying: “You despicable traitors dare seize the commanding General, do you not wish to live anymore? We have orders to destroy rebels. How can we for the sake of one General spare you?” Then he shed tears and said to Dūn: “How can we but follow the state’s law?” He hurriedly summoned soldiers to attack the hostage-takers. The hostage-takers were terrified and hurriedly bowed their heads and cried: “We merely desired some wealth to use and go and that is all!” Hào enumerated their crimes and beheaded them all.

惇將韓浩乃勒兵屯惇營門,召軍吏諸將,皆案甲當部不得動,諸營乃定。遂詣惇所,叱持質者曰:「汝等凶逆,乃敢執劫大將軍,復欲望生邪!且吾受命討賊,寧能以一將軍之故,而縱汝乎?」因涕泣謂惇曰:「當奈國法何!」促召兵擊持質者。持質者惶遽叩頭,言「我但欲乞資用去耳」!浩數責,皆斬之。

Dūn thus escaped. Tàizǔ heard of this, and said to Hào: “You can be an example for the laws of all ages.” Thereafter it was ordered that from then onward if there were hostage-takers, all were to attack without consideration for the hostages. Thereafter there were no more hostage-takers. (1)

惇既免,太祖聞之,謂浩曰:「卿此可為萬世法。」乃著令,自今已後有持質者,皆當并擊,勿顧質。由是劫質者遂絕〔一〕。

  • (1) Sūn Shèng states: According to Guāngwǔjì [HHS 1], Jiànwǔ ninth year [33], bandits captured Noble Lady Yīn’s younger brother of the same mother. Because the officials could not obtain the hostages they pressed on against the bandits, and the bandits killed them [the hostages]. Therefore making joint attacks [disregarding hostages] was already the old system. From the time of Ān and Shùn there was already decline, learning and government decayed, and the sort of hostages taken did not exclude nobility, and among officials there were none who faithfully followed the state’s regulations. Hào was the first to return to beheading them, and therefore Wèi [Cáo Cāo] was pleased with him.

〔一〕 孫盛曰:案光武紀,建武九年,盜劫陰貴人母弟,吏以不得拘質迫盜,盜遂殺之也。然則合擊者,乃古制也。自安、順已降,政教陵遲,勢質不避王公,而有司莫能遵奉國憲者,浩始復斬之,故魏武嘉焉。


Tàizǔ returned from Xú Province. Dūn followed in the campaign against Lǚ Bù, and was struck by an arrow, wounded in the left eye. (1)

太祖自徐州還,惇從征呂布,為流矢所中,傷左目。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèilüè states: When Xiàhóu Yuān and Dūn both were Generals, in the army they called Dūn the “Blind Xiàhóu.” Dūn hated this. When he saw his reflection in the mirror he would rage, then throw the mirror to the ground.

〔一〕 魏略曰:時夏侯淵與惇俱為將軍,軍中號惇為盲夏侯。惇惡之,照鏡恚怒,輒撲鏡于地。

He returned to authority as Administrator of Chénliú and Jìyīn, was promoted to General Establishing Martial Ability, with fief as Marquis of Gāo’ān village. At that time there was a great drought and a rising of locusts. Dūn therefore dammed the Tàishòu river to create a pond, personally carrying soil, and led the officers and soldiers in planting rice paddies, and the people depended on this benefit. He was transferred to authority as Intendant of Hénán.

復領陳留、濟陰太守,加建武將軍,封高安鄉侯。時大旱,蝗蟲起,惇乃斷太壽水作陂,身自負土,率將士勸種稻,民賴其利。轉領河南尹。

While Tàizǔ pacified the [Yellow] River’s north, he was the commanding General defending the rear. Yè was captured [204], and he was promoted to General Overcoming Waves, with authority as Intendant as before, with permission to act on his own discretion without restriction by regulations.

太祖平河北,為大將軍後拒。鄴破,遷伏波將軍,領尹如故,使得以便宜從事,不拘科制。

Jiàn’ān twelfth year [207], in recognition of Dūn’s merits from beginning to end, his fief was increased by 1800 households, adding with the previous to a total of 2500 households.

建安十二年,錄惇前後功,增封邑千八百戶,并前二千五百戶。

Twenty-first year [216] he followed in the campaign against Sūn Quán and returned. Dūn was employed as Regional Commander over twenty-six armies remaining at Jūcháo. He was bestowed with skilled musicians and famed performers. The order said: “Wèi Jiàng for his achievement in making peace with the Róng received the music of metal and stone [chimes], all the more for you General!”

二十一年,從征孫權還,使惇都督二十六軍,留居巢。賜伎樂名倡,令曰:「魏絳以和戎之功,猶受金石之樂,況將軍乎!」

Twenty-fourth year [219], Tàizǔ led his army to Mó slope, and summoned Dūn to travel with him, to have special permission to meet personally and to enter and leave the inner rooms. Of all the officers, none could compare to this. He was appointed General of the Front (2) to command all the armies returning to Shòuchūn, and he moved his garrison to Shàolíng.

二十四年,太祖軍(擊破呂布軍)于摩陂,召惇常與同載,特見親重,出入臥內,諸將莫得比也。拜前將軍,〔二〕督諸軍還壽春,徙屯召陵。

  • (2) Wèishū states: When the various officers were all receiving Wèi office titles, Dūn alone was a Hàn official, so he presented a memorial stating that it was improper that he not observe the rites of a subject [of Wèi]. Tàizǔ said: “I have heard that the greatest [ruler-subject relationships] are subjects who are teachers, and next are subjects who are friends. A subject is a man who esteems virtue. When Wèi is so trifling, how can it have you as subject to an inferior master?” Dūn firmly insisted, and so became General of the Front.

〔二〕 魏書曰:時諸將皆受魏官號,惇獨漢官,乃上疏自陳不當不臣之禮。太祖曰:「吾聞太上師臣,其次友臣。夫臣者,貴德之人也,區區之魏,而臣足以屈君乎?」惇固請,乃拜為前將軍。

When Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] ascended as King, Dūn was appointed General-in-Chief. A few months later he died.

文帝即王位,拜惇大將軍,數月薨。


Though Dūn was always traveling with the army, he personally invited teachers to study under. By nature he was honest and frugal. When he had surplus wealth he divided and bestowed it, he did not use his government office for gain, and he did not manage property or business.

惇雖在軍旅,親迎師受業。性清儉,有餘財輒以分施,不足資之於官,不治產業。

His posthumous title was Zhōng-hóu “Loyal Marquis.” His son Chōng succeeded. The Emperor in memorial of Dūn’s achievements wished to make his sons and grandsons all Marquis, divided from Dūn’s fief 1000 households, to confer on Dūn’s seven sons and two grandsons all as Marquis within the Passes. Dūn’s younger brother Lián and son Mào already personally had fiefs as Ranked Marquis.

諡曰忠侯。子充嗣。帝追思惇功,欲使子孫畢侯,分惇邑千戶,賜惇七子二孫爵皆關內侯。惇弟廉及子楙素自封列侯。

Previously, Tàizǔ’s daughter was wed to Mào, and was princess of Qīnghé. Mào held positions as Inernal Attendant, in the Secretariat, as General Calming the West and Defending the East, with an Acting Staff of Authority. (1)

初,太祖以女妻楙,即清河公主也。楙歷位侍中尚書、安西鎮東將軍,假節。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèilüè states: [Xiàhóu] Mào, styled Zǐlín was Dūn’s second son. Wén-dì in his youth was close with Mào, and after the ascension appointed him General Calming the West, with a Staff of Authority, succeeding Xiàhóu Yuān’s position as Military Governor Inside the Passes. Mào by nature was not militarily skilled, and liked making a living [through business]. At Tàihé second year [228], Míng-dì went west on campaign, and there were those who criticized Mào, so he was summoned back to serve the Secretariat. When Mào was in the west, he kept many performers and concubines, and because of this the princess and Mào were on bad terms. Later his younger brothers did not obey proper courtesies, and Mào repeatedly reprimanded them. The younger brothers feared punishment, and so together framed Mào of committing slander, and on behalf of the princess memorialized this, and there was an Imperial Order arresting Mào. The Emperor wished to execute him, and asked the Colonel of Long Rivers Duàn Mò of Jīngzhào. Mò believed: “This is certainly that the princess of Qīnghé and Mào are at odds and has led to false accusations of slander, which cannot be believed. Moreover, [the General] Overcoming Waves had achievements in serving with the Former Emperor in settling the realm. It is suitable to reconsider.” The Emperor agreed and said: “I also believe this.” Therefore he issued an Imperial Order to investigate who composed the memorial for the princess, and it was indeed the younger brothers Zǐzāng and Zǐjiāng who made the false accusations.

〔一〕 魏略曰:楙字子林,惇中子也。文帝少與楙親,及即位,以為安西將軍、持節,承夏侯淵處都督關中。楙性無武略,而好治生。至太和二年,明帝西征,人有白楙者,遂召還為尚書。楙在西時,多畜伎妾,公主由此與楙不和。其後群弟不遵禮度,楙數切責,弟懼見治,乃共搆楙以誹謗,令主奏之,有詔收楙。帝意欲殺之,以問長水校尉京兆段默,默以為「此必清河公主與楙不睦,出于譖搆,冀不推實耳。且伏波與先帝有定天下之功,宜加三思」。帝意解,曰:「吾亦以為然。」乃發詔推問為公主作表者,果其群弟子臧、子江所搆也。

Chōng died, and his son Yì succeeded. Yì died, and his son Shào succeeded. (2)

充薨,子廙嗣。廙薨,子劭嗣。〔二〕

  • (2) Jìnyángqiū states: Tàishǐ second year [266], Marquis of Gāo’ān village Xiàhóu Zuǒ died. He was Dūn’s descendant. The succession line ended. An Imperial Order said: “Dūn had achievements in the founding of Wèi recorded and written on bamboo and silk. It is a tragedy if his memorial shrine shall not receive sacrifice, and one should lament this. And We who received the abdication of Wèi cannot ever forget its outstanding servants! It is proper to select Dūn’s close relatives to continue the fief.”

〔二〕 晉陽秋曰:泰始二年,高安鄉侯夏侯佐卒,惇之孫也,嗣絕。詔曰:「惇,魏之元功,勳書竹帛。昔庭堅不祀,猶或悼之,況朕受禪于魏,而可以忘其功臣哉!宜擇惇近屬劭封之。」


Hán Hào was a Hénèi man. Pèi state’s Shǐ Huàn and Hào were both known for their loyalty and valor. Hào became Central Protector of the Army and Huàn became Central Director of the Army, and both managed military discipline and were given fiefs as Ranked Marquis. (1)

韓浩者,河內人。(及)沛國史渙與浩俱以忠勇顯。浩至中護軍,渙至中領軍,皆掌禁兵,封列侯。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèishū states:
  • Hán Hào appellation Yuánsì. At the end of Hàn he raised troops. His county was near hills and marshlands with many bandits, so Hào gathered an army of followers to defend the county’s borders. The Administrator Wáng Kuāng appointed him as an advisor, and he commanded troops to resist Dǒng Zhuó at Méngjīn. At the time Hào’s maternal uncle Dù Yáng was Magistrate of Héyīn. Zhuó captured him, and sent messengers to recruit Hào, but Hào would not join him. Yuán Shù heard of his strength, and appointed him Cavalry Commandant. Xiàhóu Dūn heard of his reputation, invited him to meet in person, was greatly impressed with him, and tasked him to command troops and follow on campaign. At the time there was great concern over losses of supplies, and Hào believed it was urgent to establish [Garrison-]Farms. Tàizǔ agreed with this, and promoted him to Protector of the Army. When Tàizǔ wished to attack Liǔchéng, Director of the Army Shǐ Huàn believed that the way was too long and penetrating and so the plan could not be successful, and wished to have Hào join him in protesting. Hào said: “Now our military power is strong and flourishing, our prestige encompassing the Four Seas, we prevail in all attacks, and there is nothing that can match our will. If we do not at this time immediately destroy the troubles of the realm, we will regret it later. Moreover, our lord has divine military ability, and has certainly already made plans. And I serve our master as registrar in the army, so it is inappropriate for me to stop the army.” Therefore he followed in the capture of Liǔchéng, and his office was changed to Internal Protector of the Army, and he was installed as Chief Clerk and Major. He followed in the attack on Zhāng Lǔ, and Lǔ surrendered. Others commented that Hào was skilled in strategy and could defend the borders, and should be left to assist in commanding the armies and defending Hànzhōng. Tàizǔ said: “Can I be at peace without my Protector of the Army?” Therefore he followed the return. He saw close appointment like this. At his death, Tàizǔ mourned him. He had no sons, so his adopted son Róng succeeded him.
  • Shǐ Huàn appellation Gōngliú. In his youth he was an adventurer, and had heroic spirit. When Tàizǔ first rose up, he accompanied as guest and Acting Internal Army Colonel. He followed on campaign and often supervised the various officers, was a trusted aide, and was transferred to Internal Director of the Army. [Jiàn’ān] fourteenth year [209] he died. His son Jìng succeeded.

〔一〕 魏書曰:韓浩字元嗣。漢末起兵,縣近山藪,多寇,浩聚徒眾為縣藩衛。太守王匡以為從事,將兵拒董卓于盟津。時浩舅杜陽為河陰令,卓執之,使招浩,浩不從。袁術聞而壯之,以為騎都尉。夏侯惇聞其名,請與相見,大奇之,使領兵從征伐。時大議損益,浩以為當急田。太祖善之,遷護軍。太祖欲討柳城,領軍史渙以為道遠深入,非完計也,欲與浩共諫。浩曰:「今兵勢彊盛,威加四海,戰勝攻取,無不如志,不以此時遂除天下之患,將為後憂。且公神武,舉無遺策,吾與君為中軍主,不宜沮眾。」遂從破柳城,改其官為中護軍,置長史、司馬。從討張魯,魯降。議者以浩智略足以綏邊,欲留使都督諸軍,鎮漢中。太祖曰:「吾安可以無護軍?」乃與俱還。其見親任如此。及薨,太祖愍惜之。無子,以養子榮嗣。史渙字公劉。少任俠,有雄氣。太祖初起,以客從,行中軍校尉,從征伐,常監諸將,見親信,轉拜中領軍。十四年薨。子靜嗣。

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