(11.2) Zhāng Fàn 張範 [Gōngyí 公儀]

Zhāng Fàn, appellation Gōngyí, was a Hénèi Xiūwǔ man. His grandfather Xīn was a Hàn Excellency over the Masses. His father Yán was a Grand Commandant. Grand Tutor Yuán Wěi wished to wed his daughter to Fàn, but Fàn declined. By nature he was calm and gentle and followed his convictions, did not think of glory or profit, and he refused all summons of recruitment.

張範,字公儀,河內脩武人也。祖父歆,為漢司徒。父延,為太尉。太傅袁隗欲以女妻範,範辭不受。性恬靜樂道,忽於榮利,徵命無所就。

His younger brother Chéng, appellation Gōngxiān was also well known, and went in his place, was appointed a Consultant, later transferred to Commandant at Yīquē. Dǒng Zhuó rebelled. Chéng wished to join with the armies to punish Zhuó. Chéng’s younger brother Zhāo was at that time a Consultant and had followed to Cháng’ān, and he said to Chéng: “Now you wish to punish Zhuó, but the armies are scattered and cannot match him, and if you rise up with one morning’s plans and battle with the people of the roads, the troops are not supported and the soldiers are not trained, and so it will be difficult to succeed. Zhuó has been beaten militarily and is without faith, so he cannot last long. It is better to choose another to submit to, and wait for opportunity to move, and then our ambitions can be achieved.” Chéng agreed with this, and so he resigned his seals and ribbons of office and left, returning to his home, and together with Fàn they fled to Yángzhōu.

弟承,字公先,亦知名,以方正徵,拜議郎,遷伊闕都尉。董卓作亂,承欲合徒眾與天下共誅卓。承弟昭時為議郎,適從長安來,謂承曰:「今欲誅卓,眾寡不敵,且起一朝之謀,戰阡陌之民,士不素撫,兵不練習,難以成功。卓阻兵而無義,固不能久;不若擇所歸附,待時而動,然後可以如志。」承然之,乃解印綬閒行歸家,與範避地揚州。

Yuán Shù prepared gifts and invited him, but Fàn plead illness and would not go, and Shù was offended. He sent Chéng to meet Shù, who asked: “In the past the House of Zhōu declined and there was the hegemony of Huán and Wén, and when Qín lost its authority, Hàn seized and used it. Now I have broad territory and many troops and people, and desire to gain the fortune of Huán of Qí and follow the example of Gāo-zǔ. What do you think?”

袁術備禮招請,範稱疾不往,術不彊屈也。遣承與相見,術問曰:「昔周室陵遲,則有桓、文之霸;秦失其政,漢接而用之。今孤以土地之廣,士民之眾,欲徼福齊桓,擬跡高祖,何如?」

Chéng answered: “In virtue, not in strength. If a man able to use virtue desires to unite the land, then though he had the resources of a common fellow, then flourishing to the achievement of a hegemon king would not be difficult. But if one plots usurpation, at the time of action the people would desert, and so who could be successful?” Shù was displeased.

承對曰:「在德不在彊。夫能用德以同天下之欲,雖由匹夫之資,而興霸王之功,不足為難。若苟僭擬,干時而動,眾之所棄,誰能興之?」術不悅。

At the time Tàizǔ was about to campaign in Jìzhōu, Shù again asked: “Now Excellency Cáo wishes to use a few thousand soldiers to oppose an army of a hundred thousand. It could be said he has misjudged his strength! What do you think of this?”

是時,太祖將征冀州,術復問曰:「今曹公欲以弊兵數千,敵十萬之眾,可謂不量力矣!子以為何如?」

Chéng thereupon said: “Though Hàn‘s virtue has declined, Heaven’s Mandate has not yet changed. Now Lord Cáo holds Heaven’s Son to command the realm Under Heaven, so that he could oppose even an army of a million.” Shù flustered in anger and was not pleased, so Chéng left him.

承乃曰:「漢德雖衰,天命未改,今曹公挾天子以令天下,雖敵百萬之眾可也。」術作色不懌,承去之。


After Tàizǔ pacified Jìzhōu, he sent messengers to invite Fàn. Fàn plead illness and remained at Péngchéng, and sent Chéng to join Tàizǔ. Tàizǔ memorialized to appoint him a Critical-Consultant Official.

太祖平冀州,遣使迎範。範以疾留彭城,遣承詣太祖,太祖表以為諫議大夫。

Fàn’s son Líng and Chéng’s son Jiǎn were captured by bandits east of the mountains. Fàn went to the bandits to ask for the two sons, and the bandits returned Líng to Fàn. Fàn thanked them and said: “You sirs have generously returned my son. Though I love this son, I pity Jiǎn’s youth, and ask to exchange Líng for him.” The bandits were impressed by these words, and returned both to Fàn.

範子陵及承子戩為山東賊所得,範直詣賊請二子,賊以陵還範。範謝曰:「諸君相還兒厚矣。夫人情雖愛其子,然吾憐戩之小,請以陵易之。」賊義其言,悉以還範。

When Tàizǔ returned from Jīngzhōu, Fàn met him at Chén, became a Consultant and Advisor to the Army of the Chancellor, and was given great favor and esteem. When Tàizǔ went on campaign, he often ordered Fàn and Bǐng Yuán to stay with his sons at headquarters. Tàizǔ said to Wén-dì: “Whenever you act you must consult these two men,” and his sons acted with respect expected from sons and grandsons.

太祖自荊州還,範得見於陳,以為議郎,參丞相軍事,甚見敬重。太祖征伐,常令範及邴原留,與世子居守。太祖謂文帝:「舉動必諮此二人。」世子執子孫禮。

He gave out relief to the poor and destitute, so that his house had no excess wealth, and inside and abroad all widows and orphans were given comfort. Everything he was bestowed with he refused, and to the end would not use them and would return it all.

救恤窮乏,家無所餘,中外孤寡皆歸焉。贈遺無所逆,亦終不用,及去,皆以還之。

Jiàn’ān seventeenth year [212] he died. When Wèi state was first established Chéng was appointed Libationer to the Army of the Chancellor and Administrator of Zhào-jùn, and the government underwent great reform. When Tàizǔ led a western campaign, he summoned Chéng to accompany as a military advisor, but at Cháng’ān he fell ill and died. (1)

建安十七年卒。魏國初建,承以丞相參軍祭酒領趙郡太守,政化大行。太祖將西征,徵承參軍事,至長安,病卒。〔一〕

  • Wèishū states: When Wén-dì ascended, Fàn’s son Cān was appointed a Palace Attendant. Chéng’s grandson Shào was a Jìn Central Protector of the Army, and with his maternal uncle Yáng Jùn was put to death. For this matter see Jìnshū.

〔一〕 魏書曰:文帝即位,以範子參為郎中。承孫邵,晉中護軍,與舅楊駿俱被誅。事見晉書。

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