(14.1) Chéng Yù 程昱 [Zhòngdé 仲徳]

Chéng Yù styled Zhòngdé was a man of Dōng’ē in Dōng-jùn. He was eight chǐ three cùn [~1.9 meters] tall, with great whiskers and beard.

程昱字仲德,東郡東阿人也。長八尺三寸,美鬚髯。

The Yellow Scarves rebelled [184], and the County Deputy Wáng Dù rebelled in support of them, burning the warehouses. The County Magistrate abandoned the city and fled, and the officials and people carried on their back their young and old and fled east to Qúqiū mountain. Yù sent someone to spy on Dù and learned Dù and the others held an empty city and could not defend and so had left and set up camp five to six lǐ west of the city.

黃巾起,縣丞王度反應之,燒倉庫。縣令踰城走,吏民負老幼東奔渠丘山。昱使人偵視度,度等得空城不能守,出城西五六里止屯。

Yù said to the county people’s powerful clan leaders Xuē Fáng and others: “Now Dù and the others have obtained the city but cannot occupy it, so we know their strength. They only wish to plunder and steal treasure, and do not have the will to build a strong military force to attack or defend. Why do we not now hurry back to the city and defend it? Moreover the walls are high and think, with many provisions and grain. If we now hurry back to rescue it, we can together firmly defend it, and Dù certainly cannot last, and when we attack we can destroy them.”

昱謂縣中大姓薛房等曰:「今度等得城郭不能居,其勢可知。此不過欲虜掠財物,非有堅甲利兵攻守之志也。今何不相率還城而守之?且城高厚,多穀米,今若還求令,共堅守,度必不能久,攻可破也。」

[Xuē] Fáng and the others agreed, but the officials and people would not follow, saying: “The bandits are to the west, but we have the east and that is enough.” Yù said to Fáng and the rest: “The ignorant masses cannot make plans.” Therefore he secretly sent several riders to raise up banners atop the eastern hills, let Fáng and the others see it, and greatly shouted: “The bandits have already arrived!” They immediately went down from the mountain and fled to the city, and the officials and people all fled and followed them, and so they rescued the County magistrate, and together defended the city.

房等以為然。吏民不肯從,曰:「賊在西,但有東耳。」昱謂房等:「愚民不可計事。」乃密遣數騎舉幡于東山上,令房等望見,大呼言「賊已至」,便下山趣城,吏民奔走隨之,求得縣令,遂共城守。

[Wáng] Dù and the others came to attack the city, but could not capture it, and wished to retreat. Yù sent the officials and people to open the city gates and urgently attack them, and Dù and the others were defeated and fled. Dōng’ē by this was saved.

度等來攻城,不能下,欲去。昱率吏民開城門急擊之,度等破走。東阿由此得全。


During Chūpíng [190-193], Inspector of Yǎnzhōu Liú Dài sought to recruit Yù, but Yù would not answer. At the time [Liú] Dài with Yuán Shào and Gōngsūn Zàn were at peace. [Yuán] Shào sent his wives and children to stay with Dài, and [Gōngsūn] Zàn also sent his advisor Fàn Fāng to lead cavalry to assist Dài. Later Shào and Zàn had a rift. Zàn attacked and defeated Shào’s army, and then sent a messenger to speak with Dài, to order him to send away Shào’s wife and children to cut off relation. [Gōngsūn Zàn] also sent separate orders to Fàn Fāng: “If Dài does not send away Shào’s family, lead your riders back. Once I have settled Shào, next I will lead troops against Dài.”

初平中,兗州刺史劉岱辟昱,昱不應。是時岱與袁紹、公孫瓚和親,紹令妻子居岱所,瓚亦遣從事范方將騎助岱。後紹與瓚有隙。瓚擊破紹軍,乃遣使語岱,令遣紹妻子,使與紹絕。別敕范方:「若岱不遣紹家,將騎還。吾定紹,將加兵于岱。」

Dài thought it over for several days without deciding. His Aide-de-Camp Wáng Yù informed Dài: “Chéng Yù has planning ability and can settle great affairs.” Dài therefore summoned and met [Chéng] Yù and asked him about plans. [Chéng] Yù said: “If you refuse the nearby aide of [Yuán] Shào to seek the distant support of [Gōngsūn] Zàn, it is like the saying to summon someone [all the way] from Yuè in order to save a drowning child. This Gōngsūn Zàn is not a match for Yuán Shào. Now though he has harmed Shào’s army, in the end he will be captured by Shào. If you only focus on one morning’s advantage and do not consider distant plans, you General will in the end be destroyed.” Dài followed this. Fàn Fāng was about to lead his cavalry back, but before he arrived, Zàn was greatly defeated by Shào. Dài memorialized [Chéng] Yù as Cavalry Commandant, but  [Chéng] Yù plead illness and declined.

岱議連日不決,別駕王彧白岱:「程昱有謀,能斷大事。」岱乃召見昱,問計,昱曰:「若棄紹近援而求瓚遠助,此假人於越以救溺子之說也。夫公孫瓚,非袁紹之敵也。今雖壞紹軍,然終為紹所禽。夫趣一朝之權而不慮遠計,將軍終敗。」岱從之。范方將其騎歸,未至,瓚大為紹所破。岱表昱為騎都尉,昱辭以疾。


Liú Dài was killed by Yellow Scarves. Tàizǔ [Cáo Cāo] took command of Yǎnzhōu, and recruited Yù. When Yù was about to go, the people of his hometown said: “What is different between now and then?” Yù laughed and would not answer.

劉岱為黃巾所殺。太祖臨兗州,辟昱。昱將行,其鄉人謂曰:「何前後之相背也!」昱笑而不應。

Tàizǔ spoke with him, and was pleased with him, and appointed Yù as Magistrate of Shòuzhāng. Tàizǔ campaigned into Xúzhōu, and sent [Chéng] Yù and Xún Yù to remain to defend Juànchéng. Zhāng Miǎo and others rebelled and welcomed Lǚ Bù, and the commanderies and counties joined in answer. Only Juànchéng, Fàn, and Dōng’ē did not move. A surrendered man of [Lǚ] Bù’s army said that Chén Gōng wished to personally lead troops to capture Dōng’ē, and had also sent Fàn Yí to capture Fàn, and all the officials and people were afraid.

太祖與語,說之,以昱守壽張令。太祖征徐州,使昱與荀彧留守鄄城。張邈等叛迎呂布,郡縣響應,唯鄄城、范、東阿不動。布軍降者,言陳宮欲自將兵取東阿,又使氾嶷取范,吏民皆恐。

[Xún] Yù said to [Chéng] Yù: “Now Yǎnzhōu has rebelled, and we have only these three cities. [Chén] Gōng and the rest face them with a powerful army, and if we do not deeply rouse their spirits, these three cities will certainly fall. You sir are someone the people look toward. If you return and persuade them, this danger can be dealt with!”

彧謂昱曰:「今兗州反,唯有此三城。宮等以重兵臨之,非有以深結其心,三城必動。君,民之望也,歸而說之,殆可!」

[Chéng] Yù therefore returned, passed Fàn, and persuaded its Magistrate Jìn Yǔn: “I have heard that Lǚ Bù has captured your mother, younger brother, wives and children. A filial son truly cannot bear this! Now the world Under Heaven is in great chaos, heroes all rise, and there certainly will be one to dominate the age, one able to end the chaos Under heaven, and these the wise select out, prospering with a capable leader, and perishing with a failed leader. Chén Gōng has rebelled and invited Lǚ Bù and a hundred cities have all joined in answer, and they appear to be powerful. However, from your view, what sort of man is [Lǚ] Bù? This [Lǚ] Bù is coarse and does not value his kin, stubborn but rude, and is only a hero among common fellows and that is all. [Chén] Gōng and the rest are snobbish and feign cooperation, but will not accept you. Though their troops are many, in the end they will fail. Cáo [Cāo] as a leader has truly uncommon wisdom and skill, as one sent by Heaven! You can certainly defend Fàn, while I guard Dōng’ē, and so the achievement of Tián Dān [reconquering all lost territory from seemingly hopeless situation] can be accomplished. Who would turn from loyalty and follow evil and lose mother and children? May you thoroughly consider this!”

昱乃歸,過范,說其令靳允曰:「聞呂布執君母弟妻子,孝子誠不可為心!今天下大亂,英雄並起,必有命世,能息天下之亂者,此智者所詳擇也。得主者昌,失主者亡。陳宮叛迎呂布而百城皆應,似能有為,然以君觀之,布何如人哉!夫布,麤中少親,剛而無禮,匹夫之雄耳。宮等以勢假合,不能相君也。兵雖眾,終必無成。曹使君智略不世出,殆天所授!君必固范,我守東阿,則田單之功可立也。孰與違忠從惡而母子俱亡乎?唯君詳慮之!」

[Jìn] Yǔn weeping said: “I do not dare have two hearts.”

允流涕曰:「不敢有二心。」

At the time Fàn Yí was already in the county. [Jìn] Yǔn therefore met [Fàn] Yí, hid troops and assassinated him, then returned to prepare troops and firmly defend. (1)

時氾嶷已在縣,允乃見嶷,伏兵刺殺之,歸勒兵守。〔一〕

  • (1) Xú Zhòng criticizes: [Jìn] Yǔn and Excellency Cáo were not lord and servant. A mother is the closest relation, and by righteousness he should have answered and gone. In the past when Wáng Líng’s mother was captured by Xiàng Yǔ, the mother knew that Gāozǔ would certainly win the empire Under Heaven and therefore killed herself to protect [Wáng] Líng’s ambition [serving Gāozǔ]. A wise heart without relations can achieve the integrity to do the utmost to the death. Wèi Gōng-zǐ first served Qí and for many years did not return. Guǎn Zhòng believed that one who did not cherish one’s kin could not be trusted to love one’s lord, so he could not be Chancellor. Therefore to find a loyal servant one must go to the door of a filial son, and [Jìn] Yǔn should have first rescued his family. Xú Shù’s mother was captured by Excellency Cáo, so Liú Bèi sent [Xú] Shù back. One who wishes to rule the world Under Heaven should forgive the feelings of a son. Excellency Cáo also should have sent away [Jìn] Yǔn.

〔一〕 徐眾評曰:允於曹公,未成君臣。母,至親也,於義應去。昔王陵母為項羽所拘,母以高祖必得天下,因自殺以固陵志。明心無所係,然後可得成事人盡死之節。衛公子開方仕齊,積年不歸,管仲以為不懷其親,安能愛君,不可以為相。是以求忠臣必於孝子之門,允宜先救至親。徐庶母為曹公所得,劉備乃遣庶歸,欲為天下者恕人子之情也。曹公亦宜遣允。

[Chéng] Yù also sent a separate cavalry division to cut off Cāngtíng ford. When Chén Gōng arrived, he could not cross. [Chéng] Yù arrived at Dōng’ē. Magistrate of Dōng’ē Zǎo Zhī had already strict led the officials and people to resist and defend the city. Additionally, Yǎnzhōu Advisor Xuē Tì and [Chéng] Yù made plans together, in the end saved the three cities, and waited for Tàizǔ. When Tàizǔ returned, he grasped [Chéng] Yù’s hand and said: “If not for your strength, I would have nowhere to return to.” He then memorialized [Chéng] Yù as Chancellor of Dōngpíng, garrisoning Fàn. (2)

昱又遣別騎絕倉亭津,陳宮至,不得渡。昱至東阿,東阿令棗祗已率厲吏民,拒城堅守。又兗州從事薛悌與昱協謀,卒完三城,以待太祖。太祖還,執昱手曰:「微子之力,吾無所歸矣。」乃表昱為東平相,屯范。〔二〕

  • (2) Wèishū states: When [Chéng] Yù was young he once dreamed he was atop Tàishān, and with his two hands held up the sun. [Chéng] Yù personally thought it strange, and spoke of it to Xún Yù. When Yǎnzhōu rebelled, because of [Chéng] Yù three cities were saved. Thereafter [Xún] Yù told Tàizǔ about the dream. Tàizǔ said: “You sir to the end will be my guts and heart [civil official].” [Chéng] Yù was originally named Lì 立. Tàizǔ then added atop it a sun 日, changing his name to Yù 昱.

〔二〕 魏書曰:昱少時常夢上泰山,兩手捧日。昱私異之,以語荀彧。及兗州反,賴昱得完三城。於是彧以昱夢白太祖。太祖曰:「卿當終為吾腹心。」昱本名立,太祖乃加其上「日」,更名昱也。


Tàizǔ fought with Lǚ Bù at Púyáng, and was repeatedly unsuccessful. There was an outburst of locusts, and so both sides retreated. Then Yuán Shào sent someone to persuade Tàizǔ to alliance and ask Tàizǔ to send his family to reside at [Yuán Shào’s capital] Yè. Tàizǔ had newly lost Yǎnzhōu, his military provisions were exhausted, and he was about to accept this.

太祖與呂布戰于濮陽,數不利。蝗蟲起,乃各引去。於是袁紹使人說太祖連和,欲使太祖遷家居鄴。太祖新失兗州,軍食盡,將許之。

At the time [Chéng] Yù had been sent out and just returned, asked to meet, and thus said: “I have heard that you General wish to send your family and ally with Yuán Shào. Is this true?”

時昱使適還,引見,因言曰:「竊聞將軍欲遣家,與袁紹連和,誠有之乎?」

Tàizǔ said: “It is.”

太祖曰:「然。」

[Chéng] Yù said: “I see that you General in a dangerous situation are afraid, or else you would never consider this! This Yuán Shào occupies the lands of Yān and Zhào, and has the intention to unite the realm Under Heaven, but his wisdom is insufficient. General, do you think you can accept being his subordinate? You General have the power of dragons and tigers. Can you do the same as Hán [Xìn] and Péng [Yuè]? Now though Yǎnzhōu is lost, there are still three cities. The soldiers capable of fighting are not less than ten thousand. With your divine military ability, and with [Xún Yù] Wénruò and me and others to serve you, the enterprise of an overlord can still be achieved. May you reconsider!”

昱曰:「意者將軍殆臨事而懼,不然何慮之不深也!夫袁紹據燕、趙之地,有并天下之心,而智不能濟也。將軍自度能為之下乎?將軍以龍虎之威,可為韓、彭之事邪?今兗州雖殘,尚有三城。能戰之士,不下萬人。以將軍之神武,與文若、昱等,收而用之,霸王之業可成也。願將軍更慮之!」

Tàizǔ therefore stopped. (1)

太祖乃止。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèilüè records: [Chéng] Yù advised Tàizǔ: “In the past Tián Héng was of the dominant clan of Qí. With his brothers, the three were successively King, occupying a thousand lǐ of territory, commanding an army of millions, and with their vassals they faced south and styled themselves as sovereigns. Later Gāozǔ obtained the empire Under Heaven, and [Tián] Héng instead became a surrendered prisoner. At that time, what must Héng have been thinking!” Tàizǔ said: “Indeed. That was extremely disgraceful.” Yù said: “I am inferior and cannot presume to understand your intentions, General, but you cannot match Tián Héng. Tián Héng was merely a strong warrior of Qí and that is all, but even he was ashamed to be Gāozǔ‘s subject. Now I hear you General wish to send your family to Yè, and face north to serve Yuán Shào. If you General despite your genius and divine military ability are not ashamed to be subordinate to Yuán Shào, then I would be ashamed for you, General.”
  • After this the rest is the same as the base biography.

〔一〕 魏略載昱說太祖曰:「昔田橫,齊之世族,兄弟三人更王,據千里之(齊)〔地〕,擁百萬之眾,與諸侯並南面稱孤。既而高祖得天下,而橫顧為降虜。當此之時,橫豈可為心哉!」太祖曰:「然。此誠丈夫之至辱也。」昱曰:「昱愚,不識大旨,以為將軍之志,不如田橫。田橫,齊一壯士耳,猶羞為高祖臣。今聞將軍欲遣家往鄴,將北面而事袁紹。夫以將軍之聰明神武,而反不羞為袁紹之下,竊為將軍恥之!」其後語與本傳略同。


When Heaven’s Son set the capital at Xǔ [196], [Chéng] Yù was appointed to the Secretariat. Yǎnzhōu was not yet at peace, so Yù was again appointed East Internal Cadet-General, with office as Administrator of Jìyīn, to command all the affairs of Yǎnzhōu.

天子都許,以昱為尚書。兗州尚未安集,復以昱為東中郎將,領濟陰太守,都督兗州事。

Liú Bèi lost Xúzhōu, and came to surrender to Tàizǔ. Yù advised Tàizǔ to kill Bèi, but Tàizǔ did not listen, as told in Wǔjì [SGZ 1]. Later Bèi was again sent to Xúzhōu to intercept Yuán Shù. Yù and Guō Jiā advised Tàizǔ: “In previous days your Excellency did not execute [Liú] Bèi, and this was truly our failure. Now that he has borrowed troops, he will certainly be disloyal.” Tàizǔ was regretful and pursued but was unsuccessful. When [Yuán] Shù died of illness, Bèi arrived at Xúzhōu, killed [the Inspector] Chē Zhòu, and raised troops to turn against Tàizǔ. Shortly afterward, Yù was promoted to General of Shaking Authority.

劉備失徐州,來歸太祖。昱說太祖殺備,太祖不聽。語在武紀。後又遣備至徐州要擊袁術,昱與郭嘉說太祖曰:「公前日不圖備,昱等誠不及也。今借之以兵,必有異心。」太祖悔,追之不及。會術病死,備至徐州,遂殺車冑,舉兵背太祖。頃之,昱遷振威將軍。

Yuán Shào was at Líyáng [200] and about to cross south. At the time Yù had seven hundred troops to defend Juànchéng. Tàizǔ heard of this, and sent someone to inform Yù he intended to reinforce him with 2000 troops. Yù refused, saying: “Yuán Shào commands an army of a hundred thousand, and believes himself unstoppable. Now he sees that my troops are few, and will certainly be contemptuous and not attack. If my troops are increased, then when he passes he cannot but attack, and if he attacks he will certainly succeed, and we both would be weakened in vain. May your excellency have no doubts!” Tàizǔ followed this. When Shào heard Yù’s troops were few, he indeed did not go there. Tàizǔ said to Jiǎ Xǔ: “Chéng Yù’s courage exceeds [Mèng] Bēn and [Xià] Yù.”

袁紹在黎陽,將南渡。時昱有七百兵守鄄城,太祖聞之,使人告昱,欲益二千兵。昱不肯,曰:「袁紹擁十萬眾,自以所向無前。今見昱兵少,必輕易不來攻。若益昱兵,過則不可不攻,攻之必克,徒兩損其勢。願公無疑!」太祖從之。紹聞昱兵少,果不往。太祖謂賈詡曰:「程昱之膽,過于賁、育。」

Yù captured fugitives in Shānzé, raised several thousand elite troops, and then led the army to join Tàizǔ at Líyáng, attacking Yuán Tán and Yuán Shàng. Tán and Shàng were defeated and fled, and Yù was appointed General Exerting Martiality and given fief as Marquis of Ānguó precinct.

昱收山澤亡命,得精兵數千人,乃引軍與太祖會黎陽,討袁譚、袁尚。譚、尚破走,拜昱奮武將軍,封安國亭侯。

Tàizǔ campaigned in Jīngzhōu [208], and Liú Bèi fled to Wú. Commentators believed Sūn Quán would certainly kill Bèi, but Yù predicted: “Sūn Quán is newly come to power, and is not yet feared Within the Seas. Excellency Cáo has no match in the world Under Heaven. When he first raised up against Jīngzhōu, his authority shook beyond the Jiāng, and though [Sūn] Quán had planning ability, he cannot oppose us alone. Liú Bèi has heroic reputation, and Guān Yǔ and Zhāng Fēi are both a match for ten thousand enemies. [Sūn] Quán will certainly use them to oppose us. As his difficulty has been resolved, Liú Bèi is saved and cannot be taken and killed.” [Sūn] Quán indeed gave [Liú] Bèi troops to resist Tàizǔ.

太祖征荊州,劉備奔吳。論者以為孫權必殺備,昱料之曰:「孫權新在位,未為海內所憚。曹公無敵於天下,初舉荊州,威震江表,權雖有謀,不能獨當也。劉備有英名,關羽、張飛皆萬人敵也,權必資之以禦我。難解勢分,備資以成,又不可得而殺也。」權果多與備兵,以禦太祖。

After this the Central Plains were gradually pacified. Tàizǔ patted Yù on the back and said: “At the defeat at Yǎnzhōu, if I had not listened to your words, where would I be now?” Oxen and wine were presented for a great feast to honor him. Yù said: “To be content is to not be disgraced. I can retire.” Therefore he sent up a memorial to return his troops, and closed his gates and did not go out. (1)

是後中夏漸平,太祖拊昱背曰:「兗州之敗,不用君言,吾何以至此?」宗人奉牛酒大會,昱曰:「知足不辱,吾可以退矣。」乃自表歸兵,闔門不出。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèishū states: Tàizǔ campaigned against Mǎ Chāo [211], Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] was left to defend, and employed [Chéng] Yù as military advisor. Tián Yín, Sū Bó, and others rebelled in Héjiān, and General Jiǎ Xìn was sent to suprress them. Over a thousand rebels came to surrender, and commentators all believed they should be dealt with by the old laws [executed]. Yù said: “Executing the surrendered is for troubled times when all the world Under Heaven is in uprising. The reason those who surrender after being encircled are not pardoned is to show authority to the world Under Heaven, so that victory is easier and matters do not have to reach the point of encirclement. Now the realm Under Heaven is nearly settled, and moreover this occurred within the state’s territory, and these were rebels certain to be defeated. To kill them does not demonstrate authority, and is not the purpose of past executions of the surrendered. I your servant believe they cannot be executed. Even if they are to be executed, we should first report [to Cáo Cāo].” The army commentators said: “In military affairs there are special cases, so we do not need to ask.” Yù did not answer. [After the meeting] Wén-dì rose and went, and specially met with Yù and said: “You have not yet said everything?” Yù said: “These special cases are for times of emergencies, when things must be settled in a breath and that is all. Now these rebels are already in Jiǎ Xìn’s hands, and things will not change in a morning and night. Therefore this old servant hopes you will not act this way, General.” Wén-dì said: “Your thinking is good.” Then he informed Tàizǔ and Tàizǔ indeed did not execute them. When Tàizǔ returned, he heard of the debate, and said to Yù: “You sir are not only good at military strategy, but also good at handing relations between a father and son.”

〔一〕 魏書曰:太祖征馬超,文帝留守,使昱參軍事。田銀、蘇伯等反河間,遣將軍賈信討之。賊有千餘人請降,議者皆以為宜如舊法,昱曰:「誅降者,謂在擾攘之時,天下雲起,故圍而後降者不赦,以示威天下,開其利路,使不至於圍也。今天下略定,且在邦域之中,此必降之賊,殺之無所威懼,非前日誅降之意。臣以為不可誅也;縱誅之,宜先啟聞。」眾議者曰:「軍事有專,無請。」昱不答。文帝起入,特引見昱曰:「君有所不盡邪?」昱曰:「凡專命者,謂有臨時之急,呼吸之間者耳。今此賊制在賈信之手,無朝夕之變。故老臣不願將軍行之也。」文帝曰:「君慮之善。」即白太祖,太祖果不誅。太祖還,聞之甚說,謂昱曰:「君非徒明於軍計,又善處人父子之間。」


Yù by nature was stubborn and ruthless, and frequently offended other people so that someone accused Yù of plotting rebellion, but Tàizǔ treated him with great favor. When Wèi state was established [213] be was appointed its Minister of the Guard, but fought over authority with Subaltern Xíng Zhēn, and was dismissed. When Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] ascended [220], he was restored as Minister of the Guard, advanced to Marquis of Ānxiāng with fief increased by 300 households, added to previous to a total of 800. It was divided to give fief to his youngest son Yán and grandson Xiǎo as Ranked Marquis.

昱性剛戾,與人多迕。人有告昱謀反,太祖賜待益厚。魏國既建,為衛尉,與中尉邢貞爭威儀,免。文帝踐阼,復為衛尉,進封安鄉侯,增邑三百戶,并前八百戶。分封少子延及孫曉列侯。

He was about to be appointed to the Excellencies, but at that time he died, and the Emperor wept for him and gave him posthumous office as General of Chariots and Cavalry. His posthumous name was Sù-hóu “Solemn Marquis.” (1)

方欲以為公,會薨,帝為流涕,追贈車騎將軍,諡曰肅侯。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèishū state: Yù at the time was eighty years.
  • Shìyǔ states: Previously, Tàizǔ’s provisions were exhausted. Yù plundered his home county, providing three days of provisions, mixed with pieces of human flesh. Because of this he lost the Court’s favor, and therefore his rank did not reach the Excellencies.

〔一〕 魏書曰:昱時年八十。世語曰:初,太祖乏食,昱略其本縣,供三日糧,頗雜以人脯,由是失朝望,故位不至公。

His son Wǔ succeeded. Wǔ died, and his son Kè succeeded. Kè died, and his son Liáng succeeded.

子武嗣。武薨,子克嗣。克薨,子良嗣。


[Chéng] Xiǎo during Jiāpíng [249-254] became Yellow Gate Attendant-Cadet. (1)

曉,嘉平中為黃門侍郎。〔一〕

  • (1) Shìyǔ states: Xiǎo appellation Jìmíng was widely learned.

〔一〕 世語曰:曉字季明,有通識。

At the time Overseers were excessively harsh, and Xiǎo sent up a memorial that said:

“The Zhōulǐ says: ‘Establish officials with divided duties to rule the people.’ The Chūnqiūzhuàn states: ‘Heaven has ten suns. Men have ten ranks.’ The foolish cannot face the worthy, the treacherous cannot face the noble. Therefore to together establish the sagely, establish reputation. Illuminate and test merit, and record all accomplishments. Each teach their own enterprise, thinking without leaving position. Therefore Luán wrote hoping to support Jìn-hóu, but his son did not listen. The dead lay across the streets, and do not know happiness. The high do not take achievement for what they do not do, the low are not rewarded for what is not their responsibility, the officials do not have the authority to claim multiple posts, the people are not conscripted for multiple jobs; these are truly the importance principles of the state, and the way to govern chaos. The distant look to ancient record, and the near look to Qín and Hàn. Though position names have changed, and duties are not the same, so the high restrain the subordinate, clearly divide into ranks, in order to join as one. Previously there was no Overseer office to meddle with government officials. In the past Wǔ Huángdì‘s [Cáo Cāo] great undertaking had a rough beginning. The officials were not prepared and the military officers worked bitterly hard, the hearts of the people were not at ease, and so if there was a small crime it could not but be investigated, and so there was established Overseers, for all affairs and that is all. However in investigation there are proper methods, and they should not be unrestrained. That is only the power of an overlord, not the proper rule of a monarch. As a result gradually the false see appointment, like an illness returning, things cannot be restored, and none can correct the body. Then the high investigate the Palace and Temple, the low take over the various positions, officials have no offices, duties have no limits, and each do as they please, following what their heart thinks suitable. Law is invented at the pen point, and does not rely on Imperial Order. The prison is set up below the door, and quickly overthrown. This selection of official responsibilities takes caution as coarse and rashness as sagely ability. With this governing of affairs, the cruel becomes powerful, and the reasonable become weak. Outside Heavenly authority is entrusted based on reputation, and inside the treacherous are gathered as the core officials. Great officials are shamed and divided in power and endure without speaking. Petty men fear punishment, and problems are not reported.  And so Yǐn Mó below his eyes did not restrain evil thought; when evil is made known travelers all know, but when little evils are passed after many years it is not yet heard. This is both not the Zhōulǐ‘s intention in setting up offices and also not the way of the Chūnqiū‘s ten ranks. Now outside there are Excellencies and Ministers overseeing all the departments, and inside Palace Attendants and Secretariats overseeing all actions, the Director of Retainers supervises the capital, the Censorate Palace Deputy manages the Palace, and all value selecting worthy talents to serve their offices, and declare they have Imperial Order to justify their violations. If these worthies are not sufficient to appoint, then Overseer as a minor office certainly cannot be trusted. If these worthies each think to serve loyally, Overseers are redundant, and again serve no advantage. If they highly select state scholars as Overseers, than the Palace Deputy Retainers have one more office and that is all. If the selection is as before, than the treachery of Yǐn Mó will appear again. Knowing when to advance and depart, then there is no use. In the past Sāng Hóngyáng was a Hàn Profit-Seeker, and divination claimed that if Hóngyáng was boiled alive then Heaven would bring rain. If government merits and faults can affect Heaven and Earth, then I your servant fear there will be disasters of flood and drought, and not necessarily only due to Overseers. Cáo Gōng-gōng was far from superior gentlemen and close to petty men, and the state turned to assassinating him. Wèi Xiàn-gōng abandoned great officials and made plans with petty officials, and in settling Jiāng Wèi had crimes. Giving free reign to Overseers has no benefit to the state, and by righteousness to speak of it, it harms the hearts of great officials, and moreover when treachery is exposed it is not removed. It is what even Yǎn Quē could not repair, confused and cannot be restored.”

時校事放橫,曉上疏曰:「周禮云:『設官分職,以為民極。』春秋傳曰:『天有十日,人有十等。』愚不得臨賢,賤不得臨貴。於是並建聖哲,樹之風聲。明試以功,九載考績。各脩厥業,思不出位。故欒書欲拯晉侯,其子不聽;死人橫於街路,邴吉不問。上不責非職之功,下不務分外之賞,吏無兼統之勢,民無二事之役,斯誠為國要道,治亂所由也。遠覽典志,近觀秦漢,雖官名改易,職司不同,至于崇上抑下,顯分明例,其致一也。初無校事之官干與庶政者也。昔武皇帝大業草創,眾官未備,而軍旅勤苦,民心不安,乃有小罪,不可不察,故置校事,取其一切耳,然檢御有方,不至縱恣也。此霸世之權宜,非帝王之正典。其後漸蒙見任,復為疾病,轉相因仍,莫正其本。遂令上察宮廟,下攝眾司,官無局業,職無分限,隨意任情,唯心所適。法造於筆端,不依科詔;獄成於門下,不顧覆訊。其選官屬,以謹慎為粗疏,以謥詷為賢能。其治事,以刻暴為公嚴,以循理為怯弱。外則託天威以為聲勢,內則聚群姦以為腹心。大臣恥與分勢,含忍而不言,小人畏其鋒芒,鬱結而無告。至使尹模公于目下肆其奸慝;罪惡之著,行路皆知,纖惡之過,積年不聞。既非周禮設官之意,又非春秋十等之義也。今外有公卿將校總統諸署,內有侍中尚書綜理萬機,司隸校尉督察京輦,御史中丞董攝宮殿,皆高選賢才以充其職,申明科詔以督其違。若此諸賢猶不足任,校事小吏,益不可信。若此諸賢各思盡忠,校事區區,亦復無益。若更高選國士以為校事,則是中丞司隸重增一官耳。若如舊選,尹模之奸今復發矣。進退推算,無所用之。昔桑弘羊為漢求利,卜式以為獨烹弘羊,天乃可雨。若使政治得失必感天地,臣恐水旱之災,未必非校事之由也。曹恭公遠君子,近小人,國風託以為刺。衛獻公舍大臣,與小臣謀,定姜謂之有罪。縱令校事有益於國,以禮義言之,尚傷大臣之心,況姦回暴露,而復不罷,是兗闕不補,迷而不返也。」

Therefore the Overseer office was ended. Xiǎo was transferred to Administrator of Rǔnán. Aged over forty years he died. (2)

於是遂罷校事官。曉遷汝南太守,年四十餘薨。〔二〕

  • (2) Xiǎo Biézhuàn states: Xiǎo wrote many essays but most were lost. Now those still extant are not even one out of ten.

〔二〕 曉別傳曰:曉大著文章多亡失,今之存者不能十分之一。

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