(13.4) Wáng Lǎng 王朗 [Jǐngxīng 景興]

Wáng Lǎng appellation Jǐngxīng was a Dōnghǎi Tán man. As he was conversant in the Classics, he was appointed Palace Gentleman, then sent out as Chief of Zīqiū. His teacher was Grand Commandant Yáng Cì. Cì died [185], and he resigned his post in order to mourn. He was nominated as xiàolián “filial and incorrupt” and recruited to the office of the Excellencies, but he did not accept. Inspector of Xúzhōu Táo Qiān recommended Lǎng as màocái “abundant talent.” At the time the Hàn Emperor [Liú Xié] was at Cháng’ān [193], soldiers East of the Passes rose up, Lǎng became Qiān’s Internal Manager, and with Aide-de-Camp Zhào Yù and others advised Qiān: “The essentials of the Chūnqiū is that seeking support from vassal lords cannot compare to diligently serving the King. Now Heaven’s Son is faraway in the western capital, and it is appropriate to send an envoy to receive the ruler’s command.” Qiān therefore sent Yù to present memorial to Cháng’ān. Heaven’s Son praised his intentions, and appointed Qiān General Calming the East. Yù became Administrator of Guǎnglíng and Lǎng became Administrator of Kuàijī. (1)

王郎字景興,東海(郡)〔郯〕人也。以通經,拜郎中,除菑丘長。師太尉楊賜,賜薨,棄官行服。舉孝廉,辟公府,不應。徐州刺史陶謙察朗茂才。時漢帝在長安,關東兵起,朗為謙治中,與別駕趙昱等說謙曰:「春秋之義,求諸侯莫如勤王。今天子越在西京,宜遣使奉承王命。」謙乃遣昱奉章至長安。天子嘉其意,拜謙安東將軍。以昱為廣陵太守,朗會稽太守。〔一〕

  • (1) Lǎng Jiāzhuàn “Family Biography of [Wáng] Lǎng” states: Kuàijī formerly offered sacrifices to Qín Shǐhuáng, carved a wooden image, and with Xià shared a Temple. Lǎng arrived and took office, and believed that [Qín Shǐhuáng] was a ruler without virtue, and should not receive sacrifice, and therefore abolished it. He resided in the prefecture for four years, and was gave kindness and love to the people.

〔一〕 朗家傳曰:會稽舊祀秦始皇,刻木為像,與夏禹同廟。朗到官,以為無德之君,不應見祀,於是除之。居郡四年,惠愛在民。

Sūn Cè crossed the Jiāng and plundered the territory [197]. Lǎng’s Merit Officer Yú Fān believed they could not resist, and it was not as good as fleeing. Lǎng himself believed that as a Hàn official, he should defend the city, and therefore raised troops and with Cè battled, was utterly defeated, and retreated by sea to Dōngyě. Cè also pursued and attacked, and greatly defeated him. Lǎng therefore went to Cè [to surrender]. Cè because [Wáng Lǎng] was scholarly and refined, scolded but did not harm him. (2)

孫策渡江略地。朗功曹虞翻以為力不能拒,不如避之。朗自以身為漢吏,宜保城邑,遂舉兵與策戰,敗績,浮海至東冶。策又追擊,大破之。朗乃詣策。策以〔朗〕儒雅,詰讓而不害。〔二〕

  • (2) Xiàndì Chūnqiū “Chronicles of Xiàn-dì” states: Sūn Cè led his army like the Mǐn and Yuè to attack Lǎng. Lǎng on a boat went by sea, wishing to flee to Jiāozhōu, was by troops pressured, and therefore went to the army to surrender. Cè sent an order by envoy to scold Lǎng: “I ask the rebel former Administrator of Kuàijī Wáng Lǎng: Lǎng received the state’s favor and became a minister, so why does he not repay that kindness, and instead block with troops and rely on resistance? Our great army goes on punitive campaign, you luckily evaded destruction, but did not withdraw, instead again gathering many followers, to garrison and reside at the prefecture border, forcing us to go far and toil to for the ruler punish, to the end not understanding obedience. When captured you say you surrender, hoping to deceive and cheat, in order to keep your head. If this is not so, then write an answer.” Lǎng declared himself captured prisoner, and answered the envoy: “I am of trifling ability, wronged the Court for personal reasons, received rank and did not yield it, and so unexpectedly fell into crime. Previously I met a campaign, and fearing death sought to escape. Because I have governed men, as a result my life has sudden changes. Also I was pursued by your great troops, and was frightened and fled north. My followers fell ill and suffered, and have all died out. Alone with my elderly mother together we rode one cart. Stray arrows were flying, so we abandoned the cart and was captured, and bowing my head to the ground I surrender amid the campaigning army. I am anxious and confused and cannot explain, and declare myself surrendered prisoner. Because previously I was bewildered and confused, I was remonstrated and ashamed and afraid. I am foolish and shallow and worn and cowardly, afraid of your authority and alarmed. Also I had no good introduction, and so did not earlier myself submit. During the defeat and flight, I was then alive captured and submitted. I am light and my crimes heavy, and death cannot make up for my faults. I extend my neck for reins, stretch my legs for restraint bonds, ready to hear your words and in all things obey commands.”

〔二〕 獻帝春秋曰:孫策率軍如閩、越討朗。朗泛舟浮海,欲走交州,為兵所逼,遂詣軍降。策令使者詰朗曰:「問逆賊故會稽太守王朗:朗受國恩當官,云何不惟報德,而阻兵安忍?大軍征討,幸免梟夷,不自掃屏,復聚黨眾,屯住郡境。遠勞王誅,卒不悟順。捕得云降,庶以欺詐,用全首領,得爾與不,具以狀對。」朗稱禽虜,對使者曰:「朗以瑣才,誤竊朝私,受爵不讓,以遘罪網。前見征討,畏死苟免。因治人物,寄命須臾。又迫大兵,惶怖北引。從者疾患,死亡略盡。獨與老母,共乘一欐。流矢始交,便棄欐就俘,稽顙自首於征役之中。朗惶惑不達,自稱降虜。緣前迷謬,被詰慚懼。朗愚淺駑怯,畏威自驚。又無良介,不早自歸。於破亡之中,然後委命下隸。身輕罪重,死有餘辜。申脰就鞅,蹴足入絆,叱吒聽聲,東西惟命。」

Though he fled and moved in poverty and danger so that in the mornings one could not plan for the evening, yet he cared for and gave relief to relatives and old friends, divided to them much and took from them little, and his actions were righteous and very well known.

雖流移窮困,朝不謀夕,而收卹親舊,分多割少,行義甚著。


Tàizǔ [Cáo Cāo] memorialized to recruit him, so Lǎng from Qū’ē wandered across rivers and seas, and after accumulated years arrived. (1)

太祖表徵之,朗自曲阿展轉江海,積年乃至。〔一〕

  • (1) Lǎng was summoned but had not arrived. Kǒng Róng wrote a letter to Lǎng: “At present the roads are divided by blocked passes, news is cut off, and recalling this increases melancholy. Previously I saw your writing and memorials, and knew that you sought the crime of Tāng as your own legacy, yourself fleeing to the eastern frontier like the punishment of Gǔn, and without finishing reading, my tears are already flowing. The ruler above is lenient and benevolent, esteems virtue and forgives faults. Lord Cáo assists the government, thinks of worthies and seeks to establish them. His writings and letters are repeatedly sent down, eagerly soliciting. I know you have oared ship to cross the sea, stopping at Guǎnglíng, not thinking of Huáng Xióng’s outstanding loftiness and depth. Talk and laughter has its time, may you exert and care for yourself!”
  • Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū “Chronicles of Hàn and Jìn” states: When Sūn Cè had first obtained Lǎng, he reprimanded and had him yield. He sent Zhāng Zhāo to privately ask Lǎng [to join him], but Lǎng vowed to never bow. Cè was furious but did not dare harm him, and had him remain at Qū’ē. Jiàn’ān third year [198] Tàizǔ memorialized to summon Lǎng, and Cè sent him. Tàizǔ asked him: “How did Sūn Cè come so far?” Lǎng said: “Cè’s valor crowns the whole age, and he has incredible talented men to support his great ambition. Zhāng [Zhāo] Zǐbù is one the people look toward, and he faces north toward [Sūn Cè, as a subject would his ruler]. Zhōu [Yú] Gōngjǐn is a hero of the Jiāng and Huái, flexing arms and serving as his General. His plans are successful, what he plots is not small, and in the end he will become a great rebel to the realm Under Heaven. He is not another one who is a dog bandit and nothing more.

〔一〕 朗被徵未至。孔融與朗書曰:「世路隔塞,情問斷絕,感懷增思。前見章表,知尋湯武罪己之跡,自投東裔同鯀之罰,覽省未周,涕隕潸然。主上寬仁,貴德宥過。曹公輔政,思賢並立。策書屢下,殷勤款至。知櫂舟浮海,息駕廣陵,不意黃熊突出羽淵也。談笑有期,勉行自愛!」漢晉春秋曰:孫策之始得朗也,譴讓之。使張昭私問朗,朗誓不屈,策忿而不敢害也,留置曲阿。建安三年,太祖表徵朗,策遣之。太祖問曰:「孫策何以得至此邪?」朗曰:「策勇冠一世,有雋才大志。張子布,民之望也,北面而相之。周公瑾,江淮之傑,攘臂而為其將。謀而有成,所規不細,終為天下大賊,非徒狗盜而已。」

He was appointed Critical Grandee, and Advisor to the Army of the Excellency of Works. (2)

拜諫議大夫,參司空軍事。〔二〕

  • (2) Lǎng Jiāzhuàn of states: Lǎng when young with the Pèi-guó famed scholar Liú Yáng became friends. Yáng became Magistrate of Jǔ, at thirty years died, and therefore in later generations was rarely heard of. Previously, Yáng because the Hàn House was gradually declining, knew that Tàizǔ had heroic ability, was afraid he would harm Hàn, and wished to eliminate him but never had an opportunity. When Tàizǔ was honored, he sought  [Liú Yáng’s] son and heir with great urgency. The son was frightened and distressed, but had nowhere to run or hide. Though Yáng’s relatives and old friends were many, none dared hide him. Lǎng had then been away for many years, but when he from Kuàijī returned, he yet repeatedly sought to resolve the situation. Tàizǔ eventually pardoned him, and Yáng’s family because of this was saved.

〔二〕 朗家傳曰:朗少與沛國名士劉陽交友。陽為莒令,年三十而卒,故後世鮮聞。初,陽以漢室漸衰,知太祖有雄才,恐為漢累,意欲除之而事不會。及太祖貴,求其嗣子甚急。其子惶窘,走伏無所。陽親舊雖多,莫敢藏者。朗乃納受積年,及從會稽還,又數開解。太祖久乃赦之,陽門戶由是得全。

When Wèi state was first established [213], he became Libationer to the Army and Administrator of Wèi-jùn, and was promoted to Minister Treasurer, Minister of Ceremonies, and Grand Judge [Minister of Justice]. In affairs he was forgiving, and when crimes were in doubt he was lenient in sentencing. Zhōng Yáo was perceptive in law, and both of them for their managing of prisoners met with praise. (3)

魏國初建,以軍祭酒領魏郡太守,遷少府、奉常、大理。務在寬恕,罪疑從輕。鍾繇明察當法,俱以治獄見稱〔三〕。

  • (3) Wèilüè “Summary of Wèi” states: Tàizǔ invited him to a meeting together, and teased Lǎng: “We cannot imitate the pressed rice you had in the past at Kuàijī to make your food.” Lǎng looked up and sighed and said: “It is suitable that it should be difficult to do.” Tàizǔ asked: “What do you mean?” Lǎng said: “The me of the past could not press but pressed. Now you wise lord of today can press but do not press.” Tàizǔ asked Lǎng about Sūn Quán declaring himself subject and sending tribute. Lǎng answered: “Sūn Quán in previous letters, from his craftiness he suppressed bandits to make up for his previous faults, and later declares himself subject to show he has no second motives. Fanged beasts bending knees, speaking birds calling happily, pearls and southern gold and distant treasures will certainly arrive. Emotions are seen from words and effects are known from achievements. The three rivers and five lakes are to be governed by Wèi, western Wú and eastern Yuè are to be changed to people of the state. Yān and Yǐng will be taken, and the gates of Jīng will themselves open. The requisite situation for rolling up Bā and Shǔ is already complete. Value rest and celebration, and the varied masses will mutually follow. At the time of fulfilling orders, wield and grasp staff to strike. Emotions are raised, and words are difficult to convey.”

〔三〕 魏略曰:太祖請同會,啁朗曰:「不能效君昔在會稽折秔米飯也。」朗仰而歎曰:「宜適難值!」太祖問:「云何?」朗曰:「如朗昔者,未可折而折;如明公今日,可折而不折也。」太祖以孫權稱臣遣貢諮朗,朗答曰:「孫權前牋,自詭躬討虜以補前愆,後疏稱臣,以明無二。牙獸屈膝,言鳥告歡,明珠、南金,遠珍必至。情見乎辭,效著乎功。三江五湖,為治於魏,西吳東越,化為國民。鄢、郢既拔,荊門自開。席卷巴、蜀,形勢已成。重休累慶,雜沓相隨。承旨之日,撫掌擊節。情之畜者,辭不能宣。」


When Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] became King [220], he was promoted to Censorate Grandee with fief as Marquis of Ānlíng precinct.

文帝即王位,遷御史大夫,封安陵亭侯。

He sent up a memorial advising the education of people and reduction of punishments:

“Since the rising of troops it has been over thirty years, the Four Seas are overthrown and capsized, all the states are destroyed and weary. Relying on the Former King [Cáo Cāo] cutting down and removing bandits and rebels, supporting and raising the orphaned and young, so it came that civilization again had law and order. Gathering up the countless people in these lands of Wèi, to grant to the rustic inside, fowls cry and dogs bark, spreading to all four borders, commoners in happiness, joyful to encounter the rise of peace.

“Now the distant bandits are not yet obedient, and the conscription of soldiers and weapons is not yet at rest, and truly if it is ordered to again remove this it would be sufficient to comfort the distant people, while good government would be sufficient to spread virtue and favor, have all north-south roads repaired, the four people abundant and splendid, then it would certainly return to the previous times with their wealth and peaceful days. The praises orders and laws, the Shū makes known rewards and punishments. When one man has celebration, the countless peoples depend on him, and this is the saying of caution in law and punishment.

“In the past State Chancellor Cáo [Shēn?] trusted in punishment, and employed mild and leisurely officials that disliked managing imprisonment. If those that manage imprisonment understand situations, then there are no persecuted prisoners; if those full grown and strong obtain robust soil, then there are no people suffering hunger or famine; if the poor and elderly are supported and fed from granaries, then there are no dead from starvation; if marriage has its appropriate time, then men and women have no resentments of complaints and neglect; if the pregnant are certain to protected, then the pregnant have no sorrow of injury; if the newborn are certain to be cared for, then the children there are none who are not raised; if the grown are afterward conscripted, then the young have no thought of abandoning their homes, if the elderly do not engage in warfare, then the elderly do not suffer defeats. Use medicine to treat illness, leniency and song to cheer industry, authority and punishment to restrain the strong, kindness and benevolence to give relief to the weak, and relief and aide to support the exhausted. After ten years, teenagers will certainly fill the streets. After twenty years, victorious soldiers will certainly fill the plains.”

上疏勸育民省刑曰:「兵起已來三十餘年,四海盪覆,萬國殄瘁。賴先王芟除寇賊,扶育孤弱,遂令華夏復有綱紀。鳩集兆民,于茲魏土,使封鄙之內,雞鳴狗吠,達於四境,蒸庶欣欣,喜遇升平。今遠方之寇未賓,兵戎之役未息,誠令復除足以懷遠人,良宰足以宣德澤,阡陌咸修,四民殷熾,必復過於曩時而富於平日矣。易稱敕法,書著祥刑,一人有慶,兆民賴之,慎法獄之謂也。昔曹相國以獄市為寄,路溫舒疾治獄之吏。夫治獄者得其情,則無冤死之囚;丁壯者得盡地力,則無饑饉之民;窮老者得仰食倉廩,則無餧餓之殍;嫁娶以時,則男女無怨曠之恨;胎養必全,則孕者無自傷之哀;新生必復,則孩者無不育之累;壯而後役,則幼者無離家之思;二毛不戎,則老者無頓伏之患。醫藥以療其疾,寬繇以樂其業,威罰以抑其強,恩仁以濟其弱,賑貸以贍其乏。十年之後,既笄者必盈巷。二十年之後,勝兵者必滿野矣。」


When Wén-dì ascended, his office was changed to Excellency of Works and he was advanced in fief to Marquis of Yuèpíng village. (1)

及文帝踐阼,改為司空,進封樂平鄉侯。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèi Míngchén Zòu “Memorials of Wèi’s Famed Ministers” records Lǎng’s Memorial on Reducing Expenses: “The Imperial Order asking what is suitable to increase or decrease must be speaking of the matters of the eastern capital. Concerning the western capital’s great sacrifices at Yúnyáng and Fényīn, there are 1500 followers at the sacrifices to Heaven platform, entering Āfáng Palace, abstaining [from meat, wine, etc.] for 100 days, raising sacrificial animals for five years, oxen require 3000, heavy jade require 7000; these objects are placed on patterned silks on ranked mats, virgin girls tread and dance in connection; fermented wine requires three hours to complete, musicians require 3400 supporting preparers; the Inner Palace beauties in number near 1000, the Scholars-Officials and Academicians and their followers are over 7000 men; the Palace Stables have all different horses numbering over 60,000, and outside herdsman lead and raise 30,000 with horses making up one-tenth; the Metal Mace Bearer has following riders 600 and walking soldiers in equal number; the Minister of Ceremonies in handling tombs and visits has 1000 chariots, the Grand Official bestowing official slave servants 6000, Cháng’ān city has governing officials 3000, including 2000-dàn [salary officials] and those managing crimes and punishments in 25 prisons. Government affairs are many, inspiring authority is complex, much more than the Three Dynasties, and must have more thorough Rituals. That it has reached this extravagance is mostly from inheritance from the Qín. It both violates the foundations of the honesty of cocoon and chestnut [rituals] and the direction of the simplicity of sweeping the ground [rituals], and also loses the instruction of substituting pledges and decreasing complexity and of avoiding grandness and following restriction. How, in this present time of flourishing and enlightenment, a time of following the examples of Yáo and Shùn, a government of reducing extravagance and acting with frugality, of orders to remove complexity and esteem saving, of teachings to be thorough in deciding punishments and careful in applying penalties, is this not what should be hoped for and admired? And the Resting Temple day is the sacrificial ceremony with the greatest sacrifices, the prefectures and states both establish the laws of Ancestral Temples, with specficiation of numbers of the officials from the staff of the Chancellor and Censorate Secretary following, and this organization, was both repeatedly changed before the times of Āi [Liú Xīn -7- -1] and Píng [Liú Kàn -1 – 5], and not used after Guāng-Wǔ [Liú Xiù 25-57]. In sincere reference for a memorial of a plan for modifications, the [sacrifices to] Heaven and Earth and the Five Emperors, the Six Exemplars, the Ancestral Temple, the State Altars, are already due to the inheritance of the sacred lands of the previous dynasties. For [sacrifices to] Heaven and Earth sweep the ground and offer libation, and for the rest all use the Altar with equal rank. The Brilliant Hall is for sacrifices to God Above, the Spirit Terrace is for observing Heaven’s Patterns [astronomy], the Rule of Harmony is for cultivating Ritual and Music, the Imperial Academy is for gathering the Classicist groves, the High Sacrifice is for prayers for rest and good omens, and also for inquiring for the best time for affairs and supporting teaching. Learning from the ancients and former peoples, opening and increasing the blessings of the Throne, in old times all were at the state’s brightened [south] side, along with tall and illustrious buildings, enough to practice [ritual] feasts and shooting, and look upon the clouds. Though the Seven Outskirts are for honored sacrifices and esteemed services, yet they all have doors and rooms and seating, and are enough to take shelter from wind and rain. It is possible to wait for an end of military affairs and years of abundance to gradually make repairs. In former times the soldiers of the Five Camps of Elite Tiger Winged Forest, along with guard troops added together, though they were ten thousand men, some were junior relatives of merchants and lazy travelers, and some were blunt and unlearned men of agriculture and fields; though they were in placed in military regulations, they did not emphasize military affairs or battle, and did not train, and also hoped for the chance to plunder, so what was said and what was true were not in agreement, and it was difficult to prepare for emergencies. There was alarm and only afterward soldiers were conscripted, the army went and only afterward provisions were sent, or then troops were already long garrisoned and yet the camps did not farm and did not repair weapons and equipment, there were no stored supplies, and if one side had an urgent feathered dispatch then the other three sides were all panicked and disturbed. These were also the faults of recent times of the Hàn and cannot become a model. At present civilization is calm, and only Bā-Shǔ is outside control [Wú was nominally surrendered at this time]. Though we cannot yet set down weapons and armor and release horses and dismiss troops, it is suitable to react to abundant years to then focus army and government on agricultural affairs. Officials and soldiers and small and great, must together diligently sow and reap. When stopping [from battle] complete and develop fields, when moving [to battle] complete and prepare the Six Armies, to decrease violence and forced labor, and provide clothes and food. The Yì says: ‘Using happiness to employ the people, the people forget their labor; using happiness to oppose disasters, the people forget death.’ Now is the time to use that. With provisions and livestock for food, the brave for power, then though when having glorious authority and yet the army has not yet moved, the barbarians outside control will certainly return to bow and change to return to use. If the fear of authority is effective, then without battle things can be settled, so worthy it is to be far from facing troops and only afterward establishing authority, meeting blades and only afterward completing achievement. If the treacherous and vicious do not reform, continuing to be lost without turning back, though they with oppression use their people, relying on our Great Wèi sending order to answer with troops, afterward we will advance with the army of first song and later dance and music campaign, face the enemy with the crowds of halberds and arrows and cheerful service, cut down the decayed and destroy the withered, and it would not be worthy speaking of.”

〔一〕 魏名臣奏載朗節省奏曰:「詔問所宜損益,必謂東京之事也。若夫西京雲陽、汾陰之大祭,千有五百之群,祀通天之臺,入阿房之宮,齋必百日,養犧五載,牛則三千,其重玉則七千;其器,文綺以飾重席,童女以蹈舞綴;釀酎必貫三時而後成,樂人必三千四百而後備;內宮美人數至近千,學官博士〔弟子〕七千餘人;中廄則騑騄駙馬六萬餘匹,外牧則扈養三萬而馬十之;執金吾從騎六百,走卒倍焉;太常行陵幸車千乘,太官賜官奴婢六千,長安城內治民為政者三千,中二千石蔽罪斷刑者二十有五獄。政充事猥,威儀繁富,隆於三代,近過禮中。夫所以極奢者,大抵多受之於秦餘。既違繭栗愨誠之本,掃地簡易之指,又失替質而損文、避泰而從約之趣。豈夫當今隆興盛明之時,祖述堯舜之際,割奢務儉之政,除繁崇省之令,詳刑慎罰之教,所宜希慕哉?及夫寢廟日一太牢之祀,郡國並立宗廟之法,丞相御史大夫官屬吏從之數,若此之輩,既已屢改於哀、平之前,不行光武之後矣。謹按圖牒所改奏,在天地及五帝、六宗、宗廟、社稷,既已因前代之兆域矣。夫天地則掃地而祭,其餘則皆壇而埒之矣。明堂所以祀上帝,靈臺所以觀天文,辟雍所以脩禮樂,太學所以集儒林,高禖所以祈休祥,又所以察時務,揚教化。稽古先民,開誕慶祚,舊時皆在國之陽,並高棟夏屋,足以(肆)〔肄〕饗射,望雲物。七郊雖尊祀尚質,猶皆有門宇便坐,足以避風雨。可須軍罷年豐,以漸脩治。舊時虎賁羽林五營兵,及衛士并合,雖且萬人,或商賈惰游子弟,或農野謹鈍之人;雖有乘制之處,不講戎陳,既不簡練,又希更寇,雖名實不副,難以備急。有警而後募兵,軍行而後運糧,或乃兵既久屯,而不務營佃,不脩器械,無有貯聚,一隅馳羽檄,則三面並荒擾,此亦漢氏近世之失而不可式者也。當今諸夏已安,而巴蜀在畫外。雖未得偃武而弢甲,放馬而戢兵,宜因年之大豐,遂寄軍政於農事。吏士小大,並勤稼穡,止則成井里於廣野,動則成校隊於六軍,省其暴繇,贍其衣食。易稱『悅以使民,民忘其勞;悅以犯難,民忘其死』,今之謂矣。糧畜於食,勇畜於勢,雖坐曜烈威而眾未動,畫外之蠻,必復稽顙以求改往而效用矣。若畏威效用,不戰而定,則賢於交兵而後威立,接刃而後功成遠矣。若姦凶不革,遂迷不反,猶欲以其所虐用之民,待大魏投命報養之士,然後徐以前歌後舞樂征之眾,臨彼倒戟折矢樂服之群,伐腐摧枯,未足以為喻。」

At the time the Emperor was inclined to going out on tour and to hunt, and sometimes late at night returned to the Palace. Lǎng sent up a memorial: “The residence of the ruler, outside employs surrounding defenses and inside has important forbidden gates. When going out then set up troops and only afterward leave the curtains, give notice and only afterward walk out the courtyard, spread the banner and only afterward board the carriage, clean the streets only afterward welcome the carriage, prepare arrangements and only afterward turn the wheels, ready the household and only afterward rest and stop. All this is to demonstrate the highest prestige, handle affairs with vigilance and caution, and this is the ways and teachings passed down. In recent days the Imperial Carriage goes out to face and hunt tigers, in the afternoon going, and at twilight returning. This is in violation of the normal ways of secure travel, and not the utmost caution of the Imperial Chariots.”

時帝頗出游獵,或昏夜還宮。朗上疏曰:「夫帝王之居,外則飾周衛,內則重禁門,將行則設兵而後出幄,稱警而後踐墀,張弧而後登輿,清道而後奉引,遮列而後轉轂,靜室而後息駕,皆所以顯至尊,務戒慎,垂法教也。近日車駕出臨捕虎,日昃而行,及昏而反,違警蹕之常法,非萬乘之至慎也。」

The Emperor replied: “Reading this memorial, even Wèi Jiàng speaking of worry and admonishment to mock Jìn Dào and [Sīmǎ] Xiāngrú explaining ferocious beasts to warn Hàn cannot compare with you. But considering now that the two bandits [Wú and Shǔ] are not yet destroyed, the commanders go far on campaign, therefore it is the time to enter wild plains to practice weapon preparations. As for the warning of returning at night, there is already an Imperial Order to officials to make preparations.” (2)

帝報曰:「覽表,雖魏絳稱虞箴以諷晉悼,相如陳猛獸以戒漢武,未足以喻。方今二寇未殄,將帥遠征,故時入原野以習戎備。至於夜還之戒,已詔有司施行。」〔二〕

  • (2) Wáng Lǎng’s Collected Works records when Lǎng was Grand Judge and sent up a memorial: “Registrar Zhāng Dēng of Zhào-jùn in the past was Registrar of his home county, the Black Mountain bandits besieged the prefecture, and Dēng with county Chief Wáng Juàn led officials and soldiers 72 men to go to the relief, with the bandits fought battle, and the officials and soldiers were scattered and fled. Juàn was in danger of coming to harm, and Dēng with his own hand cut down one bandit, and by this saved Juàn’s life. He also protected Chief Xià Yì who was by the Supervisor falsely accused. Dēng personally received the beating to handle Yì’s crime. With righteousness he saved two gentlemen. It is suitable to praise his special ability. Tàizǔ because emergencies were many did not have the leisure to reward what was narrated. At the beginning of Huángchū [220-226], Lǎng again with Grand Commandant Zhōng Yáo together signed and memorialized this story, both praising Dēng as hardworking in office. An Imperial Order said: “Dēng’s loyalty and righteousness is clear and proven, and in office he has merit and diligence. Though his fame and position are low, his uprightness should be made known. To bring in a nearby appointment in dining and obtain this official, now Dēng is appointed Director of Grand Offices.

〔二〕 王朗集載朗為大理時上主簿趙郡張登:「昔為本縣主簿,值黑山賊圍郡,登與縣長王雋帥吏兵七十二人直往赴救,與賊交戰,吏兵散走。雋殆見害,登手格一賊,以全雋命。又守長夏逸,為督郵所枉,登身受考掠,理逸之罪。義濟二君。宜加顯異。」太祖以所急者多,未遑擢敘。至黃初初,朗又與太尉鍾繇連名表聞,兼稱登在職勤勞。詔曰:「登忠義彰著,在職功勤。名位雖卑,直亮宜顯。饔膳近任,當得此吏。今以登為太官令。」


Previously, at the end of Jiàn’ān [196-220], Sūn Quán began sending envoys declaring himself vassal, and against Liú Bèi faced troops [in battle] An Imperial Order commented: “Should we dispatch an army to with Wú together conquer Shǔ or not?”

初,建安末,孫權始遣使稱藩,而與劉備交兵。詔議「當興師與吳并取蜀不」?

Lǎng commented: “The army of Heaven’s Son is as important as Huà and Dài [mountains], and truly should support the dazzling Heavenly authority by not moving like the mountains. Supposing if Quán personally with the Shǔ bandits are locked in stalemate, waging battle for many days, wisdom equal and strength matched, warfare unable to be quickly decided, then the army should rise to decide the situation, and afterward it is appropriate to select a cautious General, hold the bandit rebels’ critical points, judging the times and only after acting, choosing the field and only then moving, and in one move there would be no remaining problems. Now Quán’s army has not yet moved, so to assist Wú’s army is to be unable to advance the campaign. Moreover, rain and rivers are about to become heavy and flood, and it is not the time to march and move the armies.” The Emperor accepted this plan.

朗議曰:「天子之軍,重於華、岱,誠宜坐曜天威,不動若山。假使權親與蜀賊相持,搏戰曠日,智均力敵,兵不速決,當須軍興以成其勢者,然後宜選持重之將,承寇賊之要,相時而後動,擇地而後行,一舉更無餘事。今權之師未動,則助吳之軍無為先征。且雨水方盛,非行軍動眾之時。」帝納其計。

During Huángchū [220-226], pelicans gathered at Língzhī pond. An Imperial Order had the Excellencies and Ministers nominate solitary superior gentlemen. Lǎng recommended Grandee Official Yáng Biāo, and moreover claimed illness and wished to yield his position to Biāo. The Emperor therefore appointed Biāo an official with rank next after the Three Excellencies.

黃初中,鵜鶘集靈芝池,詔公卿舉獨行君子。朗薦光祿大夫楊彪,且稱疾,讓位於彪。帝乃為彪置吏卒,位次三公。

An Imperial Order said: “We sought worthies from you sir but have not yet obtained them. You then suddenly claimed illness, so not only were worthies not obtained, further it began a precedent for losing worthies, increasing the danger of jade and tripod [the state] being overturned. Is it not that to remain at home and go out with such words is not good, and be seen as disobedience by superior gentlemen? You sir must not resign.” Lǎng therefore rose [and returned to office].

詔曰:「朕求賢於君而未得,君乃翻然稱疾,非徒不得賢,更開失賢之路,增玉鉉之傾。無乃居其室出其言不善,見違於君子乎!君其勿有後辭。」朗乃起。


Sūn Quán was asked to send his son Dēng to enter as an Attendant, but he did not arrive. At the time the Imperial Chariot moved to Xǔchāng and greatly prepared garrison-farms, wishing to raise an army for an eastern campaign.

孫權欲遣子登入侍,不至。是時車駕徙許昌,大興屯田,欲舉軍東征。

Lǎng sent up a memorial: “In the past the southern Yuè maintained friendship, Yīng Qí entered Court as Attendant [and political hostage], and then became senior successor and returned to rule his state. Kāng Jū was arrogant and crafty, his intentions did not agree with his words. The Capital Protector memorialized to suggest that it was suitable to have him send a son as Attendant, and by this he was dismissed as lacking courtesy. Moreover in the disaster of Wú Bì, Méng sent his son to Court, and in the rebellion of Wěi Xiāo he also did so in spite of his son. Travelers hear that word that Quán has sent his son and yet he has not arrived. The Six Armies impose severe restrictions, and I your Servant fears the common men cannot cannot yet complete your Sagely Edicts, and will say the state is indignant that [Sūn] Dēng has fled to remain, and that is the reason for mobilizing the army. If the army is sent and Dēng then comes, then those we have moved is great, while those that have been moved is small, and this would not be something to celebrate. If they are arrogant and fierce, and indeed have no intention of sending [Sūn Dēng], then I fear the other public opinion will be that it is not broad, and he will remain at their land. I your Servant modestly believe it is suitable to to order separate campaigns for the various officers, each understanding prohibitions, cautiously defending their divisions. Outside demonstrate fierce authority, inside develop agriculture, to allow us to hold position like a mountain, calm and tranquil as a deep pool, so that power cannot move us, and plans cannot measure us.”

朗上疏曰:「昔南越守善,嬰齊入侍,遂為冢嗣,還君其國。康居驕黠,情不副辭,都護奏議以為宜遣侍子,以黜無禮。且吳濞之禍,萌於子入,隗囂之叛,亦不顧子。往者聞權有遣子之言而未至,今六軍戒嚴,臣恐輿人未暢聖旨,當謂國家慍於登之逋留,是以為之興師。設師行而登乃至,則為所動者至大,所致者至細,猶未足以為慶。設其傲狠,殊無入志,懼彼輿論之未暢者,並懷伊邑。臣愚以為宜敕別征諸將,各明奉禁令,以慎守所部。外曜烈威,內廣耕稼,使泊然若山,澹然若淵,勢不可動,計不可測。」

At the time the Emperor had prepared the army and thereupon went. Quán’s son did not arrive. The Imperial Chariot overlooked the Jiāng but returned. (1)

是時,帝以成軍遂行,權子不至,車駕臨江而還。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèishū “[History] Book of Wèi” states: When the Imperial Chariot returned, an Imperial Order to the Three Excellencies: “Three generations of Generals was what the Dào school feared. To recklessly use soldiers in dishonorable war from ancient times was warned against. Moreover for successive years there were flood and drought, the people are worn and tired, but meritorious workers increase at the front, conscripted labor increase from the past, advances cannot destroy the rebels, retreats do not give peace to the people. Negligence is above and awareness below, and therefore confusion and knowledge are reversed, the way is lost but not far, there are mistakes but they can be corrected, and it can be said it is not too late. Now the commanders are to rest, let [Liú] Bèi perch on high, [Sūn] Quán submerge behind deep pools, excise and abandon, and cast aside plans against the outside. The Imperial Chariot is to within this moon and week arrive at Qiáo. The armies about the Huái and Hàn [rivers] are also each to return, and before the last moon return west.”

〔一〕 魏書曰:車駕既還,詔三公曰:「三世為將,道家所忌。窮兵黷武,古有成戒。況連年水旱,士民損耗,而功作倍於前,勞役兼於昔,進不滅賊,退不和民。夫屋漏在上,知之在下,然迷而知反,失道不遠,過而能改,謂之不過。今將休息,棲備高山,沉權九淵,割除擯棄,投之畫外。車駕當以今月中旬到譙,淮、漢眾軍,亦各還反,不臘西歸矣。」


When Míng-dì ascended [226] he was advanced in fief to Marquis of Lánlíng, increased the fief by 500, adding with the previous to 1200 households. He was sent to Yè to inspect the tomb of Wén’s Zhāo empress [Lady Zhēn] and saw that of the commoners some did not have enough.

明帝即位,進封蘭陵侯,增邑五百,并前千二百戶。使至鄴省文昭皇后陵,見百姓或有不足。

At the time there were building of barracks and repairs of Palaces. Lǎng sent up a memorial:

“Since Your Majesty ascended, gracious Imperial Edicts have repeatedly been issued, and of the common people none are not pleased. I your Servant soon accept orders to travel north, and on the return journey on the road, heard that many were conscripted labor, and those who could obtain exemptions and reductions were very many. One hopes Your Majesty will again remain vigilant in days and afternoons, to plan to control the bandits.

“In the past Dà Yǔ wished to remove a great misfortune of the realm Under Heaven, and therefore first kept an inferior Palace, was frugal in clothes and food, so was able to in the end gain the Nine Provinces and assistance of all Five Domains.

“Gōujiàn wished to increase the border to Yù’ér, (1) and slay Fūchāi at Gūsū, and therefore also reduced himself and house, restraining his house to give benefit to the state, and so was able to unite the Five Lakes and engulf the Three Rivers, and take authority over the central states, settling hegemony over civilization.

  • (1) Yù’ér is a place name of a garrison next to the Wú border.

〔一〕 禦兒,吳界邊戍之地名。

“Hàn Wén [Liú Héng -180-157] and Jǐng [Liú Qǐ -157-141] also wished to expand their ancestor’s enterprise, and increase the esteem of their great lineage, and therefore were able to remove their wish for a hundred gold terrace, and manifest frugality with coarse black clothes, inside reducing great offices and not accepting tribute, outside reducing conscription and taxes and supporting farming and silk production, so that they were able to praised for prosperity and peace, so there were few punishments and wrongs. The reason Xiào-Wǔ [Liú Chè -141-87] was able to exert his military strength and expand his outer borders, was truly because his grandfather and father raised and gathered sufficient resources, and therefore he was able to then complete his great achievement.

“Huò Qùbìng was a General of middle ability, but as the Xiōngnú were not yet destroyed, he would not manage a household.

“One to illuminate and bring relief to the distance must omit the near, and those managing outside affairs must simplify the inside. From Hàn’s founding and restoration, it was always after metal and hide [armor] were laid down, and only then that Fèngquē had plentiful structures and Déyáng was also raised.

“Now the front of Jiànshǐ is sufficient to arrange Court meetings, the rear of Chónghuá is sufficient to use to arrange Inner Officials [the harem], Huálín and Tiānyuān are sufficient for tours and feasts, and if moreover if first completed is the Watchtower over the Palace Gates, it will cause it to be sufficient to arrange for those presenting tribute from distant peoples, and repairing city walls and moats will cause it to be sufficient to use for cut off paths and complete state defenses. The rest altogether must wait for prosperous years. In the meantime diligently attend to plowing and farming as business, practice military preparations as matters, and then the state will have no complaints or neglects, the population can grow and rest, the people are satisfied and troops strong, and the bandits fight and do not submit, but it is not sufficient yet to take them, and it is not there yet.”

是時方營修宮室,朗上疏曰:「陛下即位已來,恩詔屢布,百姓萬民莫不欣欣。臣頃奉使北行,往反道路,聞眾徭役,其可得蠲除省減者甚多。願陛下重留日昃之聽,以計制寇。昔大禹將欲拯天下之大患,故乃先卑其宮室,儉其衣食,用能盡有九州,弼成五服。句踐欲廣其禦兒之疆,〔一〕馘夫差於姑蘇,故亦約其身以及家,儉其家以施國,用能囊括五湖,席卷三江,取威中國,定霸華夏。漢之文、景亦欲恢弘祖業,增崇洪緒,故能割意於百金之臺,昭儉於弋綈之服,內減太官而不受貢獻,外省徭賦而務農桑,用能號稱升平,幾致刑錯。孝武之所以能奮其軍勢,拓其外境,誠因祖考畜積素足,故能遂成大功。霍去病,中才之將,猶以匈奴未滅,不治第宅。明卹遠者略近,事外者簡內。自漢之初及其中興,皆於金革略寢之後,然後鳳闕猥閌,德陽並起。今當建始之前足用列朝會,崇華之後足用序內官,華林、天淵足用展游宴,若且先成閶闔之象魏,使足用列遠人之朝貢者,脩城池,使足用絕踰越,成國險,其餘一切,且須豐年。一以勤耕農為務,習戎備為事,則國無怨曠,戶口滋息,民充兵彊,而寇戎不賓,緝熙不足,未之有也。」

He was promoted to Excellency over the Masses.

轉為司徒。


At the time repeatedly Imperial sons were lost, and yet visits to those in the Rear Palace [the harem] were few. Lǎng sent up a memorial:

時屢失皇子,而後宮就館者少,朗上疏曰:

“In the past Zhōu Wén[-wáng] at fifteen begat Wǔ-wáng, and then enjoyed the blessing of ten sons, and by this expanded the posterity of all the Jī [clan]. Wǔ-wáng was already old when he begat Chéng-wáng, and Chéng-wáng therefore had few brothers. These two Kings each cultivated sagely virtue, had no mutual wrongs, and considering the blessings of their descendants they cannot be compared. In births there are the early and the late, and in wombs there are [those that produce] many and few. Your Majesty has virtue and blessing like those two sages, but the seasons have exceeded the time of Jī Wén[-wáng] raising [-wáng], and yet sons have not yet been raised up in the orchids of the forbidden rooms, the cadet Kings are not yet numerous in the many rooms of the Lateral Courts. Considering the example of Chéng-wáng, though it is not yet considered late, taking the example of Bóyì would not be considered early.

“In the Zhōu Rites there were Six Palaces and the Inner Officials [harem women] were 120 women. The various Classics frequently advise that 12 be the limit. Up to the end of Qín and Hàn, some had thousands and hundreds as their number. Therefore even though in the inner places there are many, yet the times of visiting the apartments are very rare, this is the meaning of “all these males,” and truly is of importance, not only broad affairs. This old servant is already declining, and hopes this state may have the same blessings as Xuānyuán’s 5 times 5 [25 sons], or at least Zhōu Wén’s 2 times 5 [10 sons], to serve as support.

“Moreover the young ones often suffer bedclothes that are too warm, too warm leading to them being unable to move and having soft skin and weak body, and therefore they are difficult to protect, and easy to lead to sorrow. If it is always ordered that young ones have hemp clothes, that is not so thick, then it will certainly all protect a strong nature, and they will certainly be as long lived as the southern mountains.”

「昔周文十五而有武王,遂享十子之祚,以廣諸姬之胤。武王既老而生成王,成王是以鮮於兄弟。此二王者,各樹聖德,無以相過,比其子孫之祚,則不相如。蓋生育有早晚,所產有眾寡也。陛下既德祚兼彼二聖,春秋高於姬文育武之時矣,而子發未舉於椒蘭之奧房,藩王未繁於掖庭之眾室。以成王為喻,雖未為晚,取譬伯邑,則不為夙。周禮六宮內官百二十人,而諸經常說,咸以十二為限,至於秦漢之末,或以千百為數矣。然雖彌猥,而就時於吉館者或甚鮮,明『百斯男』之本,誠在於一意,不但在於務廣也。老臣慺慺,願國家同祚於軒轅之五五,而未及周文之二五,用為伊邑。且少小常苦被褥泰溫,泰溫則不能便柔膚弱體,是以難可防護,而易用感慨。若常令少小之縕袍,不至於甚厚,則必咸保金石之性,而比壽於南山矣。」

The Emperor answered:

“Words of the loyal are trustworthy and speech of the caring are deep. You sir have both toiled and thought carefully, and also with your own hand written with reason, three times again given virtuous word, and I am pleased without measure. Our heir is not yet established, and this is your worry, but I have received these words, and think of your good admonishment.”

帝報曰:「夫忠至者辭篤,愛重者言深。君既勞思慮,又手筆將順,三復德音,欣然無量。朕繼嗣未立,以為君憂,欽納至言,思聞良規。」

Lǎng wrote on the , Chūnqiū, Xiàojīng, Zhōuguānzhuàn, presented a memorial discussing the writings, and each were passed on through the ages. (1)

朗著易、春秋、孝經、周官傳,奏議論記,咸傳於世。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèilüè states: Lǎng was originally named Yán, later changed to Lǎng.
  • Wèishū states: Lǎng had high ability and wide learning, but by nature was orderly and generous, often with awe-inspiring manner, respectful and frugal and economical, and at his own wedding presented gifts and would not receive them. He always ridiculed the worldly who had reputation for liking to give and yet did not provide relief to the poor and lowly, and therefore used his wealth to first provide for emergency relief.

〔一〕 魏略曰:朗本名嚴,後改為朗。魏書曰:朗高才博雅,而性嚴整慷慨,多威儀,恭儉節約,自婚姻中表禮贄無所受。常譏世俗有好施之名,而不卹窮賤,故用財以周急為先

Tàihé second year [228] he died, posthumous name Chéng-hóu “Accomplished Marquis.” His son Sù succeeded. Previously Wén-dì divided Lǎng’s fief to give fief to one son as a full Marquis, but Lǎng instead asked the fief instead go to his elder brother’s son Xiáng.

太和二年薨,諡曰成侯。子肅嗣。初,文帝分朗戶邑,封一子列侯,朗乞封兄子詳。

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