(56.2) Zhū Rán 朱然 [Yìfēng 義封]

Shī Jì 施績 [Gōngxù 公緒]


Zhū Rán appellation Yìfēng was [Zhū] Zhì’s elder sister’s son, originally surnamed Shī. Previously Zhì had not yet had sons, and Rán was thirteen years, so therefore he asked [Sūn] Cè to request to take [Zhū Rán] as his heir. Cè ordered Dānyáng prefecture to prepare rams and wine and summon Rán. Rán arrived at Wú, and Cè used special ceremony to congratulate him.

朱然字義封,治姊子也,本姓施氏。初治未有子,然年十三,乃啟策乞以為嗣。策命丹楊郡以羊酒召然,然到吳,策優以禮賀。


Rán once studied together with [Sūn] Quán, and they became very friendly and loving. When Quán took over affairs [200], Rán was appointed Chief of Yúyáo, at the time aged nineteen years. Later he was transferred to Magistrate of Shānyīn, with additional office as Colonel Breaking Charges with command over five counties. Quán was impressed with his ability, and divided Dānyáng to form Línchuān prefecture, with Rán as its Administrator, (1) and awarded him 2000 troops.

然嘗與權同學書,結恩愛。至權統事,以然為餘姚長,時年十九。後遷山陰令,加折衝校尉,督五縣。權奇其能,分丹楊為臨川郡,然為太守,〔一〕授兵二千人。

  • (1) Your Servant Sōngzhī comments: This prefecture was abolished, and is not the current Línchuān prefecture.

At the time mountain bandits were growing stronger and rising up. Rán attacked to pacify them, and between ten days and a moon they were settled. Excellency Cáo set out against Rúxū. Rán prepared a large wall and three gate garrisons, and was appointed Assistant-General.

會山賊盛起,然平討,旬月而定。曹公出濡須,然備大塢及三關屯,拜偏將軍。

Jiàn’ān twenty-fourth year [219], he followed in attacking Guān Yǔ, leading a separate command with Pān Zhāng to arrive at Línjǔ and capturing Yǔ. He was promoted to General Manifesting Martial Ability with fief as Marquis of Xī’ān village.

建安二十四年,從討關羽,別與潘璋到臨沮禽羽,遷昭武將軍,封西安鄉侯。


General of Tiger Might Lǚ Méng was critically ill. Quán asked: “If you cannot rise, who can act on your behalf?”

虎威將軍呂蒙病篤,權問曰:「卿如不起,誰可代者?」

Méng answered: “Zhū Rán has abundant guts and integrity. I believe he can be appointed.”

蒙對曰:「朱然膽守有餘,愚以為可任。」

Méng died. Quán gave Rán Acting Staff of Authority to defend Jiānglíng.

蒙卒,權假然節,鎮江陵。

Huángwǔ first year [222], Liú Bèi led troops to attack Yídū. Rán commanded 5000 men to join strength with Lù Xùn to resist Bèi. Rán led a separate command to attack and destroy Bèi’s front lines and cut off his rear lines. Bèi was therefore defeated and fled. He was promoted to General Attacking the North with fief as Marquis of Yǒng’ān.

黃武元年,劉備舉兵攻宜都,然督五千人與陸遜并力拒備。然別攻破備前鋒,斷其後道,備遂破走。拜征北將軍,封永安侯。


Wèi sent Cáo Zhēn, Xiàhóu Shàng, Zhāng Hé, and others to attack Jiānglíng. Wèi Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] personally occupied Wǎn to serve as reserve support, and the line of camps surrounded the city. Quán sent General Sūn Shèng to command 10,000 men to make preparations on an islet, and establish an encircling wall, to serve as outside support for Rán. [Zhāng] Hé ferried troops across to attack [Sūn] Shèng. Shèng could not resist, and immediately retreated. Hé occupied the islet fortifications, and Rán’s connections to the outside were cut off. Quán sent Pān Zhāng, Yáng Càn, and others to relieve [the siege], but the siege could not be relieved.

魏遣曹真、夏侯尚、張郃等攻江陵,魏文帝自住宛,為其勢援,連屯圍城。權遣將軍孫盛督萬人備州上,立圍塢,為然外救。郃渡兵攻盛,盛不能拒,即時卻退,郃據州上圍守,然中外斷絕。權遣潘璋、楊粲等解〔圍〕而圍不解。

At the time among Rán’s troops in the city many suffered swelling illness, and those that could fight were reduced to 5000 men. [Cáo] Zhēn and others raised up earthen mounds, dug tunnels, established tower turrets, and shot arrows into the city pouring down like rain. The troops all lost color [in fear], but Rán was calm as if he had no fear, urged on his officials and troops, and waited for an opening to attack and destroy two camps.

時然城中兵多腫病,堪戰者裁五千人。真等起土山,鑿地道,立樓櫓,臨城弓矢雨注,將士皆失色,然晏如而無恐意,方厲吏士,伺閒隙攻破兩屯。

Wèi attacked and besieged Rán for six moons, and had not yet withdrawn. Magistrate of Jiānglíng. Yáo Tài led troops to prepare the city’s north gate, saw that the troops outside were strong while the people inside the city were few, the grain provisions were about to be exhausted, and therefore communicated with the enemy, plotting to support them from the inside. When it was about to happen, the plot was discovered, and Rán killed Tài. [Xiàhóu] Shàng and the others could not overcome them, and therefore ended the attack and withdrew. Because of this Rán’s name shook the enemy state, and his fief was changed to Marquis of Dāngyáng.

魏攻圍然凡六月日,未退。江陵令姚泰領兵備城北門,見外兵盛,城中人少,穀食欲盡,因與敵交通,謀為內應。垂發,事覺,然治戮泰。尚等不能克,乃徹攻退還。由是然名震於敵國,改封當陽侯。


Sixth year [227], Quán personally led an army to attack Shíyáng. When they were returning, Pān Zhāng was cutoff in the rear. In the night there was confusion, and the enemy pursued and attacked Zhāng, and Zhāng could not resist them. Rán at once returned to resist the enemy, sent ahead the ships and waited until they were far, and only at the end set off [himself].

六年,權自率眾攻石陽,及至旋師,潘璋斷後。夜出錯亂,敵追擊璋,璋不能禁。然即還住拒敵,使前船得引極遠,徐乃後發。

Huánglóng first year [229] he was appointed General of Chariots and Cavalry, Right Protector of the Army, with office as Governor of Yǎnzhōu. Shortly afterward, as Yǎnzhōu was in Shǔ’s portion [of the planned division of Wèi between Shǔ and Wú], he left office as Governor.

黃龍元年,拜車騎將軍、右護軍,領兗州牧。頃之,以兗州在蜀分,解牧職。


Jiāhé third year [234] Quán and Shǔ at the same time greatly raised [troops]. Quán himself went toward Xīnchéng. Rán and Quán Cóng each received Battle-Axes of Authority as Left and Right Commanders. At the time among the officials and soldiers there was disease, and therefore before they even attacked they retreated.

嘉禾三年,權與蜀克期大舉,權自向新城,然與全琮各受斧鉞,為左右督。會吏士疾病,故未攻而退。


Chìwū fifth year [242] he attacked Zūzhōng. (1) Wèi Generals Pú Zhōng and Hú Zhì each commanded several thousand men. Zhōng occupied strategic rugged passes, planning to cut off Rán’s rear. Zhì served as Zhōng’s support.

赤烏五年,征柤中,〔一〕魏將蒲忠、胡質各將數千人,忠要遮險隘,圖斷然後,質為忠繼援。

  • (1) Xiāngyángjì states: Zū is pronounced as Zū in Zūshuì “land tax.” Zūzhōng is at the border of Shànghuáng, 150 lǐ from Xiāngyáng. In the time of Wèi, the foreigner chieftain Méifū and his brothers, three people, commanded retainers of over ten thousand households and garrisoned there, scattered in huts west of Yíchéng in the hills and Yān and Miǎn two valleys. The land is flat and spacious, suitable for growing mulberry and hemp, and the water and land is good for growing fields. The wet and fertile soil south of the Miǎn is called Zūzhōng.

〔一〕 襄陽記曰:柤音如租稅之租。柤中在上黃界,去襄陽一百五十里。魏時夷王梅敷兄弟三人,部曲萬餘家屯此,分布在中廬宜城西山鄢、沔二谷中,土地平敞,宜桑麻,有水陸良田,沔南之膏腴沃壤,謂之柤中。

At the time, the troops and officers Rán commanded were scattered in all directions, but when he heard he did not summon them back, instead commanding those under his banner numbering 800 men in a surprise attack. Zhōng fought battle but was unsuccessful, and Zhì and the rest retreated. (2)

時然所督兵將先四出,聞問不暇收合,便將帳下見兵八百人逆掩。忠戰不利,質等皆退。〔二〕

  • (2) Sūnshì Yìtóngpíng states: The Wèishū and Jiāngbiǎozhuàn say that Rán in Jǐngchū first year [237] and Zhèngshǐ second year [241] again set out to plunder, and the defeat of Hú Zhì and Pú Zhōng was in Jǐngchū first year [237]. The Wèizhì [SGZ 1-30] follows Wèishū, but deviates and does not say that Zhì and the rest were defeated by Rán, instead only saying Rán retreated and that is all. The Wúzhì [SGZ 46-60] says in Chìwū fifth year, which was Wèi’s Zhèngshǐ third year, Wèi General Pú Zhōng and Zhū Rán fought, Zhōng was unsuccessful, and Zhì and the rest all retreated. According to Wèi Shàodìjì [SGZ 4] and the biography of Sūn Quán [SGZ 47], in that year both have no such matter, so this is Chén Shòu‘s error in making Jiāhé sixth year [237] into Chìwū fifth year [242] and that is all.

〔二〕 孫氏異同評曰:(魏志)〔魏書〕及江表傳云然以景初元年、正始二年再出為寇,所破胡質、蒲忠在景初元年。魏志承魏書,依違不說質等為然所破,而直云然退耳。吳志說赤烏五年,於魏為正始三年,魏將蒲忠與朱然戰,忠不利,質等皆退。按魏少帝紀及孫權傳,是歲並無事,當是陳壽誤以吳嘉禾六年為赤烏五年耳。

Ninth year [246], he again attacked Zūzhōng. Wèi General Lǐ Xīng and others heard that Rán had penetrated deeply, and led 6000 infantry and cavalry to cut off Rán’s rear lines. Rán in the night set out and opposed them, and his army was victorious and returned.

九年,復征柤中,魏將李興等聞然深入,率步騎六千斷然後道,然夜出逆之,軍以勝反。

Before this, the defector Mǎ Mào plotted treason, was discovered and executed, and Quán deeply hated him. Rán when he was about to set out sent up a memorial: “This despicable Mǎ Mào dared to betray such favor and care. I your servant now follow your Heavenly authority and receiving your grace will certainly overcome and be victorious, and wish to gain victories to shake and dazzle far and near, block the Jiāng with warships to create a magnificent sight, in order to relieve the anger of the high and low. May Your Majesty remember I your servant’s previous words when considering I your servant’s later deeds.”

先是,歸義馬茂懷姦,覺誅,權深忿之。然臨行上疏曰:「馬茂小子,敢負恩養。臣今奉天威,事蒙克捷,欲令所獲,震耀遠近,方舟塞江,使足可觀,以解上下之忿。惟陛下識臣先言,責臣後效。」

Quán at the time his the memorial and did not let it out. When Rán presented his victory, all the ministers sent up congratulations. Quán therefore prepared a drinking [feast] and made merry, and sent out Rán’s memorial, saying: “This is his previous memorial. I thought it would be difficult [for him to achieve his] desire, but now it is indeed as he said. He can be said to clearly understand affairs.” He sent an envoy to promote Rán to Left Marshal-in-Chief and Right Master of the Army.

權時抑表不出。然既獻捷,群臣上賀,權乃舉酒作樂,而出然表曰:「此家前初有表,孤以為難必,今果如其言,可謂明於見事也。」遣使拜然為左大司馬、右軍師。


Rán’s height did not reach seven chǐ [~1.6m], in his dealings he was clear and open, was moral and pure in conduct. His grace and talents were only devoted to military affairs, and in all other areas he was unadorned. He was respectful all day long, was always on the battlefield, faced danger with guts and determination, exceptional over all other men. Even if at the time there were no affairs, every morning and night he sternly drummed, and the troops in his camp were all prepared in formation, and because of this he bewildered his enemies, causing them to not know how to prepare, and therefore whenever he set out he at once had achievement.

然長不盈七尺,氣候分明,內行脩絜,其所文采,惟施軍器,餘皆質素。終日欽欽,常在戰場,臨急膽定,尤過絕人,雖世無事,每朝夕嚴鼓,兵在營者,咸行裝就隊,以此玩敵,使不知所備,故出輒有功。

Zhūgě Jǐn’s son Róng and Bù Zhì’s son Xié, though each inherited appointments, Quán specially employed Rán as their chief commander. Furthermore when Lù Xùn died, the accomplished ministers and famed generals believed that with only Rán remaining none could compare to his greatness.

諸葛瑾子融、步騭子協,雖各襲任,權特復使然總為大督。又陸遜亦(本)〔卒〕,功臣名將存者惟然,莫與比隆。

He was bedridden with illness for two years, and later it gradually became more serious. Quán in the day ate less and in the night could not sleep soundly, all the while sending envoys to offer medicine to eat and staring at the road [to wait for replies]. Every time Rán sent an envoy memorializing the condition of his illness, Quán would at once summon [the envoy] to meet, with his own mouth ask questions, bestowing food and drink as they came and gifting cloth and silk as they left. In the illness of his ministers accomplished in establishing his enterprise, Quán was deeply concerned, with Lǚ Méng and Líng Tǒng as the most, and Rán the next.

寢疾二年,後漸增篤,權晝為減膳,夜為不寐,中使醫藥口食之物,相望於道。然每遣使表疾病消息,權輒召見,口自問訊,入賜酒食,出送布帛。自創業功臣疾病,權意之所鍾,呂蒙、淩統最重,然其次矣。

Aged sixty-eight years, Chìwū twelfth year [249] he died. Quán wore white [mourning] clothes and was mournful, and greatly grieved for him. His son Jì succeeded.

年六十八,赤烏十二年卒,權素服舉哀,為之感慟。子績嗣。


Jì appellation Gōngxù. Due to his father he was appointed as Gentleman, and later appointed Colonel Establishing Loyalty. His father’s younger brother Cái died, and Jì took command of his troops, and followed Minister of Ceremonies Pān Jùn in attacking Wǔxī, and was for his guts and strength praised. He was promoted to Assistant-General camp lower command, with authority over bandit affairs, and in applying the law he was impartial. The King of Lǔ [Sūn] took note of Jì, and once visited his office, at once sitting, wishing to befriend Jì. Jì rose and remained standing, declining as it was inappropriate [for them to act like equals by sitting together].

績字公緒,以父任為郎,後拜建忠都尉。叔父才卒,績領其兵,隨太常潘濬討五溪,以膽力稱。遷偏將軍營下督,領盜賊事,持法不傾。魯王霸注意交績,嘗至其廨,就之坐,欲與結好,績下地住立,辭而不當。

Rán died [249]. Jì inherited his work, and was appointed General Pacifying Wèi and Commander of Lèxiāng.

然卒,績襲業,拜平魏將軍,樂鄉督。

Next year [250], Wèi General Attacking the South Wáng Chǎng led an army to attack Jiānglíng city, could not overcome it and retreated. Jì wrote a letter to General Exerting Authority Zhūgě Róng that said: “Chǎng came from afar and was fatigued, his horses had nothing to eat, his strength failed and he fled. This was the assistance of Heaven. Now if we pursue them when their strength is little, we can lead troops and take them. I wish to break through at the front, and you sir can take advantage of this from the rear. How can this be the achievement of one man? It is suitable for us to together righteously break metal.” Róng answered to permit Jì.

明年,魏征南將軍王昶率眾攻江陵城,不克而退。績與奮威將軍諸葛融書曰:「昶遠來疲困,馬無所食,力屈而走,此天助也。今追之力少,可引兵相繼,吾欲破之於前,足下乘之於後,豈一人之功哉,宜同斷金之義。」融答許績。

Jì then summoned troops and met with Chǎng at Jǐnán. Jǐnán was thirty lǐ from the city. Jì first fought and was successful but Róng did not advance, and Jì later was defeated. Quán deeply praised Jì, and was exceedingly critical and angry at Róng. Róng’s elder brother General-in-Chief Kè was esteemed and important, and therefore Róng was not dismissed. Previously Jì with Kè and Róng were not friendly, and after this incident, their discord became very deep.

績便引兵及昶於紀南,紀南去城三十里,績先戰勝而融不進,績後失利。權深嘉績,盛責怒融,融兄大將軍恪貴重,故融得不廢。初績與恪、融不平,及此事變,為隙益甚。

Jiànxīng Inaugural Year [252] he was promoted to General Defending the East.

建興元年,遷鎮東將軍。

Second year spring, Kè headed toward Xīnchéng and summoned Jì to join their strength, but had him remain at Bànzhōu and sent Róng to take over his post. Winter, Kè and Róng were killed. Jì returned to Lèxiāng and was given Acting Staff of Authority.

二年春,恪向新城,要績并力,而留置半州,使融兼其任。冬,恪、融被害,績復還樂鄉,假節。

Tàipíng second year [257] he was promoted to General of Elite Cavalry. Sūn Chēn controlled the government. All the great ministers suspected and betrayed [one another]. Jì feared that Wú would certainly be disturbed and the central states [Wèi] would take the opportunity to attack, so he therefore secretly wrote a letter to Shǔ, explaining their fear of being conquered. Shǔ sent General of the Right Yán Yǔ to lead 5000 troops to increase the defense at Báidì, to wait for Jì’s later orders.

太平二年,拜驃騎將軍。孫綝秉政,大臣疑貳,績恐吳必擾亂,而中國乘釁,乃密書結蜀,使為并兼之慮。蜀遣右將軍閻宇將兵五千,增白帝守,以須績之後命。

At the beginning of Yǒng’ān [258-264], he was promoted to General-in-Chief and and Regional Protector Commander, moving from Bāqiū up[stream] to Xīlíng.

永安初,遷上大將軍、都護督,自巴丘上迄西陵。

Yuánxīng first year [264] he was at once promoted to Left Marshal-in-Chief.

元興元年,就拜左大司馬。

Previously, after Rán had completed mourning for Zhì, he asked to return to his original surname, but Quán would not permit this. Jì during Wǔfèng [254-256] memorialized to return to the Shī surname. Jiànhéng second year [270] he died.

初,然為治行喪竟,乞復本姓,權不許,績以五鳳中表還為施氏,建衡二年卒。

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