(11.1) Yuán Huàn 袁渙 [Yàoqīng 曜卿]

Yuán Huàn appellation Yàoqīng was a Chén-jùn Fúyuè man. His father [Yuán] Pāng was a Hàn Excellency Over the Masses. (1) At the time of the various Excellencies’ sons many violated the law, but Huàn was honest and tranquil, and in any action was always in accordance with courtesy.

袁渙字曜卿,陳郡扶樂人也。父滂,為漢司徒。〔一〕當時諸公子多越法度,而渙清靜,舉動必以禮。

  • (1) Yuán Hóng’s Hànjì states: Pāng appellation Gōngxī was pure in nature and had few desires, and to the end would not speak of the shortcomings of others. At the time those in power and favor were flourishing, and some who were of agreement or disagreement came to disaster, but Pāng alone maintained neutrality at Court, and therefore the favor and enmity did not reach him.

〔一〕 袁宏漢紀曰:滂字公熙,純素寡欲,終不言人之短。當權寵之盛,或以同異致禍,滂獨中立於朝,故愛憎不及焉。

The prefecture appointed him Merit Officer, and in the prefecture all the treacherous officials all by themselves resigned and left. Later he was recruited to the Offices of the Excellencies, reached high rank, and promoted to Attendant Censorate. He was sent out as Magistrate of Qiáo, but did not reach it. While Liú Bèi was at Yùzhōu, he nominated Huàn as Abundant Talent. Later he fled to the lands between the Jiāng and Huái, and from Yuán Shù received appointment. Whenever [Yuán] Shù had a discussion, Huàn always had an upright comment that Shù could not refute, but respected him and did not dare be without courtesy.

郡命為功曹,郡中姦吏皆自引去。後辟公府,舉高第,遷侍御史。除譙令,不就。劉備之為豫州,舉渙茂才。後避地江、淮間,為袁術所命。術每有所咨訪,渙常正議,術不能抗,然敬之不敢不禮也。

Shortly after this, Lǚ Bù attacked [Yuán] Shù at Fùlíng. Huàn had gone to accompany [Yuán Shù], and therefore was by [Lǚ] Bù detained. [Lǚ] Bù had previously with Liú Bèi been allied and close, but later they became estranged. [Lǚ] Bù wished to have Huàn write a letter to curse and insult [Liú] Bèi, but Huàn would not, so [Lǚ Bù] repeatedly tried to force him, but he would not agree.

頃之,呂布擊術於阜陵,渙往從之,遂復為布所拘留。布初與劉備和親,後離隙。布欲使渙作書詈辱備,渙不可,再三彊之,不許。

[Lǚ] Bù was greatly angry, and with weapons threatened Huàn and said: “If you do it you live. If you do not do it you die.”

布大怒,以兵脅渙曰:「為之則生,不為則死。」

Huàn’s countenance did not change. He laughed and answered him: “I have heard only that virtue can shame someone, never that insults can. If he is in fact a superior gentleman, then he will not be shamed by your words, General. If he is in fact a petty man, then he will reply [with his own insults] to you, General, and then the shame will be here with you and not with him. Moreover I in a past day served General Liú [Bèi], but today serve you General. If sometime I leave here, and turn back to insult you General, would that be right?”

渙顏色不變,笑而應之曰:「渙聞唯德可以辱人,不聞以罵。使彼固君子邪,且不恥將軍之言,彼誠小人邪,將復將軍之意,則辱在此不在於彼。且渙他日之事劉將軍,猶今日之事將軍也,如一旦去此,復罵將軍,可乎?」

[Lǚ] Bù was ashamed and stopped.

布慚而止。


[Lǚ] Bù was executed [198] and Huàn joined Tàizǔ [Cáo Cāo]. (1)

布誅,渙得歸太祖。〔一〕

  • (1) Yuánshì Shìjì “Yuán Clan’s Generational Records” states: [Lǚ] Bù was destroyed, Chén Qún father and son at the time were also in [Lǚ] Bù’s army, and when they met Tàizǔ they all bowed. Huàn alone remained standing and [only] saluted without great courtesy, and Tàizǔ was deeply impressed by him. At the time Tàizǔ also gave to the army officials each several chariots, to send them to take [Lǚ] Bù’s army’s materials, whatever they wanted. Everyone all took heavy loads, but Huàn only took books of several hundred scrolls and some provisions and nothing more. Everyone heard of this, and was greatly ashamed. Huàn said to his relatives: “If I am to travel the battle lines and with the army to set out I would collect provisions and nothing more, and not take this rest for personal ownership. That this has given me a reputation, I greatly regret it.” Tàizǔ increased his respect for him.

〔一〕 袁氏世紀曰:布之破也,陳群父子時亦在布之軍,見太祖皆拜。渙獨高揖不為禮,太祖甚嚴憚之。時太祖又給眾官車各數乘,使取布軍中物,唯其所欲。眾人皆重載,唯渙取書數百卷。資糧而已,眾人聞之,大慚。渙謂所親曰:「脫我以行陳,令軍發足以為行糧而已,不以此為我有。由是厲名也,大悔恨之。」太祖益以此重焉。

Huàn advised him: “Warfare is a dangerous tool, for only when one cannot help it to be used. Beat war-drums by moral principles, campaign by benevolence and justice, comfort the people and remove their sufferings. Only then can you with them die and with them live. Since the great chaos came over ten years have passed, the people wish for security, are deeply hanging down in distress, but the terrible chaos has no relief. Why is this? Perhaps government has lost its way! I have heard the enlightened lord is good at saving the world, so when the world is in chaos they settle it with justice, when it is false then they preserve it with simplicity. When the world is different matters change, and governing the state cannot be the same, and this cannot be not considered. The system’s losses and benefits, in the past or now do not have to be the same. If one can give universal love to the realm and set it upright, though military power can pacify chaos and relieve it with virtue, it is truly a principle not a hundred Kings can change. Your Excellency’s enlightenment and wisdom surpasses all others, and what the ancients used to obtain the people, your Excellency has already diligently used, and what the present has that lost the people, your Excellency has already removed. Within the Seas depends on your Excellency in order to be saved from danger and destruction, but the people do not yet know justice, and if only your Excellency can instruct them, then the realm Under Heaven will deeply prosper!”

渙言曰:「夫兵者,凶器也,不得已而用之。鼓之以道德,征之以仁義,兼撫其民而除其害。夫然,故可與之死而可與之生。自大亂以來十數年矣,民之欲安,甚於倒懸,然而暴亂未息者,何也?意者政失其道歟!渙聞明君善于救世,故世亂則齊之以義,時偽則鎮之以樸;世異事變,治國不同,不可不察也。夫制度損益,此古今之不必同者也。若夫兼愛天下而反之於正,雖以武平亂而濟之以德,誠百王不易之道也。公明哲超世,古之所以得其民者,公既勤之矣,今之所以失其民者,公既戒之矣,海內賴公,得免於危亡之禍,然而民未知義,其惟公所以訓之,則天下幸甚!」

Tàizǔ deeply accepted this, and appointed him Commandant of Pèi’s southern part.

太祖深納焉。拜為沛南部都尉。


At the time they had newly recruited people to start Garrison-Farms, the people were not happy, and many fled away. Huàn explained to Tàizǔ: “The people feel safe in their lands and treat moving as serious, cannot be suddenly changed, are easy in what they are willing, but difficult when they oppose. It is suitable to follow their wishes, only when they are happy to select them, and the unhappy are not to be forced.” Tàizǔ followed this, and the common people were greatly pleased.

是時新募民開屯田,民不樂,多逃亡。渙白太祖曰:「夫民安土重遷,不可卒變,易以順行,難以逆動,宜順其意,樂之者乃取,不欲者勿彊。」太祖從之,百姓大悅。

He was promoted to Chancellor of Liáng. Huàn always ordered the various counties: “You must care for widowers, widowed, aged, and commend filial sons and pure women. It is often said: ‘When the world is governed then courtesy is comprehensive, when the world is chaotic then courtesy is simple.’ This is to be always considered and that is all. Though now is still disturbed, and difficult to develop courtesy, yet this is what we serve for.”

遷為梁相。渙每敕諸縣:「務存鰥寡高年,表異孝子貞婦。常談曰『世治則禮詳,世亂則禮簡』,全在斟酌之閒耳。方今雖擾攘,難以禮化,然在吾所以為之。」

In government he esteemed teaching and instruction, considered and thought first and only afterward acted, outside was warm and agreeable but inside was decisive. (1) Due to illness he resigned office, and the common people missed him.

為政崇教訓,恕思而後行,外溫柔而內能斷。〔一〕以病去官,百姓思之。

  • (1) Wèishū states:
    • Chief of Gǔshú Lǚ Qí was friendly with Zhū Yuān and Yuán Jīn, and sent an envoy to learn from them and return, summon and employ them, with them personally met, and installed [Zhū] Yuān as Teaching Friend Libationer and [Yuán] Jīn as Settling Doubts Libationer. [Zhū] Yuān and others each returned home and would not accept appointment. [Lǚ] Qí was greatly furious, and led officials and people to arrest [Zhū] Yuān and others, and beat and killed them all, and of commentators many disapproved. Huàn told them not to impeach.
    • Registrar Sūn Huī and others believed: “The crimes of [Zhū] Yuān and others were not sufficient for death, and the Chief did not have the authority to kill. Kǒng-zǐ said: “Only weapons and reputation cannot be lent to others.” To speak of teaching friends but add execution, the crime and name are contradictory, and cannot be taken as a teaching.”
    • Huàn commented: “The Registrar believes there was not authority to punish, and this is correct. But in saying the crimes of [Zhū] Yuān and others was not sufficient for death, this is incorrect. This teaching-friend name has existed from ancient times to now. However there are a lord’s teaching friend, and there are a great scholar official’s teaching friend. A lord appointing teaching friend as official is respecting his ministers; if there is a crime then there is punishment, and this is the state’s law. Now to not discuss the crime and only say of killing a teaching-friend, this is inappropriate. The Registrar says it is a student killing his teacher, but it is in fact a lord executing his minister, and these are not the same thing. In the sage’s wise government, observe the times and then move, and therefore there are not absolute constants, and there are situations where there is authority. Presently the world is in chaos, the people encroach on their superiors, and though affairs esteem lords and lower ministers, it has not changed this, and yet you instead support the present mistakes, is this not also absurd?”
    • Therefore they did not impeach.

〔一〕 魏書曰:穀熟長呂岐善朱淵、爰津,遣使行學還,召用之,與相見,出署淵師友祭酒,津決疑祭酒。淵等因各歸家,不受署。岐大怒,將吏民收淵等,皆杖殺之,議者多非焉。渙教勿劾,主簿孫徽等以為「淵等罪不足死,長吏無專殺之義,孔子稱『唯器與名,不可以假人』。謂之師友而加大戮,刑名相伐,不可以訓。」渙教曰:「主簿以不請為罪,此則然矣。謂淵等罪不足死,則非也。夫師友之名,古今有之。然有君之師友,有士大夫之師友。夫君置師友之官者,所以敬其臣也;有罪加於刑焉,國之法也。今不論其罪而謂之戮師友,斯失之矣。主簿取弟子戮師之名,而加君誅臣之實,非其類也。夫聖哲之治,觀時而動,故不必循常,將有權也。閒者世亂,民陵其上,雖務尊君卑臣,猶或未也,而反長世之過,不亦謬乎!」遂不劾。

Later he was summoned to become Critical-Consultant Grandee, and Libationer to the Army of the Chancellor. From beginning to end his rewards were many, but all of it he distributed away, his home had no reserves, and to the end he did not participate in private business. When he was deficient he borrowed from others, was not demanding or picky, and so the people of the time admired his honesty.

後徵為諫議大夫、丞相軍祭酒。前後得賜甚多,皆散盡之,家無所儲,終不問產業,乏則取之於人,不為皦察之行,然時人服其清。


When Wèi state was first established [213] he became Palace Gentleman Director, and had acting authority over the Censorate Grandee’s affairs. Huàn advised Tàizǔ: “Now the realm Under Heaven’s greatest difficulties have already been removed. Using both the civil and military is the way to for the long term. I believe we can greatly gather written works, to enlighten the teachings of previous sages, to change how the people see and hear, to allow Within the Seas to develop cultivated manner, then the distant peoples who do not submit can by cultivation and virtue be brought over.” Tàizǔ agreed with this advice.

魏國初建,為郎中令,行御史大夫事。渙言於太祖曰:「今天下大難已除,文武並用,長久之道也。以為可大收篇籍,明先聖之教,以易民視聽,使海內斐然向風,則遠人不服可以文德來之。」太祖善其言。

At the time there were rumors Liú Bèi had died, and the various ministers all sent congratulations; Huàn because he had once been by [Liú] Bèi nominated for office alone did not send congratulations.

時有傳劉備死者,群臣皆賀;渙以嘗為備舉吏,獨不賀。

He remained in office for several years and died. Tàizǔ for him wept, and bestowed grain of 2000 hú, one instruction: “Tàicāng grain of a thousand hú to bestow on the Palace Gentleman Director’s family,” and one instruction: “Yuánxià grain of a thousand hú to share with Yàoqīng’s family.” Others did not understand his meaning. Instructions said: “The Tàicāng grain is for his government service. The Yuánxià grain is for his personal old friendship.”

居官數年卒,太祖為之流涕,賜穀二千斛,一教「以太倉穀千斛賜郎中令之家」,一教「以垣下穀千斛與曜卿家」,外不解其意。教曰:「以太倉穀者,官法也;以垣下穀者,親舊也。」

Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] heard the matter of how in the past Huàn had defied Lǚ Bù, and asked Huàn’s younger cousin Mǐn: “Was Huàn brave or cowardly?”

又帝聞渙昔拒呂布之事,問渙從弟敏:「渙勇怯何如?」

Mǐn answered: “Huàn’s appearance was peaceful and agreebale, but he faced important affairs, resided in danger, and even [Mèng] Bēn and [Xià] Yù do not surpass him.”

敏對曰:「渙貌似和柔,然其臨大節,處危難,雖賁育不過也。」

Huàn’s son Kǎn was also honest and pure in nature, had his father’s manner, and over time served as prefecture Administrators and in the Secretariat. (1)

渙子侃,亦清粹閒素,有父風,歷位郡守尚書。〔一〕

  • (1) Yuánshì Shìjì states:
    • Huàn had four sons: Kǎn, Yǔ, Ào, Zhǔn.
    • Kǎn appellation Gōngrán, in conversation and discussion was pure and appropriate, agreeable and not offensive, and good in interacting with others. During the fall and rise, people competed in affairs, but he always modestly withdrew and did not participate. At the time people for this praised him. He over time was Yellow Gate Selecting Department Cadet, and praised for pure judgement. He was gradually promoted to the Secretariat, and died young.
    • Yǔ appellation Xuānhòu, was energetic in debate and had skill and reason, was good at talking of the Dào School of thought, when young was ill, and before taking office died.
    • Ào appellation Gōngróng, in conduct was strict in custom, in speech was concise but forthright, and died as Minister of Merits.
    • Zhǔn appellation Xiàoní, was loyal and sincere and just and upright, was not ashamed to ask and learn from others, only fearing that others could not be of help. As the world’s affairs were very dangerous, therefore he always quiet and reserved and did not dare press for advancement. He wrote books of over a hundred thousand words, discussing matters of governing the world, for the , Zhōuguān, and Shī made commentary and discussed the Five Classics’s difficult to understand words of the sages to pass down to the ages. This was in Zhǔn’s own preface.
  • Xún Chāo’s Jiǔzhōujì praises Zhǔn for significant ability, and during Tàishǐ [265-274] he became Palace Official.
  • The Yuán clan’s descendants for generations had reputation and position, and their nobility reaches to the present.

〔一〕 袁氏世紀曰:渙有四子,侃、宇、奧、準。侃字公然,論議清當,柔而不犯,善與人交。在廢興之間,人之所趣務者,常謙退不為也。時人以是稱之。歷位黃門選部郎,號為清平。稍遷至尚書,早卒。宇字宣厚,精辯有機理,好道家之言,少被病,未官而卒,奧字公榮,行足以厲俗,言約而理當,終於光祿勳。準字孝尼,忠信公正,不恥下問,唯恐人之不勝已。以世事多險,故常恬退而不敢求進。著書十餘萬言,論治世之務,為易、周官、詩傳,及論五經滯義,聖人之微言,以傳於世。此準之自序也。荀綽九州記稱準有雋才,泰始中為給事中。袁氏子孫世有名位,貴達至今。


Previously, Huàn’s younger cousin Bà was fair and respectful and had achievement cability, at the beginning of Wèi was Minister of Agriculture, and with Hé Kuí of the same commandery both had well-known reputation at the time. Bà‘s son Liàng, [Hé] Kuí’s son Zēng, with [Yuán] Kǎn conversed together and were friendly.

初,渙從弟霸,公恪有功幹,魏初為大司農,及同郡何夔並知名於時。而霸子亮,夔子曾,與侃復齊聲友善。

[Yuán] Liàng was chaste and firm and had scholarly learning, hated Hé Yàn and Dèng Yáng and the rest, and wrote papers ridiculing and criticizing them. His position reached Intendant of Hénán and the Secretariat. (1)

亮貞固有學行,疾何晏、鄧颺等,著論以譏切之,位至河南尹、尚書。〔一〕

  • (1) Jìn Zhūgōng Zàn states: Liàng’s son Càn appellation Yízǔ, in literature studies was widely learned, repeatedly became a classicist official, and reached the Secretariat.

[Yuán] Bà’s younger brother Huī for his scholarly nature was praised. When he encountered the realm Under Heaven’s chaos, be fled to Jiāozhōu. The Excellency Over the Masses recruited him, but he did not arrive. (2)

霸弟徽,以儒素稱。遭天下亂,避難交州。司徒辟,不至。〔二〕

  • (2) Yuán Hóng’s Hànjì states: Previously, the realm Under Heaven was about to be disordered, and Huàn thus sighed: “The Hàn House is exhausted, and chaos is few days away. If the realm Under Heaven is disturbed, where can one escape to safety? If Heaven has not lost the Way, the people can be preserved. Only the strong and with courtesy can preserve themselves!” Huī said: “The ancients had a saying: “To know opportunity is to be divine.’ To meet opportunity and take it is the superior gentleman’s foundation luck. Heaven’s ways has its rise and fall, and Hàn has fallen! To have great achievement there must be great affairs, and this is also what the superior gentleman deeply notes, and retreats and hides in secret. Moreover weapons and armor both rise, and outside problems must be many, so I will go far across mountains and seas, in order to seek escape for myself.” When chaos arrived, each acted according to their plans.

〔二〕 袁宏漢紀曰:初,天下將亂,渙慨然歎曰:「漢室陵遲,亂無日矣。苟天下擾攘,逃將安之?若天未喪道,民以義存,唯彊而有禮,可以庇身乎!」徽曰:「古人有言:『知機其神乎』!見機而作,君子所以元吉也。天理盛衰,漢其亡矣!夫有大功必有大事,此又君子之所深識,退藏於密者也。且兵革既興,外患必眾,徽將遠跡山海,以求免身。」及亂作,各行其志。

[Yuán] Huī’s younger brother Mǐn had military ability and was good at water achievements [canal/irrigation building], and his office reached River Dike Consultant.

徽弟敏,有武藝而好水功,官至河隄謁者。

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