(45.3) Zōng Yù 宗預 [Déyàn 德豔]

Liào Huà 廖化 [Yuánjiǎn 元儉]


Zōng Yù appellation Déyàn was a Nányáng Ānzhòng man. During Jiàn’ān [196-220] he followed Zhāng Fēi and entered Shǔ. At the beginning of Jiànxīng [233-237], the Chancellor [Zhūgě] Liàng appointed him Registrar, then promoted to Advisor to the Army of the Internal Cadet-General of the Right.

宗預字德豔,南陽安眾人也。建安中,隨張飛入蜀。建興初,丞相亮以為主簿,遷參軍右中郎將。

When Liàng died, Wú was afraid Wèi might take advantage of the weakness to conquer Shǔ, and increased the garrisoned troops at Bāqiū by 10,000 men, first in order to provide assistance, and second in order to divide up [Shǔ if it should fall to Wèi]. Shǔ heard of this and also increased its defense of Yǒng’ān, in case of unusual circumstances. [Zōng] Yù was sent as envoy to Wú. Sūn Quán asked Yù: “East and west are like one family, and yet one hears the west has again increased its defenses at Báidì [Yǒng’ān]. Why is this?”

及亮卒,吳慮魏或承衰取蜀,增巴丘守兵萬人,一欲以為救援,二欲以事分割也。蜀聞之,亦益永安之守,以防非常。預將命使吳,孫權問預曰:「東之與西,譬猶一家,而聞西更增白帝之守,何也?」

Yù answered: “I your servant believe the east has increased its garrison at Bāqiū and the west increased its defense at Báidì, both to be suitable for the same circumstances, and both do not need to ask each other.” [Sūn] Quán greatly laughed, praised his unyielding uprightness, and treated him with deep favor, so he met with respect second only to Dèng Zhī and Fèi Yī.

預對曰:「臣以為東益巴丘之戍,西增白帝之守,皆事勢宜然,俱不足以相問也。」權大笑,嘉其抗直,甚愛待之,見敬亞於鄧芝、費禕。

He was promoted to Attendant Internal, then moved to the Secretariat. Yánxī tenth year [247] he became Garrisoned Cavalry Colonel. At the time General of Chariots and Cavalry Dèng Zhī from Jiāngzhōu returned, came to Court, and said to Yù: “By the Rites, one aged sixty does not wield handle military affairs, and yet you sir just now receive troops. Why is this?”

遷為侍中,徙尚書。延熙十年,為屯騎校尉。時車騎將軍鄧芝自江州還,來朝,謂預曰:「禮,六十不服戎,而卿甫受兵,何也?」

Yù answered: “You sir at seventy do not return your troops. How can I at sixty not accept them?” (1)

預答曰:「卿七十不還兵,我六十何為不受邪?」〔一〕

  • (1) Your Servant Sōngzhī believes that Zhī used age to tease Yù was a lack of self consideration. However Yù in this answer stirred up what people avoid. The recording of this in the document is superfluous writing.

〔一〕 臣松之以為芝以年啁預,是不自顧。然預之此答,觸人所忌。載之記牒,近為煩文。

[Dèng] Zhī by nature was proud and arrogant, and from General-in-Chief Fèi Yī down all deferred to him , but Yù alone would not bend to him.

芝性驕傲,自大將軍費禕等皆避下之,而預獨不為屈。

Yù again went east to befriend Wú. Sūn Quán grasped Yù’s hands, weeping and saying farewell: “You sir ever receive orders to improve the friendship of our two states. Now you sir are advanced in years, and I also decline in old age, and I fear we will not meet again!” He bestowed on Yù one hú [~20L] of large pearls (2), and he then returned.

預復東聘吳,孫權捉預手,涕泣而別曰:「君每銜命結二國之好。今君年長,孤亦衰老,恐不復相見!」遺預大珠一斛,〔二〕乃還。

  • (2) Wúlì states: Yù at the farewell said to Sūn Quán: “The lands of Shǔ are rustic and small, and though it is said we are neighboring states, east and west depend on each other. Wú cannot be without Shǔ. Shǔ cannot be without Wú. Masters and servants rely on this. May Your Majesty seriously consider and think of this.” He also said of himself: “I am aged and often ill, and fear I will never again present myself to your sagely countenance.”
  • Sūn Shèng states: The protection of the ruler is only in principle and justice. When principle and justice are established, even the small can become great, as with Yīn and Zhōu. Supposing if one employs deception and power, even the strong are certain to be defeated, as with Qín and Xiàng [Yǔ]. In the situation of residing in peripheral and rustic cities, relying on mountains and rivers for defense, and wishing to use a horizontal alliance across ten thousand lǐ, how could they depend on each other forever? In the past nine states established and followed a strategy of alliance, and yet Qín soldiers conquered all six directions; [Wěi] Xiāo and [Gōngsūn] Shù planned to support each others’ camps and chariots, and yet Guāng-Wǔ [Liú Xiù] in the end took both Lǒng [from Wěi Xiāo] and Shǔ [from Gōngsūn Shù]. Even with the strength of nine states or the vastness of Lǒng and Hàn, none could save each other, and instead and watched the others destroyed and overthrown. Why was this? The foundations of principle and virtue were not firm, and strong and weak hearts are difficult to unite, that is the reason. Yet he said: “Wú cannot be without Shǔ. Shǔ cannot be without Wú.” How could this not be flattery?

〔二〕 吳歷曰:預臨別,謂孫權曰:「蜀土僻小,雖云鄰國,東西相賴,吳不可無蜀,蜀不可無吳,君臣憑恃,唯陛下重垂神慮。」又自說「年老多病,恐不復得奉聖顏」。孫盛曰:夫帝王之保,唯道與義,道義既建,雖小可大,殷、周是也。苟任詐力,雖彊必敗,秦、項是也。況乎居偏鄙之城,恃山水之固,而欲連橫萬里,永相資賴哉?昔九國建合從之計,而秦人卒併六合;囂、述營輔車之謀,而光武終兼隴、蜀。夫以九國之彊,隴、漢之大,莫能相救,坐觀屠覆。何者?道德之基不固,而彊弱之心難一故也。而云「吳不可無蜀,蜀不可無吳」,豈不諂哉!

He was promoted to General of the Rear, Commander of Yǒng’ān, and soon appointed General-in-Chief Attacking the West with title as a Marquis Within the Passes.

遷後將軍,督永安,就拜征西大將軍,賜爵關內侯。

Jǐngyào first year [258] do to illness he was summoned to return to Chéngdū. Later he became General-in-Chief Defending the Army with office as Inspector of Yǎnzhōu. At the time the Capital Protector Zhūgě Zhān first controlled Court affairs. Liào Huà passed by Yù, and wished to with Yù together pay respects to [Zhūgě] Zhān. Yù said: “We are both past seventy years. I have already experienced everything, except only death and that is all. What is there to ask from younger juniors and for trivial reasons go to their gates?” Therefore he did not go.

景耀元年,以疾徵還成都。後為鎮軍大將軍,領兗州刺史。時都護諸葛瞻初統朝事,廖化過預,欲與預共詣瞻許。預曰:「吾等年踰七十,所竊已過,但少一死耳,何求於年少輩而屑屑造門邪?」遂不往。


Liào Huà appellation Yuánjiǎn, originally named Chún, was a Xiāngyáng man. He became General of the Front Guān Yǔ’s Registrar. Yǔ was defeated [219], and he joined Wú. He thought of returning to Xiān-zhǔ [Liú Bèi], and therefore faked his death, and the people of the time said they believed it was true, and therefore he brought along and supported his elderly mother day and night going west. At the time Xiān-zhǔ was on eastern campaign [222], and they encountered at Zǐguī. Xiān-zhǔ was greatly pleased and appointed Huà as Administrator of Yídū.

廖化字元儉,本名淳,襄陽人也。為前將軍關羽主簿,羽敗,屬吳。思歸先主,乃詐死,時人謂為信然,因攜持老母晝夜西行。會先主東征,遇於秭歸。先主大悅,以化為宜都太守。

Xiān-zhǔ died [223]. He became an Advisor to the Army of the Chancellor, and later Commander of Guǎngwǔ, and eventually was promoted to reach Right General of Chariots and Cavalry, with a Staff of Authority, office as Inspector of Bìngzhōu, with fief as Marquis of Zhōngxiāng, and indeed was accomplished and praised. His official position was with Zhāng Yì equal, and was to Zōng Yù’s right [immediately junior]. (1)

先主薨,為丞相參軍,後為督廣武,稍遷至右車騎將軍,假節,領并州刺史,封中鄉侯,以果烈稱。官位與張翼齊,而在宗預之右。〔一〕

  • (1) Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: Jǐngyào fifth year [262] Jiāng Wéi led the army to set out against Dídào. Liào Huà said: “‘Warfare unrestrained certainly leads to self-destruction’ is speaking of Bóyuē [Jiāng Wéi]. His wisdom does not surpass the opposition, and his strength is less than the enemy, but he employs warfare without restraint, so how can he be able to establish success? The Shī[jīng] saying ‘I did not come early, I did not come late’ is what his happening today.”

〔一〕 漢晉春秋曰:景耀五年,姜維率眾出狄道,廖化曰:「『兵不戢,必自焚』,伯約之謂也。智不出敵,而力少於寇,用之無厭,何以能立?詩云『不自我先,不自我後』,今日之事也。」


Xiánxī Inaugural Year [263] spring, Huà and Yù both were moved inward to Luòyáng, and on the road fell ill and died.

咸熙元年春,化、預俱內徙洛陽,道病卒。

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