(45.3) Zōng Yù 宗預 [Déyàn 德豔]

Liào Huà 廖化 [Yuánjiǎn 元儉]

Zōng Yù appellation Déyàn was a Nányáng Ānzhòng man. During Jiàn’ān [196-220] he followed Zhāng Fēi and entered Shǔ. At the beginning of Jiànxīng [233-237], the Chancellor [Zhūgě] Liàng appointed him Registrar, then promoted to Advisor to the Army of the Internal Cadet-General of the Right.


When Liàng died, Wú was afraid Wèi might take advantage of the weakness to conquer Shǔ, and increased the garrisoned troops at Bāqiū by 10,000 men, first in order to provide assistance, and second in order to divide up [Shǔ if it should fall to Wèi]. Shǔ heard of this and also increased its defense of Yǒng’ān, in case of unusual circumstances. [Zōng] Yù was sent as envoy to Wú. Sūn Quán asked Yù: “East and west are like one family, and yet one hears the west has again increased its defenses at Báidì [Yǒng’ān]. Why is this?”


Yù answered: “I your servant believe the east has increased its garrison at Bāqiū and the west increased its defense at Báidì, both to be suitable for the same circumstances, and both do not need to ask each other.” [Sūn] Quán greatly laughed, praised his unyielding uprightness, and treated him with deep favor, so he met with respect second only to Dèng Zhī and Fèi Yī.


He was promoted to Attendant Internal, then moved to the Secretariat. Yánxī tenth year [247] he became Garrisoned Cavalry Colonel. At the time General of Chariots and Cavalry Dèng Zhī from Jiāngzhōu returned, came to Court, and said to Yù: “By the Rites, one aged sixty does not wield handle military affairs, and yet you sir just now receive troops. Why is this?”


Yù answered: “You sir at seventy do not return your troops. How can I at sixty not accept them?” (1)


  • (1) Your Servant Sōngzhī believes that Zhī used age to tease Yù was a lack of self consideration. However Yù in this answer stirred up what people avoid. The recording of this in the document is superfluous writing.

〔一〕 臣松之以為芝以年啁預,是不自顧。然預之此答,觸人所忌。載之記牒,近為煩文。

[Dèng] Zhī by nature was proud and arrogant, and from General-in-Chief Fèi Yī down all deferred to him , but Yù alone would not bend to him.


Yù again went east to befriend Wú. Sūn Quán grasped Yù’s hands, weeping and saying farewell: “You sir ever receive orders to improve the friendship of our two states. Now you sir are advanced in years, and I also decline in old age, and I fear we will not meet again!” He bestowed on Yù one hú [~20L] of large pearls (2), and he then returned.


  • (2) Wúlì states: Yù at the farewell said to Sūn Quán: “The lands of Shǔ are rustic and small, and though it is said we are neighboring states, east and west depend on each other. Wú cannot be without Shǔ. Shǔ cannot be without Wú. Masters and servants rely on this. May Your Majesty seriously consider and think of this.” He also said of himself: “I am aged and often ill, and fear I will never again present myself to your sagely countenance.”
  • Sūn Shèng states: The protection of the ruler is only in principle and justice. When principle and justice are established, even the small can become great, as with Yīn and Zhōu. Supposing if one employs deception and power, even the strong are certain to be defeated, as with Qín and Xiàng [Yǔ]. In the situation of residing in peripheral and rustic cities, relying on mountains and rivers for defense, and wishing to use a horizontal alliance across ten thousand lǐ, how could they depend on each other forever? In the past nine states established and followed a strategy of alliance, and yet Qín soldiers conquered all six directions; [Wěi] Xiāo and [Gōngsūn] Shù planned to support each others’ camps and chariots, and yet Guāng-Wǔ [Liú Xiù] in the end took both Lǒng [from Wěi Xiāo] and Shǔ [from Gōngsūn Shù]. Even with the strength of nine states or the vastness of Lǒng and Hàn, none could save each other, and instead and watched the others destroyed and overthrown. Why was this? The foundations of principle and virtue were not firm, and strong and weak hearts are difficult to unite, that is the reason. Yet he said: “Wú cannot be without Shǔ. Shǔ cannot be without Wú.” How could this not be flattery?

〔二〕 吳歷曰:預臨別,謂孫權曰:「蜀土僻小,雖云鄰國,東西相賴,吳不可無蜀,蜀不可無吳,君臣憑恃,唯陛下重垂神慮。」又自說「年老多病,恐不復得奉聖顏」。孫盛曰:夫帝王之保,唯道與義,道義既建,雖小可大,殷、周是也。苟任詐力,雖彊必敗,秦、項是也。況乎居偏鄙之城,恃山水之固,而欲連橫萬里,永相資賴哉?昔九國建合從之計,而秦人卒併六合;囂、述營輔車之謀,而光武終兼隴、蜀。夫以九國之彊,隴、漢之大,莫能相救,坐觀屠覆。何者?道德之基不固,而彊弱之心難一故也。而云「吳不可無蜀,蜀不可無吳」,豈不諂哉!

He was promoted to General of the Rear, Commander of Yǒng’ān, and soon appointed General-in-Chief Attacking the West with title as a Marquis Within the Passes.


Jǐngyào first year [258] do to illness he was summoned to return to Chéngdū. Later he became General-in-Chief Defending the Army with office as Inspector of Yǎnzhōu. At the time the Capital Protector Zhūgě Zhān first controlled Court affairs. Liào Huà passed by Yù, and wished to with Yù together pay respects to [Zhūgě] Zhān. Yù said: “We are both past seventy years. I have already experienced everything, except only death and that is all. What is there to ask from younger juniors and for trivial reasons go to their gates?” Therefore he did not go.


Liào Huà appellation Yuánjiǎn, originally named Chún, was a Xiāngyáng man. He became General of the Front Guān Yǔ’s Registrar. Yǔ was defeated [219], and he joined Wú. He thought of returning to Xiān-zhǔ [Liú Bèi], and therefore faked his death, and the people of the time said they believed it was true, and therefore he brought along and supported his elderly mother day and night going west. At the time Xiān-zhǔ was on eastern campaign [222], and they encountered at Zǐguī. Xiān-zhǔ was greatly pleased and appointed Huà as Administrator of Yídū.


Xiān-zhǔ died [223]. He became an Advisor to the Army of the Chancellor, and later Commander of Guǎngwǔ, and eventually was promoted to reach Right General of Chariots and Cavalry, with a Staff of Authority, office as Inspector of Bìngzhōu, with fief as Marquis of Zhōngxiāng, and indeed was accomplished and praised. His official position was with Zhāng Yì equal, and was to Zōng Yù’s right [immediately junior]. (1)


  • (1) Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: Jǐngyào fifth year [262] Jiāng Wéi led the army to set out against Dídào. Liào Huà said: “‘Warfare unrestrained certainly leads to self-destruction’ is speaking of Bóyuē [Jiāng Wéi]. His wisdom does not surpass the opposition, and his strength is less than the enemy, but he employs warfare without restraint, so how can he be able to establish success? The Shī[jīng] saying ‘I did not come early, I did not come late’ is what his happening today.”

〔一〕 漢晉春秋曰:景耀五年,姜維率眾出狄道,廖化曰:「『兵不戢,必自焚』,伯約之謂也。智不出敵,而力少於寇,用之無厭,何以能立?詩云『不自我先,不自我後』,今日之事也。」

Xiánxī Inaugural Year [263] spring, Huà and Yù both were moved inward to Luòyáng, and on the road fell ill and died.


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