(44.2) Fèi Yī 費禕 [Wénwěi 文偉]

Fèi Yī, appellation Wénwěi, was a Jiāngxià Máng man. He was orphaned young, and relied on his second cousin’s father Bórén. Bórén’s paternal aunt was Governor of Yìzhōu Liú Zhāng’s mother. Zhāng sent an envoy to welcome [Bó]rén, and [Bó]rén led Yī to travel and study and entered Shǔ. At that time Xiān-zhǔ settled Shǔ. Yī thereupon remained in the land of Yì[zhōu], and with Rǔnán’s Xǔ Shūlóng and Nán-jùn’s Dǒng Yǔn had equal fame.

費禕字文偉,江夏鄳人也。鄳音盲。少孤,依族父伯仁。伯仁姑,益州牧劉璋之母也。璋遣使迎仁,仁將禕游學入蜀。會先主定蜀,禕遂留益土,與汝南許叔龍、南郡董允齊名。

At the time when Xǔ Jìng was in mourning for his son, Yǔn and Yī wished to together attend the burial. Yǔn asked his father Hé for a chariot, and Hé sent an open back [cheap] chariot to give him. Yǔn had the appearance of not wishing to board, but Yī easily went ahead and first boarded. When they arrived at the burial, Zhūgě Liàng and all the high-ranking men were gathered together, and their carriages were all very fancy. Yǔn had an appearance of uneasiness, while Yī was quite and composed and at ease. When the chariot attendant returned, Hé heard of this, and knowing that it was like this, he then said to Yǔn: “I often doubted if your and Wénwěi’s good and bad traits were any different, but from now and onward, I can tell.”

時許靖喪子,允與禕欲共會其葬所。允白父和請車,和遣開後鹿車給之。允有難載之色,禕便從前先上。及至喪所,諸葛亮及諸貴人悉集,車乘甚鮮,允猶神色未泰,而禕晏然自若。持車人還,和問之,知其如此,乃謂允曰:「吾常疑汝於文偉優劣未別也,而今而後,吾意了矣。」


When Xiān-zhǔ [Liú Bèi] installed an Heir-Apparent [219], Yī and Yǔn both became Residents, and were promoted to Companions. When Hòu-zhǔ [Liú Shàn] ascended [223], he became Yellow Gate Attendant-Cadet.

先主立太子,禕與允俱為舍人,遷庶子。後主踐位,為黃門侍郎。

Chancellor [Zhūgě] Liàng led a southern campaign and returned [225], and all the officials gathered several tens of lǐ to welcome him. In age and position most were to Yī’s right [senior], but Liàng specially ordered Yī to ride in the same [chariot], and from this among everyone there was none who did not change their opinion of him. Liàng from when he first led a southern campaign and returned appointed Yī as Colonel Manifesting Faith to send as envoy to Wú. Sūn Quán by nature joking and ridiculed and mocked without warning, while Zhūgě Kè, Yáng Chén, and others were talented and learned in debate, and in conversation made difficult pointed remarks at him. Yī answered easily and seriously, and with reason made answers, and to the end he could not be wronged. (1)

丞相亮南征還,群寮於數十里逢迎,年位多在禕右,而亮特命禕同載,由是眾人莫不易觀。亮以初從南歸,以禕為昭信校尉使吳。孫權性既滑稽,嘲啁無方,諸葛恪、羊茞等才博果辯,論難鋒至,禕辭順義篤,據理以答,終不能屈。〔一〕

  • (1) Yī Biézhuàn states: Sūn Quán always sent others to pour good liquor for Yī to drink, watched for when he was intoxicated, and then asked about state affairs, as well as discuss the affairs of the present age, and his difficult words would accumulate on him. Yī at once declined to answer on account of his intoxication, left but compiled [in writing] all that was asked, answered everything, and nothing was overlooked.

〔一〕 禕別傳曰:孫權每別酌好酒以飲禕,視其已醉,然後問以國事,並論當世之務,辭難累至。禕輒辭以醉,退而撰次所問,事事條答,無所遺失。

Sūn Quán was deeply impressed with him, and said to Yī: “You sir are a virtue of the world Under Heaven, and will certainly become a trusted aide of the Shǔ Court, so I fear you will not be able to come often.” (2)

權甚器之,謂禕曰:「君天下淑德,必當股肱蜀朝,恐不能數來也。」〔二〕

  • (2) Yī Biézhuàn states: Quán then with his own hand presented a Internal Regular [Attendant]’s ceremonial blade and presented it to him, and Yī answered: “I your servant am untalented, and how can I bear [to accept] your eminence’s command? But this blade is a thing to punish those who violate Court and Prohibitions and revolt. I hope that you Great King will exert yourself in establishing great achievement and together support the Hàn House. Though I your servant am ignorant and weak, tot he end I will not turn my back on the care of the east.”

〔二〕 禕別傳曰:權乃以手中常所執寶刀贈之,禕答曰:「臣以不才,何以堪明命?然刀所以討不庭、禁暴亂者也,但願大王勉建功業,同獎漢室,臣雖闇弱,終不負東顧。」

He returned, and was promoted to Attendant Internal.

還,遷為侍中。

[Zhūgě] Liàng went north and resided at Hànzhōng [227], and invited Yī as a Military Advisor. In order to report their intentions, he was frequently sent to Wú.

亮北住漢中,請禕為參軍。以奉使稱旨,頻煩至吳。

Jiànxīng eighth year [230], he was transferred to Central Protector of the Army, and later became Staff-Major. At the time Master of the Army Wèi Yán and Chief Clerk Yáng Yí loathed each other, and every time they sat together they argued, [Wèi] Yán sometimes raised his blade to threaten [Yáng] Yí would sob and weep unreasonably. Yī would often enter and sit between them, and admonish and separate them. To the end of [Zhūgě] Liàng’s time, that both [Wèi] Yán and [Yáng] Yí could each be employed to the fullest, was due to Yī’s ability to resolve matters. Liàng died, and Yī became Master of the Rear Army. Shortly afterward, he succeeded Jiǎng Wǎn as Director of the Secretariat. (3)

建興八年,轉為中護軍,後又為司馬。值軍師魏延與長史楊儀相憎惡,每至並坐爭論,延或舉刃擬儀,儀泣涕橫集。禕常入其坐間,諫喻分別,終亮之世,各盡延、儀之用者,禕匡救之力也。亮卒,禕為後軍師。頃之,代蔣琬為尚書令。〔三〕

  • (3) Yī Biézhuàn states: At the time there were many military and state problems, and official matters were troubled and plentiful. Yī had memory and awareness surpassing other men. Every time he inspected and read documents he memorized. After raising it up and glancing a little, he could already know its meaning, so his speed was many times that of other men, and to the end he also would not forget them. He would always in the morning to afternoon manage affairs, and within that interval accept visitors and guests, eat and drink and make merry, and also play games, so that every single person was entertained, but matters were also not neglected. When Dǒng Yǔn succeeded Yī as Director of the Secretariat, he wished to imitate how Yī had acted, and within ten days, matters were disarrayed and sluggish. Yǔn therefore sighed and said: “The talents of men can be this far apart. This is not what I can match. I manage affairs to the end of the day, and yet have no remaining time like that.”

〔三〕 禕別傳曰:于時軍國多事,公務煩猥,禕識悟過人,每省讀書記,舉目暫視,已究其意旨,其速數倍於人,終亦不忘。常以朝晡聽事,其間接納賓客,飲食嬉戲,加之博弈,每盡人之歡,事亦不廢。董允代禕為尚書令,欲斅禕之所行,旬日之中,事多愆滯。允乃歎曰:「人才力相縣若此甚遠,此非吾之所及也。聽事終日,猶有不暇爾。」

[Jiǎng] Wǎn left Hànzhōng and returned to Fú. Yī was promoted to General-in-Chief, with authority over the Secretariat affairs.

琬自漢中還涪,禕遷大將軍,錄尚書事。


Yánxī seventh year [244] the Wèi army advanced to Xīngshì. Yī was given a Staff of Authority and led the armies to resist them. The Merit Grandee Lái Mǐn arrived to send him, and was asked to play Encircling Chess. At the time, Feathered [urgent] dispatches were circling around. Men and horses were armored, and preparations had already been made, but Yī and Mǐn remained focused on the game, and their appearance showed no sign of tiring. Mǐn said: “I was only testing you and that is all! You indeed can be relied on, and can certainly handle the enemy.” Yī arrived, the enemy then retreated, and he was given fief as Marquis of Chéng village. (1)

延熙七年,魏軍次于興勢,假禕節,率眾往禦之。光祿大夫來敏至禕許別,求共圍棋。于時羽檄交馳。人馬擐甲,嚴駕已訖,禕與敏留意對戲,色無厭倦。敏曰:「向聊觀試君耳!君信可人,必能辦賊者也。」禕至,敵遂退,封成鄉侯。〔一〕

  • (1) Yīn Jī’s Tōngyǔ states: When Sīmǎ Yì executed Cáo Shuǎng, [Fèi] Yī established two arguments to discuss and determine the rights and wrongs. Argument A is that Cáo Shuǎng and his brothers were ordinary and mediocre persons and only due to their relation to the Imperial Clan received favor and appointment, and yet became arrogant and extravagant and usurped prerogatives, had relations with criminal persons, privately established their own clique, and plotted to rebel against the state. [Sīmǎ] Yì exerted himself to punish them, in one morning exterminated them, and this was why he was suitable to be appointed, and acted in accordance with the expectations of scholars and commoners. Argument B is that [Sīmǎ] Yì felt that Cáo the second [Cáo Ruì] did not entrust affairs to only one, so how could Shuǎng have any relevance? The management of affairs was not for one particular person, and so he secretly acted as if he did not care. From the beginning he did not give loyal advice or admonishment, and instead in one morning slaughtered them, taking them at unawares, so how can this be a great man acting for the sake of the state or doing what was required? If Shuǎng really had the intention to plot against his ruler, then his rebellion would have already occurred, yet on the day when the troops went out, [Cáo] Fāng was left with Shuǎng and his brothers. [Sīmǎ] Yì, father and son [Sīmǎ Shī] from the rear closed the gates and raised troops, threatening [Cáo] Fāng and ensuring there would be no peace. Would this be called a loyal minister acting in consideration for his lord? From this viewpoint, Shuǎng had no great wrongs that were obvious. If [Sīmǎ] Yì was acting because Shuǎng was extravagant and usurped prerogatives, then the punishment of dismissal would be sufficient, but he exterminated all his relatives, and this was an injustice, cutting off the succession and sacrifices for [Cáo Shuǎng’s father] Zǐdān [Cáo Zhēn], and even Hé Yàn’s son who was a Wèi [Imperial] relative nephew was also exterminated. This was usurpation of power and acting excessively and improperly.

〔一〕 殷基通語曰:司馬懿誅曹爽,禕設甲乙論平其是非。甲以為曹爽兄弟凡品庸人,苟以宗子枝屬,得蒙顧命之任,而驕奢僭逸,交非其人,私樹朋黨,謀以亂國。懿奮誅討,一朝殄盡,此所以稱其任,副士民之望也。乙以為懿感曹仲付己不一,豈爽與相干?事勢不專,以此陰成疵瑕。初無忠告侃爾之訓,一朝屠戮,攙其不意,豈大人經國篤本之事乎!若爽信有謀主之心,大逆已搆,而發兵之日,更以芳委爽兄弟。懿父子從後閉門舉兵,蹙而向芳,必無悉寧,忠臣為君深慮之謂乎?以此推之,爽無大惡明矣。若懿以爽奢僭,廢之刑之可也,滅其尺口,被以不義,絕子丹血食,及何晏子魏之親甥,亦與同戮,為僭濫不當矣。

Wǎn decided to resign his provincial duties, and Yī was again given office as Inspector of Yìzhōu. Yī’s achievements and renown in the state were comparable to Wǎn. (2)

琬固讓州職,禕復領益州刺史。禕當國功名,略與琬比。〔二〕

  • (2) Yī Biézhuàn states: Yī was elegant and modest by nature, and his family did not accumulate wealth. His sons were each ordered to wear plain clothing and eat plain meals, to go out and come in without escorts of chariots or riders, and to differ in no way from ordinary people.

〔二〕 禕別傳曰:禕雅性謙素,家不積財。兒子皆令布衣素食,出入不從車騎,無異凡人。

Eleventh year [248] he went out to station at Hànzhōng. From Wǎn to Yī, though they were outside [the capital], in bestowing rewards and sentencing punishments, they were always first consulted from afar and only afterward was action taken. The trust in them was like this. Later in the fourteenth year [251] summer, he returned to Chéngdū. Chéngdū astrologists said that the capital city had no place for a Chief Minister, so in the winter he again went north to garrison Hànshòu.

十一年,出住漢中。自琬及禕,雖自身在外,慶賞刑威,皆遙先諮斷,然後乃行,其推任如此。後十四年夏,還成都,成都望氣者云都邑無宰相位,故冬復北屯漢壽。

Yánxī fifteenth year [252], Yī was ordered to establish his own department staff.

延熙十五年,命禕開府。

Sixteenth year [253] first day he held a great assembly. A surrendered man of Wèi Guō Xún was seated there. Yī happily drank and became intoxicated, and was by Xún’s hand and blade came to harm. Posthumous name Jìng-hóu “Respected Marquis.”

十六年歲首大會,魏降人郭循在坐。禕歡飲沈醉,為循手刃所害,諡曰敬侯。

His son Chéng succeeded, and became Yellow Gate Attendant-Cadet. His younger brother Gōng was bestowed a princess [as wife]. (3) Yī’s eldest daughter became the Heir-Apparent [Liú] Xuán’s consort.

子承嗣,為黃門侍郎。承弟恭,尚公主。〔三〕禕長女配太子璿為妃。

  • (3) Yī Biézhuàn states: Gōng became a Secretariat Cadet, and had reputation in his time. Died young.

〔三〕 禕別傳曰:恭為尚書郎,顯名當世,早卒。

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