(12.2) Máo Jiè 毛玠 [Xiàoxiān 孝先]

Máo Jiè appellation Xiàoxiān was a Chénliú Píngqiū man. When young he became a county official, and for his pure fairness was praised. He was about to flee the chaos to Jīngzhōu, but before he arrived, he heard Liú Biǎo’s government was not enlightened, and therefore went to Lǔyáng. Tàizǔ governed Yǎnzhōu, and recruited him as Internal Manager Advisor. Jiè said to izǔ: “Now the realm Under Heaven is divided and ruined, the state’s ruler wandering, people abandon industry, suffering famine and exile, the pubic reserves do not have even a year’s worth of supplies, the common people have no hope of security, and it is hard to last long. Now Yuán Shào, Liú Biǎo, though their troops and people are many and strong, both do not think of the long term, and have not set up their foundations. In warfare the righteous are victorious, defending position to gain wealth, so it is appropriate to welcome Heaven’s Son to control the disobedient, restore plowing and planting, raise army supplies, and in this way the enterprise of hegemony can be achieved.” Tàizǔ respected and accepted his advice, and transferred him to Tent Office Merit Officer.

 毛玠字孝先,陳留平丘人也。少為縣吏,以清公稱。將避亂荊州,未至,聞劉表政令不明,遂往魯陽。太祖臨兗州,辟為治中從事。玠語太祖曰:「今天下分崩,國主遷移,生民廢業,饑饉流亡,公家無經歲之儲,百姓無安固之志,難以持久。今袁紹、劉表,雖士民眾彊,皆無經遠之慮,未有樹基建本者也。夫兵義者勝,守位以財,宜奉天子以令不臣,脩耕植,畜軍資,如此則霸王之業可成也。」太祖敬納其言,轉幕府功曹。


When Tàizǔ was Excellency of Works and Chancellor, Jiè always was East Department Official, and with Cuī Yǎn both managed recruitment and promotions. All those he recruited were pure and upright scholars, and though at times there were those with great reputation but lacking in conduct and foundations, in the end none of these were advanced. He focused on using frugality to lead people, and therefore of the realm Under Heaven’s scholars none did not use incorruptible integrity to conduct themselves, so that even noble and favored ministers in their carriages and clothes did not dare be excessive. Tàizǔ sighed and said: “Employing men like this allows the people of the realm Under Heaven to govern themselves. What can I add to that?”

太祖為司空丞相,玠嘗為東曹掾,與崔琰並典選舉。其所舉用,皆清正之士,雖於時有盛名而行不由本者,終莫得進。務以儉率人,由是天下之士莫不以廉節自勵,雖貴寵之臣,輿服不敢過度。太祖歎曰:「用人如此,使天下人自治,吾復何為哉!」

Wén-dì became Five-Purposes General, and personally paid respects to Jiè and his followers and relatives. Jiè answered: “This old servant for his ability to observe his duties, was favored and gained pardons for faults. Now the people I have proposed are not promoted in order, and therefore I do not dare accept these orders.”

文帝為五官將,親自詣玠,屬所親眷。玠答曰:「老臣以能守職,幸得免戾,今所說人非遷次,是以不敢奉命。」

The main army returned to Yè, and discussed how to reduce its structure. Jiè asked to visit but did not go, the people at the time feared him, and all wished to close the East Department, so therefore they all reported: “Of old the West Department was superior, and the East Department next. It is appropriate to close the East Department.” Tàizǔ knew the situation, his order read: “The sun rises in the east, the moon rises in the east, and when the common people speak of direction, the also first say east. How can we close the East Department?” Therefore he closed the West Department.

大軍還鄴,議所并省。玠請謁不行,時人憚之,咸欲省東曹。乃共白曰:「舊西曹為上,東曹為次,宜省東曹。」太祖知其情,令曰:「日出於東,月盛於東,凡人言方,亦復先東,何以省東曹?」遂省西曹。

Previously, Tàizǔ pacified Liǔchéng [207], organized the captured supplies, and specially bestowed the white silk curtains and white small tables on Jiè, saying: “You sir have the manner of the ancients, and therefore the tools of the ancients are bestowed on you.”

初,太祖平柳城,班所獲器物,特以素屏風素馮几賜玠,曰:「君有古人之風,故賜君古人之服。」

Jiè held prominent position, but always wore plain clothes and ate vegetarian food, fostered his orphaned elder brother’s son with deep sincerity, his rewards he distributed to his poor relatives, and his household had no surplus. He was promoted to Right Master of the Army.

玠居顯位,常布衣蔬食,撫育孤兄子甚篤,賞賜以振施貧族,家無所餘。遷右軍師。

Wèi state was first established [213], and he became Secretariat Deputy-Director, again managing recruitment and promotion. (1)

魏國初建,為尚書僕射,復典選舉。〔一〕

  • Xiānxián Xíngzhuàng “Backgrounds of Worthies” states: Jiè was elegant and fair, and in office was pure and scrupulous. His rules in promotions and recommendations, selected the chaste and true, expelled the flowery and false, advanced modest conduct, and restrained flatterers. All officials whose merits in governing people yet privately enriched themselves, he all dismissed and expelled, and for a long time they were not employed. At that time within the Four Seas was compliant and obedient, and none were not encouraged to good conduct. Up to even the Chief Clerk all that returned, had dirty face and worn clothes, and always rode only worn simple and crude carts. Military officials when entering offices, always walked in Court dress [not armor]. People sought the honesty of boiling food, families imitated the integrity of washing tassels, the wealthy had no sort of dirty greed, the poor had no wish for stolen wealth, officials were honest above, customs improved below, and people even to today still praise that time.

〔一〕 先賢行狀曰:玠雅亮公正,在官清恪。其典選舉,拔貞實,斥華偽,進遜行,抑阿黨。諸宰官治民功績不著而私財豐足者,皆免黜停廢,久不選用。于時四海翕然,莫不勵行。至乃長吏還者,垢面羸衣,常乘柴車。軍吏入府,朝服徒行。人擬壺飧之絜,家象濯纓之操,貴者無穢欲之累,賤者絕姦貨之求,吏絜于上,俗移乎下,民到于今稱之。

At the time the Heir-Apparent was not yet selected, but Marquis of Línzī [Cáo] Zhí was favored. Jiè secretly remonstrated: “Recently did not distinguish between principal son and other sons, destroying his family and state. In determining great affairs it is not suitable to follow that.” Later the various officials gathered, Jiè rose to change his clothes, Tàizǔ watched and pointed at him saying: “This is what the ancients called the state’s manager of the upright, my own Zhōu Chāng.”

時太子未定,而臨菑侯植有寵,玠密諫曰:「近者袁紹以嫡庶不分,覆宗滅國。廢立大事,非所宜聞。」後群僚會,玠起更衣,太祖目指曰:「此古所謂國之司直,我之周昌也。」


When Cuī Yǎn was about to die, Jiè inside was displeased. Later someone reported Jiè saying: “When going to see the one [punished] with tattooed face, whose wives and children were arrested to become official slaves, Jiè said: ‘This is the way to make the heavens not rain.’” Tàizǔ was greatly furious, and arrested Jiè and imprisoned him.

崔琰既死,玠內不悅。後有白玠者:「出見黥面反者,其妻子沒為官奴婢,玠言曰『使天不雨者蓋此也』。」太祖大怒,收玠付獄。

Grand Judge Zhōng Yáo interviewed Jiè and said: “Since the ancient sagely and enlightened rulers, guilt includes the wives and children. The Shū says ‘If your left does not follow my left, and your right does not follow my right, then I will wipe out your descendants.’ The responsibilities of the manager of criminals, is that sons become official slaves and daughters become grain beaters. In Hàn Law, the guilty man’s wives and daughters are arrested to slaves and his face is tattooed. The Hàn Law’s use of the face tattoo punishment comes from ancient regulations. Now true slaves have ancestors who were criminals, and though a hundred generations have passed, yet there are still tattooed faces and dismissals from office, first in order to be lenient to the lives of good people, second in order to forgive the sins of the criminal. How can this be in opposition to the intentions of spirits, and bring about drought? According to standard experience, worry is cold, comfort is warm, leniency leads to excessive light, and therefore there is drought. Jiè in your spoken words, are they lenient, or are they worried? If they are worried then it is dark and wet, so how can it instead be drought? In Chéng Tāng’s sagely era, wild fields had no grass; when Zhōu Xuān ruled, drought was oppressive. Since the several drought came, it has been thirty years, and blaming it on a tattooed face, is that worthy of a minister? When Wèi attacked Xíng, the army raised and it rained, and crimes did not summon it, so how was it answering Heaven? Jiè, your words of ridicule and slander, have flowed down to the people, and his noise of displeasure, has risen up for the sagely to hear. Jiè, your spoken words, its effect is not only in words, at the time you saw the tattooed face, how many people were there? The tattooed face slave, was it someone you knew? Why when you saw it did you answer with such sigh and speech? At the time who were you talking to? What were the answers? What day and moon? Where was it? The matter is already revealed, and cannot be concealed, so all should be answered.”

大理鍾繇詰玠曰:「自古聖帝明王,罪及妻子。書云:『左不共左,右不共右,予則孥戮女。』司寇之職,男子入于罪隸,女子入于舂稿。漢律,罪人妻子沒為奴婢,黥面。漢法所行黥墨之刑,存於古典。今真奴婢祖先有罪,雖歷百世,猶有黥面供官,一以寬良民之命,二以宥并罪之辜。此何以負於神明之意,而當致旱?案典謀,急恆寒若,舒恆燠若,寬則亢陽,所以為旱。玠之吐言,以為寬邪,以為急也?急當陰霖,何以反旱?成湯聖世,野無生草,周宣令主,旱魃為虐。亢旱以來,積三十年,歸咎黥面,為相值不?衛人伐邢,師興而雨,罪惡無徵,何以應天?玠譏謗之言,流於下民,不悅之聲,上聞聖聽。玠之吐言,勢不獨語,時見黥面,凡為幾人?黥面奴婢,所識知邪?何緣得見,對之歎言?時以語誰?見答云何?以何日月?於何處所?事已發露,不得隱欺,具以狀對。」

Jiè said: “I your Servant have heard that when Xiāo Shēng was strangled to death, the cause was Shí Xiǎn; when Jiǎ-zǐ was exiled, it was due to slander from [Marquis of] Jiàng [Zhōu Bó] and Guàn [Yīng]; Bái Qǐ bestowed sword on [ordered suicide of] Dù Yóu; Cháo Cuò was executed at the East market; Wǔ Yuán ended his life at Wúdū; of these people, some were envied at first, some were harmed afterward. I your servant from when I lost my milk teeth held to simplicity, accumulated industriousness to obtain office, was employed in critical and near positions, collecting personnel matters. Of my subordinate ministers with selfish affairs, none did not have their power cut off, in speaking of ministers’ grievances, none were not thoroughly investigated. Personal relationships for profit, is by the law restrained; law in the restraint of profit, has the power to cause harm. Blue-green files grow unrestrained, slander me, and the people who slander me, their power is not elsewhere. In the past Wáng Shū and Chén Shēng argued over the correctness of the Royal Court, Xuān-zǐ judged and reasoned, ordered both to raise their arguments, for right and wrong to be followed, crooked and straight to be found. The Chūnqiū praised this, and therefore it was recorded. If I your servant do not speak of this, then there would be no other time or person [to hear]. The words spoken against me certainly must have a reason. I ask for arbitration like that of Xuān-zǐ, and seek the correction of Wáng Shū. If I your servant have done wrong, on the day of the punishment, I am willing to receive the death by four horses [pulling me apart]. If bestowed with a sword [be ordered to suicide], I would compare it to the kindness of the greatest reward. That is my solemn answer.”

玠曰:「臣聞蕭生縊死,困於石顯;賈子放外,讒在絳、灌;白起賜劍於杜郵;晁錯致誅於東市;伍員絕命於吳都:斯數子者,或妒其前,或害其後。臣垂齠執簡,累勤取官,職在機近,人事所竄。屬臣以私,無勢不絕,語臣以冤,無細不理。人情淫利,為法所禁,法禁于利,勢能害之。青蠅橫生,為臣作謗,謗臣之人,勢不在他。昔王叔、陳生爭正王廷,宣子平理。命舉其契,是非有宜,曲直有所,春秋嘉焉,是以書之。臣不言此,無有時、人。說臣此言,必有徵要。乞蒙宣子之辨,而求王叔之對。若臣以曲聞,即刑之日,方之安駟之贈;賜劍之來,比之重賞之惠。謹以狀對。」

At the time Huán Jiē and Hé Qià advanced to urge sparing Jiè. Jiè therefore was spared and dismissed, and died at home. (1) Tàizǔ bestowed coffin and utensils and cash and silk, and appointed his son [Máo] Jī as Palace Gentleman.

時桓階、和洽進言救玠。玠遂免黜,卒于家。〔一〕太祖賜棺器錢帛,拜子機郎中。

  • Sūn Shèng states: Wèi [Cáo Cāo] therefore failed in governing punishments. The says “Enlighten and decide imprisonment” and the [Zuó] Zhuàn has “Raise the upright to manage the crooked.” When imprisonment is enlightened then the state has no complaining people, when the crooked are straightened then the people have no disobedience, there will be no wish for the false noise of blue-green files, or trust in spreading slander and complaints. The one able to fairly govern the Four Seas, is only the one who is pure and splendid. In the past Hàn Gāo [Liú Bāng] imprisoned Xiāo Hé, but released him and again made him Chancellor. Jiè for one fault, was forever expelled. These two rulers in their magnanimity, how different they were!

〔一〕 孫盛曰:魏武於是失政刑矣。易稱「明折庶獄」,傳有「舉直措枉」,庶獄明則國無怨民,枉直當則民無不服,未有徵青蠅之浮聲,信浸潤之譖訴,可以允釐四海,惟清緝熙者也。昔者漢高獄蕭何,出復相之,玠之一責,永見擯放,二主度量,豈不殊哉!

 

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