(12.6) Bào Xūn 鮑勛 [Shūyè 叔業]

Bào Xūn appellation Shūyè, was a Tàishān Píngyáng man, Hàn Colonel-Director of Retainers Bào Xuān’s ninth generation descendant. [Bào] Xuān’s descendants had some from Shàngdǎng move to Tàishān, and therefore live there. Xūn’s father [Bào] Xìn, in Líng-dì‘s time became Cavalry Commandant, and General-in-Chief Hé Jìn sent him east to recruit troops. Later he became Jìběi Chancellor, joined with Tàizǔ, and came to harm. The story is in Dǒng Zhuó’s biography [SGZ 6] and Wǔ-dì‘s Annals [SGZ 1]. (1) Jiàn’ān Seventeenth Year [212], Tàizǔ in memory of [Bào] Xìn’s achievements, memorialized to give fief to Xūn’s elder brother Shào as Marquis of Xīndū precinct, (2) and recruited Xūn as a Chancellor’s Official. (3)

鮑勛字叔業,泰山平陽人也,漢司隸校尉鮑宣九世孫。宣後嗣有從上黨徙泰山者,遂家焉。勛父信,靈帝時為騎都尉,大將軍何進遣東募兵。後為濟北相,協規太祖,身以遇害。語在董卓傳、武帝紀。〔一〕建安十七年,太祖追錄信功,表封勛兄邵新都亭侯。〔二〕辟勛丞相掾。〔三〕

  • (1) Wèishū states: [Bào] Xìn’s father [Bào] Dān’s office reached Minister Treasurer Attendant Internal, and in the world for his scholarship and refinement was prominent. When young [Bào Xìn] had great integrity, was tolerant and generous and loving to others, firmly resolute and willful. General-in-Chief Hè Jìn recruited and appointed him Cavalry Commandant, sending him home to recruit troops, he obtained over a thousand men, returned to Chénggǎo but [Hé] Jìn had already come to harm. When [Bào] Xìn reached the capital, Dǒng Zhuó also had newly arrived. [Bào] Xìn knew [Dǒng] Zhuó would certainly create chaos, and urged Yuán Shào to attack [Dǒng] Zhuó, but [Yuán] Shào feared [Dǒng] Zhuó and did not dare set out. The story is in [Yuán] Shào’s biography. [Bào] Xìn therefore led his army back to his hometown, gathered infantry of 20,000, cavalry of 700, and heavy supply wagons of over 5000. That year, Tàizǔ had first raised troops at Jǐwú, and [Bào] Xìn with his younger brother [Bào] Tāo led troops to answer Tàizǔ. Tàizǔ with Yuán Shào memorialized [Bào] Xìn as Acting General Breaking Caitiffs, [Bào] Tāo as Supplemental General. At the time [Yuán] Shào’s army was most powerful, and many towering figures turned to him. [Bào] Xìn alone said to Tàizǔ: “One whose strategy is rare in this world, able to assemble heroes to dispel chaos and return to order, that is you. If it is another, then although they are strong they are certain to be destroyed. You are Heaven sent relief.” Therefore he deeply formed friendship, and Tàizǔ also was exceptionally close with him. At the Biàn river defeat, [Bào] Xìn was wounded, and [Bào] Tāo on the battle lines died. [Yuán] Shào seized Hán Fù’s position, and therefore occupied Jì Province. [Bào] Xìn said to Tàizǔ: “When treacherous ministers take advantage of quarrels, overturning the Ruling House, heroes exert integrity, and the realm Under Heaven turns in answer to them; this is righteousness. Now [Yuán] Shào is the Alliance leader, and therefore his power is concentrated, and he will himself create chaos, and this is again having a [Dǒng] Zhuó. If [you] restrict him, then [your] strength is not enough to control him, and one can only wait for misfortune, and what can bring relief? For now you can set up to the great Hé’s south, to wait for changes.” Tàizǔ agreed with this. Tàizǔ became Dōng prefecture Administrator, and memorialized [Bào] Xìn as Jìběi Chancellor. It happened that the Yellow Headscarves main horde entered the province’s borders, Liú Dài wished to with them battle, [Bào] Xìn stopped him, but [Liú] Dài would not listen, and was therefore destroyed. The story is in Wǔjì [SGZ 1]. Tàizǔ because the bandits depending on their success were becoming arrogant, wished to set up ambush troops to draw out and strike them at Shòuzhāng. First he with [Bào] Xìn went out to the battlefield, the rear infantry army had not yet arrived, when they suddenly encountered the bandits, and therefore were joined in battle. [Bào] Xìn fought to the death in battle, in order to save Tàizǔ, and Tàizǔ barely broke through encirclement to get out, and [Bào] Xìn therefore died. At the time he was forty one years. Although he encountered chaos and raised troops, his family’s foundations were in teaching and scholarship, he managed himself with utmost frugality, and generously cared for officers and soldiers, his residence had no surplus wealth, and soldiers because of this joined him.

〔一〕 魏書曰:信父丹,官至少府侍中,世以儒雅顯。少有大節,寬厚愛人,沈毅有謀。大將軍何進辟拜騎都尉,遣歸募兵,得千餘人,還到成皋而進已遇害。信至京師,董卓亦始到。信知卓必為亂,勸袁紹襲卓,紹畏卓不敢發。語在紹傳。信乃引軍還鄉里,收徒眾二萬,騎七百,輜重五千餘乘。是歲,太祖始起兵於己吾,信與弟韜以兵應太祖。太祖與袁紹表信行破虜將軍,韜裨將軍。時紹眾最盛,豪傑多向之。信獨謂太祖曰:「夫略不世出,能總英雄以撥亂反正者,君也。苟非其人,雖彊必斃。君殆天之所啟!」遂深自結納,太祖亦親異焉。汴水之敗,信被瘡,韜在陳戰亡。紹劫奪韓馥位,遂據冀州。信言於太祖曰:「奸臣乘釁,蕩覆王室,英雄奮節,天下嚮應者,義也。今紹為盟主,因權專利,將自生亂,是復有一卓也。若抑之,則力不能制,祗以遘難,又何能濟?且可規大河之南,以待其變。」太祖善之。太祖為東郡太守,表信為濟北相。會黃巾大眾入州界,劉岱欲與戰,信止之,岱不從,遂敗。語在武紀。太祖以賊恃勝而驕,欲設奇兵挑擊之於壽張。先與信出行戰地,後步軍未至,而卒與賊遇,遂接戰。信殊死戰,以救太祖,太祖僅得潰圍出,信遂沒,時年四十一。雖遭亂起兵,家本修儒,治身至儉,而厚養將士,居無餘財,士以此歸之。

  • (2) Wèishū states: [Bào] Shào had his father’s manner, Tàizǔ praised him, added appointment as Cavalry Commandant, and Envoy Wielding Staff. [Bào] Shào died, and his son Róng succeeded.

〔二〕 魏書曰:邵有父風,太祖嘉之,加拜騎都尉,使持節。邵薨,子融嗣。

  • (3) Wèishū states: Xūn was pure and had high integrity, his name known in the world.

〔三〕 魏書曰:勛清白有高節,知名於世。


Twenty-second year [217], the Heir-Apparent was established, and Xūn became Internal Companion [to the Heir-Apparent]. He was transferred to Yellow Gate Attendant Cadet, and sent out as Wèi prefecture western division Commandant.

二十二年,立太子,以勛為中庶子。徙黃門侍郎,出為魏郡西部都尉。

The Heir-Apparent’s lady Guō’s younger brother was a Qǔzhōu county official, embezzled government cloth, and by law was condemned to public execution in the market. Tàizǔ at the time was at Qiáo, the Heir-Apparent remained at Yè, and repeatedly hand wrote letter to plead for the crime. Xūn did not dare usurp authority, and followed the directives. Xūn previously was at the East Palace [serving the Heir-Apparent], abiding by the correct without disturbance, and the Heir-Apparent indeed could not be pleased, and reaching this incident, his anger grew extreme. It happened that the prefecture borders had troops overstay their leave, so he secretly ordered the Subaltern to memorialize to dismiss Xūn from office. Long after this, he was appointed Attendant Censor.

太子郭夫人弟為曲周縣吏,斷盜官布,法應棄市。太祖時在譙,太子留鄴,數手書為之請罪。勛不敢擅縱,具列上。勛前在東宮,守正不撓,太子固不能悅,及重此事,恚望滋甚。會郡界休兵有失期者,密敕中尉奏免勛官。久之,拜侍御史。

Yánkāng Inaugural Year [220], Tàizǔ passed away, the Heir-Apparent succeeded the King’s position, and Xūn became Extra Horse Commandant and simultaneously Attendant Internal.

延康元年,太祖崩,太子即王位,勛以駙馬都尉兼侍中。


Wén-dì received the abdication, and Xūn at every meeting explained: “Now what is urgent, is only the military and farming, and generously caring for the common people. The terrace pavilions and parks, should be for later.”

文帝受禪,勛每陳「今之所急,唯在軍農,寬惠百姓。臺榭苑囿,宜以為後。」

Wén-dì was about to go out hunting, Xūn stopped the chariot and sent up memorial: “I your servant have heard the Five Emperors and Three Kings, did not fail to understand foundations are in establishing teaching, and by filial piety governed the realm Under Heaven. Your Majesty is benevolent and sagely and compassionate, and have the same achievements as the ancients. I your servant hope in the continuation of the legacies of the previous dynasties, so that all generations may follow it. How can one amid darkness [time of mourning], deal with matters of galloping? I your servant dare death to be heard, and may Your Majesty examine it.”

文帝將出游獵,勛停車上疏曰:「臣聞五帝三王,靡不明本立教,以孝治天下。陛下仁聖惻隱,有同古烈。臣冀當繼蹤前代,令萬世可則也。如何在諒闇之中,修馳騁之事乎!臣冒死以聞,唯陛下察焉。」

The Emperor with his own hand destroyed the memorial and went hunting, in the middle of the road they paused, and he asked his attendants and ministers: “Hunting as merriment/[music], how does it compare the Eight Tones [i.e. music]?” Attendant Internal Liú Yè answered: “Hunting surpasses music/[is superior in merriment].” [note: depending on context can mean merriment or music]

帝手毀其表而競行獵,中道頓息,問侍臣曰:「獵之為樂,何如八音也?」侍中劉曄對曰:「獵勝於樂。」

Xūn opposed: “Music above connects to the deities, below harmonizes with human affairs, swells governance to reach cultivation, so all nations are nurtured. In shifting manners and changing customs, nothing is as good as music. Moreover hunting, exposes the Imperial Canopy in open field, harms living things, combs [one’s hair] with wind and washes it with rain, cannot it be at leisure time? In the past Lǔ [Duke] Yǐn watched fishing at Táng, and the Chūnqiū ridiculed him. Although Your Majesty believes it an [important] affair, I your servant humbly do not agree.”

勛抗辭曰:「夫樂,上通神明,下和人理,隆治致化,萬邦咸乂。移風易俗,莫善於樂。況獵,暴華蓋於原野,傷生育之至理,櫛風沐雨,不以時隙哉?昔魯隱觀漁於棠,春秋譏之。雖陛下以為務,愚臣所不願也。」

Therefore he memorialized: “Liú Yè flatters and is not loyal, flattering and following the words of Your Majest’s mistaken entertainments. In the past Liáng Qiūjù fetched flattery at Chuántái, such is [Liú] Yè’s speech. One requests managers to discuss the crime to purify the Imperial Temples.”

因奏:「劉曄佞諛不忠,阿順陛下過戲之言。昔梁丘據取媚於遄臺,曄之謂也。請有司議罪以清皇廟。」

The Emperor was furious and changed color, stopped and returned, and promptly sent out Xūn as Right Internal Cadet General.

帝怒作色,罷還,即出勛為右中郎將。


Huángchū Fourth Year [223], Secretariat Director Chén Qún and Deputy-Director Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng together nominated Xūn as Palace Rectifier; Palace Rectifier was Censorate Internal Assistant. The Emperor could not but employ him, and the officials were all afraid, and none were not respectful.

黃初四年,尚書令陳群、僕射司馬宣王並舉勛為宮正,宮正即御史中丞也。帝不得已而用之,百寮嚴憚,罔不肅然。

Sixth Year [225] Autumn, the Emperor wished to campaign against Wú, the various ministers greatly discussed, and Xūn face to face admonished: “The Ruler’s Army has repeatedly campaigned and have not yet had victories; this is because Wú and Shǔ like lips and teeth support each other, rely on defenses of mountains and rivers, and therefore have powers difficult to overcome. In former years the Dragon Boat floated, just apart from the southern bank, your Sagely Body encountered danger, and the officials and subordinates broke guts [in fear]. At the time the Ancestral Temples were almost overturned, to be a warning for a hundred generations. Now again there is laboring troops to attack the distant, daily expenses are a thousand gold, the central states are emptied and squandered, to have those crafty rebels play with authority; I your servant humbly believe it cannot be.” The Emperor increased his anger at him, and left transferred [demoted] Xūn to Managing Documents Enforcer Law.

六年秋,帝欲征吳,群臣大議,勛面諫曰:「王師屢征而未有所克者,蓋以吳、蜀脣齒相依,憑阻山水,有難拔之勢故也。往年龍舟飄蕩,隔在南岸,聖躬蹈危,臣下破膽。此時宗廟幾至傾覆,為百世之戒。今又勞兵襲遠,日費千金,中國虛耗,令黠虜玩威,臣竊以為不可。」帝益忿之,左遷勛為治書執法。


The Emperor from Shòuchūn returned, camping at Chénliú prefecture’s border. The Administrator Sūn Yōng was met, and going out passed Xūn. At the time the camp ramparts were not yet finished, only setting up markers, and [Sūn] Yōng wrongly went not following the correct road, and the army camp Director Scribe Liú Yào wished to detain him. Xūn because the moats and ramparts were not finished, released him and did not cite it. The main army returned to Luòyáng, [Liú] Yào had a crime, Xūn memorialized to dismiss him, but [Liú] Yào secretly memorialized that Xūn had personally resolved [Sūn] Yōng’s matter. Imperial Order said: “Xūn calls a deer a horse; arrest and send him to the Minister of Justice.”

帝從壽春還,屯陳留郡界。太守孫邕見,出過勛。時營壘未成,但立標埒,邕邪行不從正道,軍營令史劉曜欲推之,勛以塹壘未成,解止不舉。大軍還洛陽,曜有罪,勛奏絀遣,而曜密表勛私解邕事。詔曰:「勛指鹿作馬,收付廷尉。」

The Minister of Justice based on law commented: “Standard punishment is five years.”

廷尉法議:「正刑五歲。」

The Three Offices differently answered: “According to law fine gold of two jīn.”

三官駮:「依律罰金二斤。」

The Emperor was greatly furious and said: “Xūn has no way to live, but you all dare indulge him! Arrest the Three Offices on down to be investigated for treason, to be ten rats in the same hole [suffer punishment].”

帝大怒曰:「勛無活分,而汝等敢縱之!收三官已下付刺姦,當令十鼠同穴。」

Excellency Commandant Zhōng Yáo, Excellency over the Masses Huà Xīn, General-in-Chief Defending the Army Chén Qún, Attendant Internal Xīn Pí, Secretariat Wèi Zhēn, Interim Minister of Justice Gāo Róu and others together memorialized: “Xūn’s father [Bào] Xìn had achievements for Tàizǔ,” begging for Xūn’s crime. The Emperor would not accept, and therefore executed Xūn.

太尉鍾繇、司徒華歆、鎮軍大將軍陳群、侍中辛毗、尚書衛臻、守廷尉高柔等並表「勛父信有功於太祖」,求請勛罪。帝不許,遂誅勛。

Xūn in personal conduct was cultivated, incorruptible and able to give out. On the day he died, his family had no surplus wealth. After twenty days, Wén-dì also passed, and none did not for Xūn sigh in regret.

勛內行既脩,廉而能施,死之日,家無餘財。後二旬,文帝亦崩,莫不為勛歎恨。

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