(8.4) Gōng​sūn Dù 公孫度 [Shēngjì 升濟]

son Kāng 康, Kāng’s younger brother Gōng 恭, Kāng’s son Yuān 淵

Gōngsūn Dù appellation Shēngjì, originally was a Liáodōng Xiāngpíng man. Dù’s father [Gōngsūn] Yán, refused to be an official and resided in Xuántù, Dù was appointed as a prefecture official. At the time Xuántù Administrator Gōngsūn Yù, had a son [Gōngsūn] Bào, aged eighteen years, who died young. Dù when young was named Bào, and also with [Gōngsūn] Yù’s son were the same age, [Gōngsūn] Yù met and was close with and favored him, sent him to with teacher study, and for him found a wife. Later he was nominated as Having Principle candidate, appointed Secretariat Cadet, gradually promoted to Jì Province Inspector, and due to rumor was dismissed. His same prefecture’s Xú Róng was Dǒng Zhuó’s Internal Cadet General, and recommended Dù as Liáodōng Administrator.


Dù began as a Xuántù minor official, and was by Liáodōng prefecture disparaged. In earlier time, the Dependent State’s Gōngsūn Zhāo was Xiāngpíng Magistrate, summoned Dù’s son Kāng as a Five [Households] Chief. Dù arrived at office, arrested [Gōngsūn] Zhāo, and beat him to death in Xiāngpíng’s Marketplace. In the prefecture he had with the famed and powerful clans of Tián Sháo and others formerly encountered lack of kindness, and all he used law to execute, those he massacred were over a hundred families, and inside the prefecture was shaken. To the east he attacked Gāogōulí, to the west he struck the Wūhuán, and his authority reached beyond the seas.


Chūpíng Inaugural Year [190], Dù knew the central states were disturbed, and said to his close officials Liǔ Yì and Yáng Yí and others saying: “Han’s reign is about to end, and I will with you sirs scheme to become King and that is all.” (1) At the time Xiāngpíng’s Yán borough’s Altar produced a large stone, over a zhàng [~2.3 m] tall, below it were three small stones as its feet, someone said to Dù: “This is Hàn Emperor Xuān’s cap stone omen, and the borough name is with your late father’s the same. Altar controls territory, it is clear that it will possess territory, and have Three Excellencies as assistant.” Dù was increasingly pleased.


  • (1) Wèishū states: Dù said to [Liǔ] Yì, [Yáng] Yí: “Prophecy books say the grandson will ascend [sūn dēng] to be Heaven’s Son. I the Administrator am surnamed Gōngsūn, appellation Shēngjì. Shēng means ascend [dēng].”

〔一〕 魏書曰:度語毅、儀:「讖書云孫登當為天子,太守姓公孫,字升濟,升即登也。」

Former Hénèi Administrator Lǐ Mǐn, in the prefecture had reputation, hated Dù’s actions, feared he would be harmed, and therefore was about to lead his family and dependents to take to the sea. Dù was greatly furious, dug up his [Lǐ Mǐn’s] father’s grave, cut open coffin and burned the body, and executed his clansmen. (2)


  • (2) Jìnyángqiū states: Lǐ Mǐn’s son sought after [Lǐ] Mǐn, went out the passes, and for over twenty years did not marry. His same hometown’s Xú Miǎo reproached him: “In being unfilial nothing is greater than lacking descendants, how can you to the end not marry?” Therefore he married a wife, begat a son [Lǐ] Yìn and then sent away his wife, always acting as if following the rituals of mourning, in extreme sorrow, and after several years he died. [Lǐ] Yìn was born and did not know his father and mother, and upon knowing them, he had vegetarian diet in sorrow and also had three years of mourning. Because he did not know if his father’s father was living or dead, he set up altar to sacrifice to him. Because of this he had reputation, his office reaching Excellency over the Masses.
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī comments: The base biography says [Lǐ] Mǐn led his family to take to the sea, but here he with his son lost each other. It is unknown what was the reason.

〔二〕 晉陽秋曰:敏子追求敏,出塞,越二十餘年不娶。州里徐邈責之曰:「不孝莫大於無後,何可終身不娶乎!」乃娶妻,生子胤而遣妻,常如居喪之禮,不勝憂,數年而卒。胤生不識父母,及有識,蔬食哀戚亦如三年之喪。以祖父不知存亡,設主奉之。由是知名,仕至司徒。臣松之案:本傳云敏將家入海,而復與子相失,未詳其故。

He divided Liáodōng prefecture to form Liáoxī and Zhōngliáo prefectures, installing Administrators. He crossed the sea to collect Dōnglái’s various counties, installing a Yíng Province Inspector. He established himself as Marquis of Liáodōng, Píng Province Governor, gave posthumous fief on his father [Gōngsūn] Yán as Marquis of Jiànyì. He established Temples to Hàn’s Two Founders, followed Imperial Regulations to establish altar at Xiāngpíng city’s south, Suburb Sacrifices to Heaven and Earth, Register Field, drilled troops, rode Phoenix Chariot, Nine Tassels, Banner Head and Feather Escort Cavalry.


Tàizǔ [Cáo Cāo] memorialized Dù as Martial Authority General, with fief as Yǒngníng village Marquis. Dù said: “I rule like a King over Liáodōng, what is Yǒngníng!” He hid the seal and ribbon in military storage. Dù died, his son Kāng succeeded position, and gave the Yǒngníng village Marquis fief to his younger brother Gōng. That year was Jiàn’ān Ninth Year [204].


Twelfth Year [207], Tàizǔ campaigned against the Three Prefectures Wūhuán, slaughtering Liǔchéng. Yuán Shàng and the rest fled to Liáodōng, Kāng beheaded and sent [Yuán] Shàng’s head. The story is in Wǔjì [SGZ 1]. Fief was given on Kāng as Xiāngpíng Marquis, appointed General of the Left. Kāng died, his sons Huǎng, Yuān, and the rest were all young, and the masses established Gōng as Liáodōng Administrator. Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] ascended [220], and sent envoy to appoint Gōng as General of Chariots and Cavalry, with Acting Staff, fief as Marquis of Píngguō, posthumous title on Kāng as Marshal-in-Chief.


Previously, Gōng due to disease in his genitals became a castrate, was weak and feeble and unable to govern the state. Tàihé Second Year [228], Yuān coerced and seized Gōng’s position. Míng-dì [Cáo Ruì] then appointed Yuān as General Raising Fierceness and Administrator of Liáodōng.


Yuān sent envoy to the south to communicate with Sūn Quán, exchanging gifts. (1)


  • (1) Wúshū records Yuān’s memorial to [Sūn] Quán: “I your servant in prostration by misfortune met Heaven and Earth overturned, encountered utterly disastrous fate; the ruler’s path is not yet finished, downfallen and disturbed. From my ancestors onward, successively serving Hàn and Wèi, ascending by chance, to for the state enact integrity, for successive generations enjoying appointment, obtaining administration of the borders, yet knowing seal orders have never distantly returned. At every feeling of [your] generous kindness, [I] frequently dishonored [your] conspicuous envoys, withdrawing to consider that a servant of men’s relations do not cross borders, and therefore [I] firmly held to that conduct, resisting and opposing [your] previous envoys. Although the righteous do not have two faiths, dare one forget great kindness? Your Majesty defends and comforts, expanding and preserving [my] small state, from beginning to end Colonel Péi and Commandant Gě and others arrived, presenting orders and commandments, sagely decree completely secret, heavy bound white silk, dark and light prepared and shown, and therefore matters of explaining and revealing, [I] speak and lift [brush] of these and that is all. I your servant in daytime then sing and chant, in nighttime then dream, to the end of my life recite it, my will does not know contentment. At last season’s end there was famine, heaven and earth clogged and blocked, weapons and armor not yet put away, the people are dissolute and dispersed. Looking up to this Heaven’s Mandate and having concerns, privately from one corner forever gazing at cloud and sun. Now the Wèi house cannot collect and record the loyal and good, after commending meritorious ministers, then having the slanderous and false enact their wills, listening to the Yōu Province Inspector and Dōnglái Administrator’s lying and mistaken speach, to raise the province’s troops, plotting to harm I your servant’s prefecutre. I your servant did not betray Wèi, yet Wèi cuts us off. Overall famed servants of men have those that left; Tián Ráo departed Qí, Yuè Yì fled Zhào, so that they were not victims, and therefore protected rulers with principle; Chén Píng and Gěng Kuàng, also observed the times had changed, in the end joined Hàn, carving their names in the Emperor’s registers. In prostration Your Majesty’s virtue did not again set out, the times do not meet the world, and therefore anxiously harboring admiration I myself present, hoping to distantly observe danger, having similar nearby ease. Truly [I] hope [your] divine plans will settle the vast enterprise, exert the six armies’ power, collect the Hé and Luò’s lands, for your sagely dynasty’s ancestors. Under Heaven’s Fortunes are extreme!”
  • Wèilüè states: The state knew that Yuān was double dealing, but feared Liáodōng’s officials and people were by Yuān deceived. Therefore public writing was sent down to Liáodōng, to thus pardon them, saying: “Informing Liáodōng’s and Xuántù’s officers and officials and people: rebel bandit Sūn Quán encountered chaos to rise, because his ancestors seized and plundered provinces and prefectures, he therefore gathered the vicious, for himself usurping authority beyond the Jiāng, keeping filth and hiding hatred. Hoping that this could be changed, therefore territory was divided to give him King’s power, to have him in the south call himself sovereign, ranked as highest General, gifts of the Nine Honors. [Sūn] Quán personally crossed hands, to the north bowng head. In obtaining favor as a servant of men, receiving honor as a servant of men, there has never been one like [Sūn] Quán. A wolf’s vicious heart, reporting orders difficult to enact, soldiers returning back and forth, turning back on kindness and betraying his ruler, overthrowing Heaven and rebelling against Divinity, thus he dared to usurp title. Relying on the difficult terrain of rivers and lakes, the Ruler’s Punishment is not yet applied. In recent years onward, he again distantly sends boats, crossing the great ocean, wielding many goods, deceiving and tempting the border people. The border people were unaware, and with him dealt. The Chief Clerks on down, none agreed to prohibit this. Reaching envoy Zhōu Hè’s sailing ships of a hundred, flowing through fords and banks, trading surpluses and shortfalls. So not suspecting and resisting, they presented famed horses, and also envoy Sù Shū followed [Zhōu] Hè in communicating friendship. A ten household village, yet has loyalty and sincerity, trapping lord in evil, the Chūnqiū wrote. Now in Liáodōng and Xuántù those serving matters for the state and court, winding blue-green and dragging violet, are in the thousand hundreds in number, wearing headband and hanging tassels, all girdling seal and ribbon, and yet are without words of rectification or supporting the good. Turtle and jade ruined in caskets, tigers and bulls come out the box, whose wrong is this? The state and court are for the masters and grandees ashamed of this! In the past Hútū had the words: ‘A father teaching son treachery, how can he serve a lord? Talley name entrusting pledge, treachery then is recruited.’ Now then flattery obeying nefarious plans, coercing to follow in treason and deception, how is it alone fathers’ and elder brothers’ teachings being unclear, or sons’ and younger brothers’ enacting studies wrong and nothing more? If sprouting weeds harm fields, free winds feed fires, mushrooms and womrwoods are together burned, how can the innocent be separated? Moreover also this matter is admittedly easy to see, does not reach reflecting on ancient successes and failures, what the Shū and Zhuàn recorded. The Jiāng’s south and the sea’s north have a gap of ten thousand lǐ, Liāodōng’s lord and ministers have no worry of apprehension, when profiting then righteousness does not profit, when noble then righteousness is not noble, this is loathing peaceful and happy residence, seeking dangerous disaster, taking lightly the integrity of loyalty and dependibility, taking heavily the name of betrayal. The Mán and Mò chieftains, yet know love and courtesy, and by this serve men, and so also it is difficult to have face! Moreover also Sù Shū is without crime, forced as envoy to enter Wú, serving as envoy for the unrighteous, beginning with family secrets, shedding tears and going. Reaching to [Zhōu] Hé’s death day, overturning masses completing mountains, although [Sù] Shū escaped death, his soul left his body. Being compelled, thus reached to this! Now loyal ministers and ardent officers, all are angry at Liáodōng repeatedly participating in treason, and all wish to ride rafters across the sea, this is recklessness. I must be for the realm Under Heaven a father and mother, and considering that the realm Under Heaven is newly settled, then I do not wish to toil shields and spears, distantly cross great rivers, expend labor like the others, and also lament that the borders have many common people, who are misled like this, and therefore send Cadet Internal Wèi Shèn, Zhào Mào and others with previous presented Imperial Order to show intention. If trusted aides are loyal and good, and able to enact integrity and establish sincerity to assist the present lord, oppose evil and enact rectification to establish great achievement, the good fortune could not be greater. If fearful for oneself that the suspicion of evil and rebellion is already seen as contaminated, they do not dare propose words, forever harboring grief. Those various peoples that with the bandit envoys communicated, all are pardoned of this, to with them start anew.”

〔一〕 吳書載淵表權曰:「臣伏惟遭天地反易,遇無妄之運;王路未夷,傾側擾攘。自先人以來,歷事漢、魏,階緣際會,為國效節,繼世享任,得守藩表,猶知符命未有攸歸。每感厚恩,頻辱顯使,退念人臣交不越境,是以固守所執,拒違前使。雖義無二信,敢忘大恩!陛下鎮撫,長存小國,前後裴校尉、葛都尉等到,奉被敕誡,聖旨彌密,重紈累素,幽明備著,所以申示之事,言提其耳。臣晝則謳吟,宵則發夢,終身誦之,志不知足。季末凶荒,乾坤否塞,兵革未戢,人民蕩析。仰此天命將有眷顧,私從一隅永瞻雲日。今魏家不能採錄忠善,褒功臣之後,乃令讒訛得行其志,聽幽州刺史、東萊太守誑誤之言,猥興州兵,圖害臣郡。臣不負魏,而魏絕之。蓋聞人臣有去就之分;田饒適齊,樂毅走趙,以不得事主,故保有道之君;陳平、耿況,亦睹時變,卒歸於漢,勒名帝籍。伏惟陛下德不再出,時不世遇,是以慺慺懷慕自納,望遠視險,有如近易。誠願神謨蚤定洪業,奮六師之勢,收河、洛之地,為聖代宗。天下幸甚!」魏略曰:國家知淵兩端,而恐遼東吏民為淵所誤。故公文下遼東,因赦之曰:「告遼東、玄菟將校吏民:逆賊孫權遭遇亂階,因其先人劫略州郡,遂成群凶,自擅江表,含垢藏疾。冀其可化,故割地王權,使南面稱孤,位以上將,禮以九命。權親叉手,北向稽顙。假人臣之寵,受人臣之榮,未有如權者也。狼子野心,告令難移,卒歸反覆,背恩叛主,滔天逆神,乃敢僭號。恃江湖之險阻,王誅未加。比年已來,復遠遣船,越渡大海,多持貨物,誑誘邊民。邊民無知,與之交關。長吏以下,莫肯禁止。至使周賀浮舟百艘,沈滯津岸,貿遷有無。既不疑拒,齎以名馬,又使宿舒隨賀通好。十室之邑,猶有忠信,陷君於惡,春秋所書也。今遼東、玄菟奉事國朝,紆青拖紫,以千百為數,戴纚垂纓,咸佩印綬,曾無匡正納善之言。龜玉毀于匵,虎兕出于匣,是誰之過歟?國朝為子大夫羞之!昔狐突有言:『父教子貳,何以事君?策名委質,貳乃辟也。』今乃阿順邪謀,脅從姦惑,豈獨父兄之教不詳,子弟之舉習非而已哉!若苗穢害田,隨風烈火,芝艾俱焚,安能白別乎?且又此事固然易見,不及鑒古成敗,書傳所載也。江南海北有萬里之限,遼東君臣無怵惕之患,利則義所不利,貴則義所不貴,此為厭安樂之居,求危亡之禍,賤忠貞之節,重背叛之名。蠻、貊之長,猶知愛禮,以此事人,亦難為顏!且又宿舒無罪,擠使入吳,奉不義之使,始與家訣,涕泣而行。及至賀死之日,覆眾成山,舒雖脫死,魂魄離身。何所逼迫,乃至於此!今忠臣烈將,咸忿遼東反覆攜貳,皆欲乘桴浮海,期於肆意。朕為天下父母,加念天下新定,既不欲勞動干戈,遠涉大川,費役如彼,又悼邊陲遺餘黎民,迷誤如此,故遣郎中衛慎、邵瑁等且先奉詔示意。若股肱忠良,能效節立信以輔時君,反邪就正以建大功,福莫大焉。儻恐自嫌已為惡逆所見染汙,不敢倡言,永懷伊戚。其諸與賊使交通,皆赦除之,與之更始。」

[Sūn] Quán sent envoys Zhāng Mí, Xǔ Yán, and others, to present gold and jade treasures, and enthrone Yuān as King of Yān. Yuān yet feared [Sūn] Quán was too distant and could not be depended on, and moreover was greedy for wealth, enticed the envoys to arrive, and all beheaded and sent [Zhāng] Mí and [Xǔ] Yán and the rest’s heads, (2) and Míng-dì therefore appointed Yuān as Marshal-in-Chief, fief as Duke of Lèlàng, Wielding Staff, governing the prefecture as before. (3)


  • (2) Wèilüè records Yuān’s memorial: “I your servant formerly sent Colonel Sù Shū, Cadet Internal Director Sūn Zōng, with sweet words and generous gifts, to entice the Wú rebel. By fortune and depending on Heaven’s Way to prosper and help Great Wèi, it caused this rebel caitiff to be muddled and deceived, oppose his subordinates, not listen to his masses’ remonstrants, and continue to trust in I your servant’s words, distantly send boats and envoys, with many officers and soldiers, arriving to deliver fief and honors. What I your servant grasped, was like what I originally intended, and although worried for punishment, I privately harbored fortune extreme. The rebel masses originally were said to be ten thousand men, [Sù] Shū and [Sūn] Zōng spied and investigated, and they could be seven to eight thousand men, and reached Tàjīn. False emissaries Zhāng Mí and Xǔ Yàn with Internal Cadet General Wàn Tài, Colonel Péi Qián commanded officials and troops of over four hundred men, presenting written orders and robes and assorted things, to give down to I your servant’s prefecture. [Wàn] Tài and [Péi] Qián separately delivered remaining goods, wishing to therefore purchase horses. Army commanders Hè Dá and Yú Zī managed the remaining armies on the boats. I your servant wished to wait for the cold season and then capture [Zhāng] Mí and the rest, but [Zhāng] Mí and the rest’s men and troops were numerous, and observing that I your servant did not immediately accept Wú’s commands, their thoughts had misgivings. Fearing they would first act, and dangerous changes appear, I at once advanced troops to surround and capture, beheading [Zhāng] Mí, [Xǔ] Yàn, [Wàn] Tài, [Péi] Qián and other’s heads. Their officials and accompanying troops and armies, all were soldiers and squads of lesser men, sent about east and west, unable to act as they wished, and [dirtied] face and [self] bound to beg to surrender, and unable to bear killing them, I then listened and accepted them, moving them to fill border fortresses. I separately sent officers Hán Qǐ and others to command the Three Armies, to hurriedly go to reach Tà. Sending Managing Chief Clerk Liǔ Yuǎn to set up Guest and Host ritual to entice and invite [Hé] Dá and [Yú] Zī, the Three Armies hid to wait for them to come down, and they also sent various horses and goods, wishing to with them trade. [Hé] Dá and [Yú] Zī were suspicious and did not come down, sending various trade purchasers of five to hundred men down, wishing to trade. [Hán] Qǐ and the rest beat metal drums to begin to shake, arrows chaotically fired, beheading over three hundred, and those that were wounded and fled into the waters and drowned could be over two hundred, and those that scattered and fled into mountains and valleys, and came to surrender and hid in exile and starved to death, are not counted. The obtained silver seals, copper seals, weapons, supplies and goods, are uncountable. I solemnly send West Department Official Gōngsūn Héng to present and deliver what the rebel [Sūn] Quán gave to I your servant of Acting Staff, Seal and Ribbon, Talisman and Tally, Nine Bestowments, various things, and [Zhāng] Mí and the rest’s false staves, seals and ribbons, and heads.”
  • It also states: “Sù Shū and Sūn Zōng previously arrived at Wú, the rebel [Sūn] Quán ask of I your servant’s family’s small and grown, [Sù] Shū and [Sūn] Zōng answered that I your servant had three breaths, educating separate dependents of lost younger brothers. [Sūn] Quán dared be treacherously opportunistic, and then without authority gave appointment orders. I solemnly seal and send the Seals and Ribbons, Talismans and Tallies. I your servant though do not have the ancient men’s custom of washing ears, I am ashamed to from the rebel [Sūn] Quán be added defilement and degradation, and in enacting Heavenly Punishment, I yet have abundant anger.”
  • It also states: “I your servant’s father Kāng, in the past killed [Sūn] Quán’s envoys, binding enmity and discord. Now then by deception, I had them send envoy and tempted them to arrive, causing [Sūn] Quán to be give his heart, empty his state and exhaust his wealth, distantly order his highest ministers, to favor and give utmost rank, shaking and disturbing the southern lands, preparing exhaustive etiquette. Also [Sūn] Quán attended to [Sù] Shū and [Sūn] Zōng, carving out full details, ruler and servant high and low, completing joy and exhausting feeling. But I had his four envoys be killed, their heads shown ten thousand lǐ, their soldiers and armies wandering in destitution, slaughtering and killing on ford and islet, his shame and disgrace distantly spreads, pain and humiliation filling the Heavens. [Sūn] Quán’s resentment and hatred, will carve into his flesh and bone. If Heaven weakens his enterprise, it will cause him to reach death and downfall, and [Sūn] Quán will from internal injury of indignation and outrage die. If his fated time is not yet finished, he will spread venomous stings, and certainly one fears this long snake will come to plunder and harm. Xú Province’s various garrisons and Chéngyáng’s various prefectures, with each other are close, if there are boats and armies in later years heading out Hǎimén, when obtaining these news, I beg it quickly be reported to I your servant, to be able to prepare.”
  • It also states: “I your servant’s gates [family] received favor, truly deep and truly heavy, from since I your servant took over and carried on affairs onward, repeatedly I was given glory and favor, unique and special without measure, and if failing, I should exhaust strength to death. But I your servant was wild and foolish, my intentions and plans confused and muddled, I did not at once capture the rebels, to the extent of meeting with suspicion. What previous memorial gave full account on incidents and situation, was true but wishing to stop the harm of these rebels, the envoys were trapped but themselves escaped, I truly do not dare turn back on generations worth of favor, and join with usurping and thieving caitiffs. But later people of love and hate, to affairs added false accusation, falsely producing accounts, in the end having the wise listen to suspicion in the market tiger, removing grace and changing favor, rising and moving authority and anger, almost drowning, rising to bearing shame. Trusting and depending on compassion and grace, like bending down to three pardons, to be able to correct wrongs, removing faults and reproaches. If Heaven’s Authority distantly is added, not seeing borrowed use, early matching break down, disgrace first abolishing sacrifice, what cause for self wisdom, establishing this small achievement. I your servant am pleased in the matter’s success, obtaining self explanation, grieving for the past, up to this unforeseen change, remaining terror leaps up, and one does not dare again be at peace. May Your Majesty esteem the benevolence of spring day bearing security, remove anger and close rift, restrain and repress small, push present bright dealing, examine I your servant’s fundamental heart, spread and order embrace and support, accepting and distributing the three springs.”
  • It also states: “I your servant was given honor and glory, kindness and affection is not yet repaid, but due to guilt and quarrel, myself incurring reprimand and anger, distributing immediate killing, to be for the many altars warning. Therefore exceeding standards and contradicting constants, falsely communicating with Wú, truly I myself considered exhaustive urgency, my repayment was not yet established, but for what Heaven’s authority and commanding penalty added, spreading fear abruptly and neglectfully so that I was unable clean myself. Therefore I dared myself substitute and abolish for one year, sending envoy to tempt Wú, knowing they would certainly come, [Sūn] Quán’s seeking prefectures, accumulating for years, at first without instigation answered one remark’s answer, now [Sūn] Quán allowed envoy, coming certainly did not suspect, so that like this in one move, indeed it was as what was planned. High ministers and great armies, awe-inspiring wealth, riches and goods and bribes bequeathed, overturning state for utmost rank, arrived and met with capture. The wandering exiles and dead, over one thousand men, are extinguished and never to return. This truly is the vanguard of the cruel and crafty rebels, opportunity to repress their boasting, clearly declare to the realm Under Heaven, break and destroy their enterprise, and it is sufficient to shame them. I your servant humbly ponder action for the state, and although I have exceptional wrongs, I also have exceptional achievements. May Your Majesty pardon these transgressions of exceeding authority, pluck fine hairs of goodness, employ the state’s grace, and protect and preserve end to beginning.”

〔二〕 魏略載淵表曰:「臣前遣校尉宿舒、郎中令孫綜,甘言厚禮,以誘吳賊。幸賴天道福助大魏,使此賊虜暗然迷惑,違戾群下,不從眾諫,承信臣言,遠遣船使,多將士卒,來致封拜。臣之所執,得如本志,雖憂罪釁,私懷幸甚。賊眾本號萬人,舒、綜伺察,可七八千人,到沓津。偽使者張彌、許晏與中郎將萬泰、校尉裴潛將吏兵四百餘人,齎文書命服什物,下到臣郡。泰、潛別齎致遺貨物,欲因市馬。軍將賀達、虞咨領餘眾在船所。臣本欲須涼節乃取彌等,而彌等人兵眾多,見臣不便承受吳命,意有猜疑。懼其先作,變態妄生,即進兵圍取,斬彌、晏、泰、潛等首級。其吏從兵眾,皆士伍小人,給使東西,不得自由,面縛乞降,不忍誅殺,輒聽納受,徙充邊城。別遣將韓起等率將三軍,馳行至沓。使領長史柳遠設賓主禮誘請達、咨,三軍潛伏以待其下,又驅群馬貨物,欲與交市。達、咨懷疑不下,使諸市買者五六百人下,欲交市。起等金鼓始震,鋒矢亂發,斬首三百餘級,被創赴水沒溺者可二百餘人,其散走山谷,來歸降及藏竄飢餓死者,不在數中。得銀印、銅印、兵器、資貨,不可勝數。謹遣西曹掾公孫珩奉送賊權所假臣節、印綬、符策、九錫、什物,及彌等偽節、印綬、首級。」又曰:「宿舒、孫綜前到吳,賊權問臣家內小大,舒、綜對臣有三息,脩別屬亡弟。權敢姦巧,便擅拜命。謹封送印綬、符策。臣雖無昔人洗耳之風,慚為賊權汙損所加,既行天誅,猶有餘忿。」又曰:「臣父康,昔殺權使,結為讎隙。今乃譎欺,遺使誘致,令權傾心,虛國竭祿,遠命上卿,寵授極位,震動南土,備盡禮數。又權待舒、綜,契闊委曲,君臣上下,畢歡竭情。而令四使見殺,梟示萬里,士眾流離,屠戮津渚,慚恥遠布,痛辱彌天。權之怨疾,將刻肌骨。若天衰其業,使至喪隕,權將內傷憤激而死。若期運未訖,將播毒螫,必恐長蛇來為寇害。徐州諸屯及城陽諸郡,與相接近,如有船眾後年向海門,得其消息,乞速告臣,使得備豫。」又曰:「臣門戶受恩,實深實重,自臣承攝即事以來,連被榮寵,殊特無量,分當隕越,竭力致死。而臣狂愚,意計迷闇,不即禽賊,以至見疑。前章表所陳情趣事勢,實但欲罷弊此賊,使困自絕,誠不敢背累世之恩,附僭盜之虜也。而後愛憎之人,緣事加誣,偽生節目,卒令明聽疑於市虎,移恩改愛,興動威怒,幾至沈沒,長為負忝。幸賴慈恩,猶垂三宥,使得補過,解除愆責。如天威遠加,不見假借,早當麋碎,辱先廢祀,何緣自明,建此微功。臣既喜於事捷,得自申展,悲於疇昔,至此變故,餘怖踊躍,未敢便寧。唯陛下既崇春日生全之仁,除忿塞隙,抑弭纖介,推今亮往,察臣本心,長令抱戴,銜分三泉。」又曰:「臣被服光榮,恩情未報,而以罪釁,自招譴怒,分當即戮,為眾社戒。所以越典詭常,偽通於吳,誠自念窮迫,報效未立,而為天威督罰所加,長恐奄忽不得自洗。故敢自闕替廢於一年,遣使誘吳,知其必來,權之求郡,積有年歲,初無倡答一言之應,今權得使,來必不疑,至此一舉,果如所規,上卿大眾,翕赫豐盛,財貨賂遺,傾國極位,到見禽取,流離死亡,千有餘人,滅絕不反。此誠暴猾賊之鋒,摧矜夸之巧,昭示天下,破損其業,足以慚之矣。臣之慺慺念效於國,雖有非常之過,亦有非常之功,願陛下原其踰闕之愆,采其亳毛之善,使得國恩,保全終始矣。」

  • (3) Wèi Míngchén Zòu records that Central Manager of the Army Xiàhóu Xiàn’s memorial states: “Gōngsūn Yuān in previous years dared violate the Ruler’s Command, abandoning and cutting off plans for tribute, truly dealing both sides. He relies on rugged terrain, and also depends on Sūn Quán. Therefore he dares be domineering, abandoning restraint beyond the seas. Formerly he personally observed the rebel [Sūn] Quán’s armies and treasury, and knew they were weak and few and insufficient to depend on, and therefore decided to behead the rebel’s envoys. Also Gāogōulí and Huìmò with Yuān are enemies, and together they invade and plunder. Now outside he has lost Wú’s assistance, inside there are Hú plundering, his heart knows our state is able to follow land routes, and in this situation he cannot but harbor terrified fearful heart. Therefore at this time, it is appropriate to send envoy to explain to him disaster or fortune. Presenting Chariot Commandant Zōng Hóng, in Wǔ Huángdì‘s time first served in envoy mission, opening and connecting roads. When Wén-dì ascended the throne, he wished to connect envoy mission, sending [Zōng] Hóng to lead his wives and children back to return to their home town, bestowing on them chariot, oxen, and fabric of a hundred pǐ. [Zōng] Hóng as he had received favor, was determined to die for the state and court, and had no wish to return, and begged to leave behind his wives and children, and alone present envoy mission. Gōngsūn Kāng therefore declared himself subject. As [Zōng] Hóng served as envoy well, he was bestowed rank as Marquis within the Passes. [Zōng] Hóng by nature was resolute and fierce, thus his heart was with the state, morning to night earnest and sincere, attending to exerting himself. A powerful clan’s descendant, when young he enjoyed scholarship and learning, widely reading books and records, much he waded through, his mouth speech is fast and nimble, in debating he is not ordinary, attaches to standards and order, if letting out inner feelings, additionally in service in his home prefecture, he always was to the right [senior] of others, and other scholars always deferred to and admired him. If there is to be sending of envoy, one believes one can send [Zōng] Hóng to go. [Zōng] Hóng then is himself from the territory, accustomed to the state’s customs, in persuading on advantages and disadvantages, his debate is sufficient to move their intentions, his wisdom sufficient to observe their affairs, his talent sufficient to enact them, his speech sufficient to meet with trust. If this plan is followed, then even Lìshēng’s surrender to the King of Qí, Lù Jiǎ’s persuasion of Wèi Tuó, would also not surpass it. Wishing to advance on distant road, it is not appropriate to release a fine horse, when already ill, it is not appropriate to depose [famed physician] Biǎn Què. May you investigate my humble advice.”

〔三〕 魏名臣奏載中領軍夏侯獻表曰:「公孫淵昔年敢違王命,廢絕計貢者,實挾兩端。既恃阻險,又怙孫權。故敢跋扈,恣睢海外。宿舒親見賊權軍眾府庫,知其弱少不足憑恃,是以決計斬賊之使。又高句麗、濊貊與淵為仇,並為寇鈔。今外失吳援,內有胡寇,心知國家能從陸道,勢不得不懷惶懼之心。因斯之時,宜遣使示以禍福。奉車都尉鬷弘,武皇帝時始奉使命,開通道路。文皇帝即位,欲通使命,遣弘將妻子還歸鄉里,賜其車、牛,絹百匹。弘以受恩,歸死國朝,無有還意,乞留妻子,身奉使命。公孫康遂稱臣妾。以弘奉使稱意,賜爵關內侯。弘性果烈,乃心於國,夙夜拳拳,念自竭效。冠族子孫,少好學問,博通書記,多所關涉,口論速捷,辯而不俗,附依典誥,若出胸臆,加仕本郡,常在人右,彼方士人素所敬服。若當遣使,以為可使弘行。弘乃自舊土,習其國俗,為說利害,辯足以動其意,明足以見其事,才足以行之,辭足以見信。若其計從,雖酈生之降齊王,陸賈之說尉佗,亦無以遠過也。欲進遠路,不宜釋騏驥;將已篤疾,不宜廢扁鵲。願察愚言也。」

The envoy arrived, Yuān arranged armored troops in military lines, going out to meet the envoy, and also repeatedly toward these state guests let out malicious speech. (4)


  • (4) Wúshū states: Wèi sent envoys Fù Róng, Niè Kuí to appoint Yuān as Duke of Lèlàng. Yuān’s Planning Official from Luòyáng returned, and said to Yuān: “Emissary Zuǒ Jùnbó, those he has sent are all chosen from the valorous and strong, not ordinary men.” Yuān because of this was suspicious and afraid. [Fù] Róng and [Niè] Kuí arrived, and resided in the school office. Yuān first with infantry and cavalry surrounded them, and afterward entered to receive appointment. [Fù] Róng and [Niè] Kuí were greatly afraid, and because of this returned to Luò and spoke of the situation.

〔四〕 吳書曰:魏遣使者傅容、聶夔拜淵為樂浪公。淵計吏從洛陽還,語淵曰:「使者左駿伯,使皆擇勇力者,非凡人也。」淵由是疑怖。容、夔至,住學館中。淵先以步騎圍之,乃入受拜。容、夔大怖,由是還洛言狀。

Jǐngchū Inaugural Year [237], therefore Yōu Province Inspector Guànqiū Jiǎn and others were sent to present seal and written summons for Yuān. Yuān therefore dispatched troops, opposing at Liáosuì, with [Guànqiū] Jiǎn and the rest battling. [Guànqiū] Jiǎn and the rest were unsuccessful and returned. Yuān therefore established himself as King of Yān, installing bureaucracy and officials, sending envoys Wielding Staff, to give to the Xiānbēi Shànyú seals, fief and appointments to frontier peoples, enticing and calling on the Xiānbēi, to invade and disturb the northern regions. (5)


  • (5) Wèishū states: Yuān knew this change was not only due to [Guànqiū] Jiǎn, and therefore made preparations. He sent envoys to apologize to Wú, declared himself King of Yān, and asked to be an allied state. However he yet ordered his subordinate officials to send up letter to explain himself to Wèi stating: “Marshal-in-Chief’s Chief Clerk your servant Guō Xīn, Advisor to the Army Liǔ Pǔ and others of 789 men say:
  • ‘Respectfully receiving This Year’s Seventh Moon’s Jǐmǎo Written Imperial Order, in prostration reading earnestly, [our] spirits are scattered exceedingly, not knowing where our bodies and lives should be cast and handled! We [Guō] Xīn and the rest in prostration’s own thoughts examined, are crickets and ants small and disgraceful, as tools are not timely used, by chance were valued in a thousand ages, received from Gōngsūn Yuān’s grandfather and father onward’s radiant and enlightened virtue, in kindness were immersed and enriched, enveloped in glory and splendor, without cùn or chǐ of achievement, have weariness of carrying burdens; therefore covered in commendations and awards, ascending name in heavenly office, both as old crippled steeds attached to dragons and entrusted to thoroughbreds, winding blue-green dragging violet, flying and soaring cloud stairs, grateful and pondering repayment, dying without chosen land.
  • ‘We your servants have heard an enlightened lord is above, listening to government and selecting advice, servants of men are below, are they without ulterior motives, therefore there is opportunity to complain and yield, offending and accusing injustices.
  • ‘The prefecture is on the frontier borders, secluded and not controlled, to pacify the former three provinces, transferred transport expenses and movements, to provide endowments and rewards, yearly using accumulated hundred millions, emptying and consuming the central states. However yet domineering, revering the Liú on the borders, beacons of fire to look out for one another, feather dispatches arriving at one another, city gates in the daytime closed, roads without travelers, province and prefectures with weapons and spears, fleeing and scattered and capsized. Yuān’s grandfather Dù in the beginning approached the prefecture, inherited desolation and destruction, and opened the light of sun and moon, establishing strategies of divine military ability, gathering crow gathering [i.e. unorganized] peoples, sweeping the land for enterprise, authority shaking and shining through different customs, virtue penetrating through various living things. That Liáo’s lands were not ruined, truly was because it had Dù to depend on. Kǒng-zǐ said: “If not for Guǎn Zhòng, we would have unbound hair and left lapels.” If not for encountering Dù, then the prefecture early would have become grave ruins, and the people bound in barbarian courts. Tradition and remaining love, forever not perishing.
  • ‘When Dù passed away, the officials and people were emotional and admiring, and happy to support his son Kāng, honoring and serving him. Kāng succeeded in gathering the vast threads, overcoming strong plans, civil bright and martial ardent, striding virtue and cultivating benevolence; therefore heart capital carriage, following reverently and respectfully, assisting the state in pacifying chaos, effecting merits diverse and many, achievements grand and matters great, rewards stored in the King’s Office. Dù and Kāng dutifully served Emperor Wǔ [Cáo Cāo]’s great and enlightened union, gathering plans of talley name, supporting and assisting the Hàn House, surrendering body and entrusting pledge, humbling self in serving Wèi. Bandits occupying small and loathing large, fearing and submitting, thus admiring and entrusting in high customs, is harboring and looking up to flourishing virtue. Emperor Wǔ also was open in heart and accepting, treated [him] without lesser, achievement without big or small, always not seeing neglect. Also he ordered him: “The sea’s north lands, are divided to attach to you, from generations to generations your descendants, truly will obtain and have it.” August Heaven and Lordly Earth, truly heard this virtuous voice. We your servants small and large, at ease at lower custom, present these dealings, not daring to omit.
  • ‘Yuān was born with orchid stone beauty, when young held friendly teachings, both civil and martial, loyal and kind and upright; the people admire and respect him, and none do not harbor affection. Yuān gathered weapons of his grandfather and father, ruled and overlooked ten thousand people, serving the state with courtesy, warm cultivation spreading about, alone seeing former sights, collecting and gathering distant regions, serving the Ruler with righteousness, watching danger like the Yí, generations carrying on loyalty and brightness, not failing name. Sūn Quán admired righteousness, not minding distance of ten thousand lǐ, for successive years sending envoy, wishing to himself join and aid, and though was met with cutting off and killing, he did not ponder old resentments, delicately going and coming, seeking accomplishment of grace and goodness. Yuān executed integrity completely firm, did not for profit turn, holding to will like stone, for sure completely resolute. Yet fearing his red [loyal] heart was not yet met with sure understanding, thus with humble expression for generous donation, he enticed the arrival of [Sūn] Quán’s envoys, cutting off heads and delivering ears, to show he had no second [thoughts]. Wú although is distant, the water roads are connected favorably, raising sails to easily arrive, without any separation or limit. Yuān in spite of the deepness of the enemy’s enmity, pondered and kept the integrity of a servant of men, cut off strong Wú’s joy, to clearly serve Wèi’s heart, spirits of earth understand and reflect, all heaven everywhere hears.
  • ‘Your Majesty is of excellent beauty and vast intensity, virtuous ever to martial achievement, increasing bestowment and good command, giving favor second [only] to Qí and Lǔ, down to the accompany ministers, everyone receiving good fortune. Truly by Heaven’s overflowing grace, just to the end from beginning,  exhaustively to trusted aides, forever protecting salary and rank, but unexpectedly in one morning, unreasonably giving cruelty. Thinking of generosity of nurturing, pondering the efficacy of accumulation, sorrowfully thinking of not achieving, painfully meeting with abandonment, raising the state to cry and wail, beating breast and sobbing blood. That which the Three Armies cuts down, are the Mán and Yí and Róng and Dí, the arrogant and without reverence, and therefore they are delivered warefare, and one does not year of a righteous state turning and receiving punishment and suppression. Overall the Sagely King’s regulations, Five Submissions’ Domains, if there is not upholding office, then correct with civil virtue, and if again it does not arrive, then afterward campaign and cut down. Yuān’s small heart is cautious, scrupulous and respectful to rank, diligently serving the superior, and can be said to make exertion. Utmost loyalty and exhaustive integrity, yet still receives suffering and disaster. Xiǎo Biàn’s [‘Small Cap’ poem] compisition, Lí Sāo’s [‘Parting Sorrow’ poem] flourishing, all came from this. Then some flatter evilly, theives speak full of sweetness, yet with pure observation, one detests and knows goodness; slander by opportunity appears upright, confusing and disordering sagely listening, yet hoping for written proclamation, to make known the reason. If trusting in guilt, then bequeath three forgivenesses; if not changing awakening, plan achievement decreasing and falling, then with eight discussions. But hidden army watches to attack, great army suddenly arrives, brandishing spear long and hurrying, charing and striking Liáo’s lands. Dogs and horses detest death, so all the more for humankind! The officials and people will risk death, to oppose the Ruler’s Army.
  • ‘Yuān although was wrongly accused, facing and overlooking grave danger, yet relies on sagely grace, disappointed and frustrated in repeatedly fleeing, hoping that certainly treacherous minister Jiǎo Zhì, rash unrestrained authority and tyranny, and therfore said to we your servants: “Hàn Ān-dì Jiànguāng Inaugural Year [121], Liáodōng Dependent State Commandant Páng Fèn, received the Third Moon Yǐwèi Written Imperial Order, saying to arrest Yōu Province Inspector Féng Huàn and Xuántù Administrator Yáo Guāng. Citing precedent without a Yǐwèi Written Imperial Order, sending attendant censor to Yōu Province to arrest and interrogate treacherous minister Jiǎo Zhì, now the Inspector might unexcptedly wrongly carry on Jiǎo Zhì?” We your Servants commented: “If the Inspector raises troops, shaking and moving the realm Under Heaven, the danger is not Jiǎo Zhì, it is certainly Imperial Order command.”
  • Yuān therefore exhorted and looked up and sighed, himself injured without crime. Deeply thinking of the reason the land nurtures people, secretly admiring ancient public staff’s majesty, therefore wished to cast off cap and release sash, to pass and return to the woods and hills.
  • We your servants maintained, pledging to the death, to garrison and guard office gates, not listening to executions. And seven regiments of tiger troops, five divisions of Mán and Yí, each harboring satisfied nature, not planning same heart, exert arm greatly shouting, lining gates and setting out. Near suburbs farmers, release their hoes and spades, cut down firewood to make clubs, changing tables  to sculls, hurriedly going to serve against trouble, army traveling complete, and though treading through boiling flame, they die without regard of life. Yuān although met with abandonment, resents but is not angry, sending orders to the army, not permitting arming and violation, hand writing letter of announcement, earnestly sorrowful and sincere. But the people and soldiers are fierce and tough, and cannot be disbanded, hoping to give their lives, charging into death without regret. Yuān fears the officials and soldiers will not follow instructions and commands, and thus personally hurries, himself going to resolve, and barely then stopped them. Kindness of a bowl of rice, a common fellow will die for, so all the more for Yuān’s accumulated faith binding with the common people, kindness known in the people’s hearts.
  • From when the Late Emperor [Cáo Pī] first rose, then reaching to Your Majesty [Cáo Ruì], the honor of Yuān accumulated, ample achievement and virtuous virtue, talley names commended and praised, discussed and shown in the Court and Temple, superior clothes and raising tread, reciting and singing enlightened word, to be spoken true. To bury and dig it, is what the ancients were ashamed of. Xiǎobái and Chóngěr, were declining generations’ various lords, yet admired and showed faith, to prosper the overlord’s enterprise. The Shī praises Wén-wáng creating trust in ten thousand nations, the Lùnyǔ praises Zhòngní abandoning food to uphold faith; the virtue of faith, assuredly is also great.
  • Now Wú and Shǔ with the Emperor, as tripod legs reside, the realm Under Heaven is shake and disolute, without unification, we your servants always for Your Majesty fear this dangerous heart. Yuān occupies metal city wall’s firmness, wields harmonious people, the state flourishes and the army is strong, and can go on rampage. Talley name enstrusting pledge, holding to the death good principle, loyalty reaching utmost righteousness, for the Nine Provinces’ border. Now the Two Enemies watch and spy, it is not yet known who will settle, they are not guarded against, and yet Yuān is harmed. Eating soft and spitting hard, is not a King’s principle. We your servants although are base, truly are ashamed of this. If withou Heaven, we your servant’s one prefecture’s good and bad fortune, cannot yet be known; if clouds with Heaven, then also what is to be feared! We your servants have heard in serving a family, the second generation then take as master, third generation then take as lord. We your servants were born in desolte frontier lands, came out from among tablet apertures, without great assistance from Wèi, for generations attached to the Gōngsūn clan, repaying life with bestowal, in to the death strength. In the past Kuǎi Tōng spoke frankly, and Hàn [Gāo-]zǔ [Liú Bāng] pardoned him from execution; Zhèng Zhān spoke obediently, and Jìn [Duke] Wén forgave him from death. We your servants are stubborn and foolish, do not reach great integrity, but recklessly hold to one thing, baring our liver and guts, speaking in opposition to dragon scales, guilt worth ten thousand deaths. May Your Majesty recover lofty nurturing, and understand these charges, to have your distant servants, forever have preservation.'”

〔五〕 魏書曰:淵知此變非獨出儉,遂為備。遣使謝吳,自稱燕王,求為與國。然猶令官屬上書自直于魏曰:「大司馬長史臣郭昕、參軍臣柳浦等七百八十九人言:奉被今年七月己卯詔書,伏讀懇切,精魄散越,不知身命所當投措!昕等伏自惟省,螻蟻小醜,器非時用,遭值千載,被受公孫淵祖考以來光明之德,惠澤沾渥,滋潤榮華,無寸尺之功,有負乘之累;遂蒙褒獎,登名天府,並以駑蹇附龍託驥,紆青拖紫,飛騰雲梯,感恩惟報,死不擇地。臣等聞明君在上,聽政采言,人臣在下,得無隱情,是以因緣訴讓,冒犯愬冤。郡在藩表,密邇不羈,平昔三州,轉輸費調,以供賞賜,歲用累億,虛耗中國。然猶跋扈,虔劉邊陲,烽火相望,羽檄相逮,城門晝閉,路無行人,州郡兵戈,奔散覆沒。淵祖父度初來臨郡,承受荒殘,開日月之光,建神武之略,聚烏合之民,掃地為業,威震燿于殊俗,德澤被于群生。遼土之不壞,實度是賴。孔子曰:『微管仲,吾其被髮左衽。』向不遭度,則郡早為丘墟,而民係於虜廷矣。遺風餘愛,永存不朽。度既薨殂,吏民感慕,欣戴子康,尊而奉之。康踐統洪緒,克壯徽猷,文昭武烈,邁德種仁;乃心京輦,翼翼虔恭,佐國平亂,效績紛紜,功隆事大,勳藏王府。度、康當值武皇帝休明之會,合策名之計,夾輔漢室,降身委質,卑己事魏。匪處小厭大,畏而服焉,乃慕託高風,懷仰盛懿也。武皇帝亦虛心接納,待以不次,功無巨細,每不見忘。又命之曰:『海北土地,割以付君,世世子孫,實得有之。』皇天后土,實聞德音。臣庶小大,豫在下風,奉以周旋,不敢失墜。淵生有蘭石之姿,少含愷悌之訓,允文允武,忠惠且直;生民欽仰,莫弗懷愛。淵纂戎祖考,君臨萬民,為國以禮,淑化流行,獨見先睹,羅結遐方,勤王之義,視險如夷,世載忠亮,不隕厥名。孫權慕義,不遠萬里,連年遣使,欲自結援,雖見絕殺,不念舊怨,纖纖往來,求成恩好。淵執節彌固,不為利迴,守志匪石,確乎彌堅。猶懼丹心未見保明,乃卑辭厚幣,誘致權使,梟截獻馘,以示無二。吳雖在遠,水道通利,舉帆便至,無所隔限。淵不顧敵讎之深,念存人臣之節,絕彊吳之歡,昭事魏之心,靈祇明鑒,普天咸聞。陛下嘉美洪烈,懿茲武功,誕錫休命,寵亞齊、魯,下及陪臣,普受介福。誠以天覆之恩,當卒終始,得竭股肱,永保祿位,不虞一旦,橫被殘酷。惟育養之厚,念積累之效,悲思不遂,痛切見棄,舉國號咷,拊膺泣血。夫三軍所伐,蠻夷戎狄,驕逸不虔,於是致武,不聞義國反受誅討。蓋聖王之制,五服之域,有不供職,則脩文德,而又不至,然後征伐。淵小心翼翼,恪恭于位,勤事奉上,可謂勉矣。盡忠竭節,還被患禍。小弁之作,離騷之興,皆由此也。就或佞邪,盜言孔甘,猶當清覽,憎而知善;讒巧似直,惑亂聖聽,尚望文告,使知所由。若信有罪,當垂三宥;若不改寤,計功減降,當在八議。而潛軍伺襲,大兵奄至,舞戈長驅,衝擊遼土。犬馬惡死,況於人類!吏民昧死,挫辱王師。淵雖冤枉,方臨危殆,猶恃聖恩,悵然重奔,冀必姦臣矯制,妄肆威虐,乃謂臣等曰:『漢安帝建光元年,遼東屬國都尉龐奮,受三月乙未詔書,曰收幽州刺史馮煥、玄菟太守姚光。推案無乙未詔書,遣侍御史幽州(牧)〔收〕考姦臣矯制者。今刺史或儻謬承矯制乎?』臣等議:以為刺史興兵,搖動天下,殆非矯制,必是詔命。淵乃俛仰歎息,自傷無罪。深惟土地所以養人,竊慕古公杖策之岐,乃欲投冠釋紱,逝歸林麓。臣等維持,誓之以死,屯守府門,不聽所執。而七營虎士,五部蠻夷,各懷素飽,不謀同心,奮臂大呼,排門遁出。近郊農民,釋其耨鎛,伐薪制梃,改案為櫓,奔馳赴難,軍旅行成,雖蹈湯火,死不顧生。淵雖見孤棄,怨而不怒,比遣敕軍,勿得干犯,及手書告語,懇惻至誠。而吏士凶悍,不可解散,期於畢命,投死無悔。淵懼吏士不從教令,乃躬馳騖,自往化解,僅乃止之。一飯之惠,匹夫所死,況淵累葉信結百姓,恩著民心。自先帝初興,爰暨陛下,榮淵累葉,豐功懿德,策名褒揚,辯著廊廟,勝衣舉履,誦詠明文,以為口實。埋而掘之,古人所恥。小白、重耳,衰世諸侯,猶慕著信,以隆霸業。詩美文王作孚萬邦,論語稱仲尼去食存信;信之為德,固亦大矣。今吳、蜀共帝,鼎足而居,天下搖蕩,無所統一,臣等每為陛下懼此危心。淵據金城之固,仗和睦之民,國殷兵彊,可以橫行。策名委質,守死善道,忠至義盡,為九州表。方今二敵闚〈門俞〉,未知孰定,是之不戒,而淵是害。茹柔吐剛,非王者之道也。臣等雖鄙,誠竊恥之。若無天乎,臣一郡吉凶,尚未可知;若云有天,亦何懼焉!臣等聞仕於家者,二世則主之,三世則君之。臣等生於荒裔之土,出於圭竇之中,無大援於魏,世隸於公孫氏,報生與賜,在於死力。昔蒯通言直,漢祖赦其誅;鄭詹辭順,晉文原其死。臣等頑愚,不達大節,苟執一介,披露肝膽,言逆龍鱗,罪當萬死。惟陛下恢崇撫育,亮其控告,使疏遠之臣,永有保持。」

Second Year [238] Spring, Excellency Commandant Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng was sent to campaign against Yuān. Sixth Moon, the army reached Liáodōng. (6)


  • (6) Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: Gōnsūn Yuān enthroned himself, declaring Shàohàn Inaugural Year. He heard the Wèi men were about to suppress him, and again declared himself subject to Wú, begging that troops go on northern expedition to save himself. The Wú men wished to kill his envoys. Yáng Chén said: “It cannot be. That would be the anger of an unrestrained coarse fellow and to abandon the planning of an overload. It is not as good as therefore generously treating them, sending hidden troops to secretly go to seek the accomplishments. If Wèi attacks Yuān and cannot overcome him, and our army distantly visits, it will be your grace connecting with distant foreigners, your righteousness covering ten thousand lǐ. If their troops connect and are unresolved, head and tail parted and partitioned, then we can capture their nearby prefectures, quickly plundering and returning, and also this is sufficient to deliver Heaven’s punishments, and avenge and wipe away the previous matter.” [Sūn] Quán said: “Excellent.” Therefore he led troops and greatly set out. He said to Yuān’s envoy: “Please wait for later news. We will follow the request letter, and certainly will with my younger brother [Gōngsūn Yuān] share in rest or grief, together living or perishing. Even to die in the central plains [fighting Wèi], I have willing heart.” He also said: “Where Sīmǎ Yì goes he cannot be matched, I am deeply for my younger brother [Gōngsūn Yuān] worried.”

〔六〕 漢晉春秋曰:公孫淵自立,稱紹漢元年。聞魏人將討,復稱臣於吳,乞兵北伐以自救。吳人欲戮其使,羊茞曰:「不可,是肆匹夫之怒而捐霸王之計也。不如因而厚之,遣奇兵潛往以要其成。若魏伐淵不克,而我軍遠赴,是恩結遐夷,義蓋萬里,若兵連不解,首尾離隔,則我虜其傍郡,驅略而歸,亦足以致天之罰,報雪曩事矣。」權曰:「善」。乃勒兵大出。謂淵使曰:「請俟後問,當從簡書,必與弟同休戚,共存亡,雖隕于中原,吾所甘心也。」又曰:「司馬懿所向無前,深為弟憂也。」

Yuān sent Generals Bēi Yǎn, Yáng Zuò and others with infantry and cavalry of several tens of thousands to garrison Liáosuì, the walls and moats were over twenty lǐ. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng‘s army arrived, [Bēi] Yǎn was ordered to oppose and battle. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng sent General Hú Zūn and others to strike and defeated them. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng ordered the army to bore through the walls, led the troops to head southeast, but quickly hurried northeast, immediately hurrying to Xiāngpíng. [Bēi] Yǎn and the rest feared Xiāngpíng had no defenses, and in the night fled. The various armies advanced reaching Shǒushān, Yuān again sent [Bēi] Yǎn and the rest to lead the army in to-the-death battle. [Sīmǎ Yì] again struck, greatly defeating them, and therefore advanced army to below Zào city walls, making walls and moats. It happened that there was continued rain for over thirty days, the Liáo river violently grew, transport boats from Liáo’s mouth could directly reach below the city walls. The rain cleared, and [Sīmǎ Yì] raised earth mounds, built towers, and made stone shooting repeating crossbows to fire into the city. Yuān was distressed and anxious. The provisions were exhausted, people ate each other, the dead were extremely many. General Yáng Zuò and others surrendered.


Eighth Moon Bǐngyín [238 Sep 3] night, great shooting star several tens of zhàng long, from Shǒu mountain’s northeast falling to Xiāngpíng city’s southeast. Rénwǔ [238 Sep 19], Yuān’s army dispersed, and he with his son Xiū commanded several hundred cavalry to charge out the encirclement and fled southeast, the main army urgently struck them, right where the shooting star had fallen, beheading Yuān father and son. The city was defeated, beheading the Chancellor of State on down so that the severed heads were in the thousands, sending Yuān’s head to Luòyáng, and Liáodōng, Dàifāng, Lèlàng, Xuántù were all pacified.


Previously, Yuān’s family repeatedly had strangeness, a dog wearing headscarf and purple-red clothes ascending house, while cooking food a small boy was steamed to death in a cauldron. In Xiāngpíng’s north market appeared flesh, length and circumference each several chǐ, it had head and eyes and mouth and snout, no hands or feet but shook and swayed. A diviner said: “It has form but is incomplete, has body but no sound, this is the state’s destruction.” Beginning from Dù in Zhōngpíng Sixth Year [189] occupying Liáodōng, reaching Yuān the third generation, altogether was fifty years and then destruction. (1)


  • (1) Wèilüè states: Previously Yuān’s elder brother Huǎng was for Gōng a hostage [for Gōng’s behavior], was at Luò, heard Yuān had seized Gōng’s position, and said Yuān in the end could not be protected, and repeatedly himself memorialized news, wishing to have the state suppress Yuān. The Emperor because Yuān already held power, therefore sought to succor him. Reaching Yuān’s rebellion, therefore by the state’s law they arrested Huǎng. Although Huǎng had previous warning, and hoped to not be connected, however inside because he was bone and flesh kin, he knew when Yuān was defeated then he himself would follow. Yuān’s head arrived, and Huǎng himself knew he would certainly die, and with his sons faced each other and wept. At the time the Ascended [Cáo Ruì] also wished to spare them, but the managers believed it could not be, and therefore killed them.

〔一〕 魏略曰:始淵兄晃為恭任子,在洛,聞淵劫奪恭位,謂淵終不可保,數自表聞,欲令國家討淵。帝以淵已秉權,故因而撫之。及淵叛,遂以國法繫晃。晃雖有前言,冀不坐,然內以骨肉,知淵破則己從及。淵首到,晃自審必死,與其子相對啼哭。時上亦欲活之,而有司以為不可,遂殺之。

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s