Gōngsūn Kāng 公孫康, Gōngsūn Gōng 公孫恭, Gōngsūn Yuān 公孫淵
Gōngsūn Dù appellation Shēngjì, originally was a Liáodōng Xiāngpíng man. Dù’s father [Gōngsūn] Yán, refused to be an official and resided in Xuántù, Dù was appointed as a prefecture official. At the time Xuántù Administrator Gōngsūn Yù, had a son [Gōngsūn] Bào, aged eighteen years, who died young. Dù when young was named Bào, and also with [Gōngsūn] Yù’s son were the same age, [Gōngsūn] Yù met and was close with and favored him, sent him to with teacher study, and for him found a wife. Later he was nominated as Having Principle candidate, appointed Secretariat Cadet, gradually promoted to Jì Province Inspector, and due to rumor was dismissed. His same prefecture’s Xú Róng was Dǒng Zhuó’s Internal Cadet General, and recommended Dù as Liáodōng Administrator.
Dù began as a Xuántù minor official, and was by Liáodōng prefecture disparaged. In earlier time, the Dependent State’s Gōngsūn Zhāo was Xiāngpíng Magistrate, summoned Dù’s son Kāng as a Five [Households] Chief. Dù arrived at office, arrested [Gōngsūn] Zhāo, and beat him to death in Xiāngpíng’s Marketplace. In the prefecture he had with the famed and powerful clans of Tián Sháo and others formerly encountered lack of kindness, and all he used law to execute, those he massacred were over a hundred families, and inside the prefecture was shaken. To the east he attacked Gāogōulí, to the west he struck the Wūhuán, and his authority reached beyond the seas.
Chūpíng Inaugural Year , Dù knew the central states were disturbed, and said to his close officials Liǔ Yì and Yáng Yí and others saying: “Han’s reign is about to end, and I will with you sirs scheme to become King and that is all.” (1) At the time Xiāngpíng’s Yán borough’s Altar produced a large stone, over a zhàng [~2.3 m] tall, below it were three small stones as its feet, someone said to Dù: “This is Hàn Emperor Xuān’s cap stone omen, and the borough name is with your late father’s the same. Altar controls territory, it is clear that it will possess territory, and have Three Excellencies as assistant.” Dù was increasingly pleased.
- (1) Wèishū states: Dù said to [Liǔ] Yì, [Yáng] Yí: “Prophecy books say the grandson will ascend [sūn dēng] to be Heaven’s Son. I the Administrator am surnamed Gōngsūn, appellation Shēngjì. Shēng means ascend [dēng].”
Former Hénèi Administrator Lǐ Mǐn, in the prefecture had reputation, hated Dù’s actions, feared he would be harmed, and therefore was about to lead his family and dependents to take to the sea. Dù was greatly furious, dug up his [Lǐ Mǐn’s] father’s grave, cut open coffin and burned the body, and executed his clansmen. (2)
- (2) Jìnyángqiū states: Lǐ Mǐn’s son sought after [Lǐ] Mǐn, went out the passes, and for over twenty years did not marry. His same hometown’s Xú Miǎo reproached him: “In being unfilial nothing is greater than lacking descendants, how can you to the end not marry?” Therefore he married a wife, begat a son [Lǐ] Yìn and then sent away his wife, always acting as if following the rituals of mourning, in extreme sorrow, and after several years he died. [Lǐ] Yìn was born and did not know his father and mother, and upon knowing them, he had vegetarian diet in sorrow and also had three years of mourning. Because he did not know if his father’s father was living or dead, he set up altar to sacrifice to him. Because of this he had reputation, his office reaching Excellency over the Masses.
- Your Servant Sōngzhī comments: The base biography says [Lǐ] Mǐn led his family to take to the sea, but here he with his son lost each other. It is unknown what was the reason.
He divided Liáodōng prefecture to form Liáoxī and Zhōngliáo prefectures, installing Administrators. He crossed the sea to collect Dōnglái’s various counties, installing a Yíng Province Inspector. He established himself as Marquis of Liáodōng, Píng Province Governor, gave posthumous fief on his father [Gōngsūn] Yán as Marquis of Jiànyì. He established Temples to Hàn’s Two Founders, followed Imperial Regulations to establish altar at Xiāngpíng city’s south, Suburb Sacrifices to Heaven and Earth, Register Field, drilled troops, rode Phoenix Chariot, Nine Tassels, Banner Head and Feather Escort Cavalry.
Tàizǔ [Cáo Cāo] memorialized Dù as Martial Authority General, with fief as Yǒngníng village Marquis. Dù said: “I rule like a King over Liáodōng, what is Yǒngníng!” He hid the seal and ribbon in military storage. Dù died, his son Kāng succeeded position, and gave the Yǒngníng village Marquis fief to his younger brother Gōng. That year was Jiàn’ān Ninth Year .
Twelfth Year , Tàizǔ campaigned against the Three Prefectures Wūhuán, slaughtering Liǔchéng. Yuán Shàng and the rest fled to Liáodōng, Kāng beheaded and sent [Yuán] Shàng’s head. The story is in Wǔjì [SGZ 1]. Fief was given on Kāng as Xiāngpíng Marquis, appointed General of the Left. Kāng died, his sons Huǎng, Yuān, and the rest were all young, and the masses established Gōng as Liáodōng Administrator. Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] ascended , and sent envoy to appoint Gōng as General of Chariots and Cavalry, with Acting Staff, fief as Marquis of Píngguō, posthumous title on Kāng as Marshal-in-Chief.
Previously, Gōng due to disease in his genitals became a castrate, was weak and feeble and unable to govern the state. Tàihé Second Year , Yuān coerced and seized Gōng’s position. Míng-dì [Cáo Ruì] then appointed Yuān as General Raising Fierceness and Administrator of Liáodōng.
Yuān sent envoy to the south to communicate with Sūn Quán, exchanging gifts. (1)
- (1) Wúshū records Yuān’s memorial to [Sūn] Quán: “I your servant in prostration by misfortune met Heaven and Earth overturned, encountered utterly disastrous fate; the ruler’s path is not yet finished, downfallen and disturbed. From my ancestors onward, successively serving Hàn and Wèi, ascending by chance, to for the state enact integrity, for successive generations enjoying appointment, obtaining administration of the borders, yet knowing seal orders have never distantly returned. At every feeling of [your] generous kindness, [I] frequently dishonored [your] conspicuous envoys, withdrawing to consider that a servant of men’s relations do not cross borders, and therefore [I] firmly held to that conduct, resisting and opposing [your] previous envoys. Although the righteous do not have two faiths, dare one forget great kindness? Your Majesty defends and comforts, expanding and preserving [my] small state, from beginning to end Colonel Péi and Commandant Gě and others arrived, presenting orders and commandments, sagely decree completely secret, heavy bound white silk, dark and light prepared and shown, and therefore matters of explaining and revealing, [I] speak and lift [brush] of these and that is all. I your servant in daytime then sing and chant, in nighttime then dream, to the end of my life recite it, my will does not know contentment. At last season’s end there was famine, heaven and earth clogged and blocked, weapons and armor not yet put away, the people are dissolute and dispersed. Looking up to this Heaven’s Mandate and having concerns, privately from one corner forever gazing at cloud and sun. Now the Wèi house cannot collect and record the loyal and good, after commending meritorious ministers, then having the slanderous and false enact their wills, listening to the Yōu Province Inspector and Dōnglái Administrator’s lying and mistaken speach, to raise the province’s troops, plotting to harm I your servant’s prefecutre. I your servant did not betray Wèi, yet Wèi cuts us off. Overall famed servants of men have those that left; Tián Ráo departed Qí, Yuè Yì fled Zhào, so that they were not victims, and therefore protected rulers with principle; Chén Píng and Gěng Kuàng, also observed the times had changed, in the end joined Hàn, carving their names in the Emperor’s registers. In prostration Your Majesty’s virtue did not again set out, the times do not meet the world, and therefore anxiously harboring admiration I myself present, hoping to distantly observe danger, having similar nearby ease. Truly [I] hope [your] divine plans will settle the vast enterprise, exert the six armies’ power, collect the Hé and Luò’s lands, for your sagely dynasty’s ancestors. Under Heaven’s Fortunes are extreme!”
- Wèilüè states: The state knew that Yuān was double dealing, but feared Liáodōng’s officials and people were by Yuān deceived. Therefore public writing was sent down to Liáodōng, to thus pardon them, saying: “Informing Liáodōng’s and Xuántù’s officers and officials and people: rebel bandit Sūn Quán encountered chaos to rise, because his ancestors seized and plundered provinces and prefectures, he therefore gathered the vicious, for himself usurping authority beyond the Jiāng, keeping filth and hiding hatred. Hoping that this could be changed, therefore territory was divided to give him King’s power, to have him in the south call himself sovereign, ranked as highest General, gifts of the Nine Honors. [Sūn] Quán personally crossed hands, to the north bowng head. In obtaining favor as a servant of men, receiving honor as a servant of men, there has never been one like [Sūn] Quán. A wolf’s vicious heart, reporting orders difficult to enact, soldiers returning back and forth, turning back on kindness and betraying his ruler, overthrowing Heaven and rebelling against Divinity, thus he dared to usurp title. Relying on the difficult terrain of rivers and lakes, the Ruler’s Punishment is not yet applied. In recent years onward, he again distantly sends boats, crossing the great ocean, wielding many goods, deceiving and tempting the border people. The border people were unaware, and with him dealt. The Chief Clerks on down, none agreed to prohibit this. Reaching envoy Zhōu Hè’s sailing ships of a hundred, flowing through fords and banks, trading surpluses and shortfalls. So not suspecting and resisting, they presented famed horses, and also envoy Sù Shū followed [Zhōu] Hè in communicating friendship. A ten household village, yet has loyalty and sincerity, trapping lord in evil, the Chūnqiū wrote. Now in Liáodōng and Xuántù those serving matters for the state and court, winding blue-green and dragging violet, are in the thousand hundreds in number, wearing headband and hanging tassels, all girdling seal and ribbon, and yet are without words of rectification or supporting the good. Turtle and jade ruined in caskets, tigers and bulls come out the box, whose wrong is this? The state and court are for the masters and grandees ashamed of this! In the past Hútū had the words: ‘A father teaching son treachery, how can he serve a lord? Talley name entrusting pledge, treachery then is recruited.’ Now then flattery obeying nefarious plans, coercing to follow in treason and deception, how is it alone fathers’ and elder brothers’ teachings being unclear, or sons’ and younger brothers’ enacting studies wrong and nothing more? If sprouting weeds harm fields, free winds feed fires, mushrooms and womrwoods are together burned, how can the innocent be separated? Moreover also this matter is admittedly easy to see, does not reach reflecting on ancient successes and failures, what the Shū and Zhuàn recorded. The Jiāng’s south and the sea’s north have a gap of ten thousand lǐ, Liāodōng’s lord and ministers have no worry of apprehension, when profiting then righteousness does not profit, when noble then righteousness is not noble, this is loathing peaceful and happy residence, seeking dangerous disaster, taking lightly the integrity of loyalty and dependibility, taking heavily the name of betrayal. The Mán and Mò chieftains, yet know love and courtesy, and by this serve men, and so also it is difficult to have face! Moreover also Sù Shū is without crime, forced as envoy to enter Wú, serving as envoy for the unrighteous, beginning with family secrets, shedding tears and going. Reaching to [Zhōu] Hé’s death day, overturning masses completing mountains, although [Sù] Shū escaped death, his soul left his body. Being compelled, thus reached to this! Now loyal ministers and ardent officers, all are angry at Liáodōng repeatedly participating in treason, and all wish to ride rafters across the sea, this is recklessness. I must be for the realm Under Heaven a father and mother, and considering that the realm Under Heaven is newly settled, then I do not wish to toil shields and spears, distantly cross great rivers, expend labor like the others, and also lament that the borders have many common people, who are misled like this, and therefore send Cadet Internal Wèi Shèn, Zhào Mào and others with previous presented Imperial Order to show intention. If trusted aides are loyal and good, and able to enact integrity and establish sincerity to assist the present lord, oppose evil and enact rectification to establish great achievement, the good fortune could not be greater. If fearful for oneself that the suspicion of evil and rebellion is already seen as contaminated, they do not dare propose words, forever harboring grief. Those various peoples that with the bandit envoys communicated, all are pardoned of this, to with them start anew.”
[Sūn] Quán sent envoys Zhāng Mí, Xǔ Yán, and others, to present gold and jade treasures, and enthrone Yuān as King of Yān. Yuān yet feared [Sūn] Quán was too distant and could not be depended on, and moreover was greedy for wealth, enticed the envoys to arrive, and all beheaded and sent [Zhāng] Mí and [Xǔ] Yán and the rest’s heads, (2) and Míng-dì therefore appointed Yuān as Marshal-in-Chief, fief as Duke of Lèlàng, Wielding Staff, governing the prefecture as before. (3)
- (2) Wèilüè records Yuān’s memorial: “I your servant formerly sent Colonel Sù Shū, Cadet Internal Director Sūn Zōng, with sweet words and generous gifts, to entice the Wú rebel. By fortune and depending on Heaven’s Way to prosper and help Great Wèi, it caused this rebel caitiff to be muddled and deceived, oppose his subordinates, not listen to his masses’ remonstrants, and continue to trust in I your servant’s words, distantly send boats and envoys, with many officers and soldiers, arriving to deliver fief and honors. What I your servant grasped, was like what I originally intended, and although worried for punishment, I privately harbored fortune extreme. The rebel masses originally were said to be ten thousand men, [Sù] Shū and [Sūn] Zōng spied and investigated, and they could be seven to eight thousand men, and reached Tàjīn. False emissaries Zhāng Mí and Xǔ Yàn with Internal Cadet General Wàn Tài, Colonel Péi Qián commanded officials and troops of over four hundred men, presenting written orders and robes and assorted things, to give down to I your servant’s prefecture. [Wàn] Tài and [Péi] Qián separately delivered remaining goods, wishing to therefore purchase horses. Army commanders Hè Dá and Yú Zī managed the remaining armies on the boats. I your servant wished to wait for the cold season and then capture [Zhāng] Mí and the rest, but [Zhāng] Mí and the rest’s men and troops were numerous, and observing that I your servant did not immediately accept Wú’s commands, their thoughts had misgivings. Fearing they would first act, and dangerous changes appear, I at once advanced troops to surround and capture, beheading [Zhāng] Mí, [Xǔ] Yàn, [Wàn] Tài, [Péi] Qián and other’s heads. Their officials and accompanying troops and armies, all were soldiers and squads of lesser men, sent about east and west, unable to act as they wished, and [dirtied] face and [self] bound to beg to surrender, and unable to bear killing them, I then listened and accepted them, moving them to fill border fortresses. I separately sent officers Hán Qǐ and others to command the Three Armies, to hurriedly go to reach Tà. Sending Managing Chief Clerk Liǔ Yuǎn to set up Guest and Host ritual to entice and invite [Hé] Dá and [Yú] Zī, the Three Armies hid to wait for them to come down, and they also sent various horses and goods, wishing to with them trade. [Hé] Dá and [Yú] Zī were suspicious and did not come down, sending various trade purchasers of five to hundred men down, wishing to trade. [Hán] Qǐ and the rest beat metal drums to begin to shake, arrows chaotically fired, beheading over three hundred, and those that were wounded and fled into the waters and drowned could be over two hundred, and those that scattered and fled into mountains and valleys, and came to surrender and hid in exile and starved to death, are not counted. The obtained silver seals, copper seals, weapons, supplies and goods, are uncountable. I solemnly send West Department Official Gōngsūn Héng to present and deliver what the rebel [Sūn] Quán gave to I your servant of Acting Staff, Seal and Ribbon, Talisman and Tally, Nine Bestowments, various things, and [Zhāng] Mí and the rest’s false staves, seals and ribbons, and heads.”
- It also states: “Sù Shū and Sūn Zōng previously arrived at Wú, the rebel [Sūn] Quán ask of I your servant’s family’s small and grown, [Sù] Shū and [Sūn] Zōng answered that I your servant had three breaths, educating separate dependents of lost younger brothers. [Sūn] Quán dared be treacherously opportunistic, and then without authority gave appointment orders. I solemnly seal and send the Seals and Ribbons, Talismans and Tallies. I your servant though do not have the ancient men’s custom of washing ears, I am ashamed to from the rebel [Sūn] Quán be added defilement and degradation, and in enacting Heavenly Punishment, I yet have abundant anger.”
- It also states: “I your servant’s father Kāng, in the past killed [Sūn] Quán’s envoys, binding enmity and discord. Now then by deception, I had them send envoy and tempted them to arrive, causing [Sūn] Quán to be give his heart, empty his state and exhaust his wealth, distantly order his highest ministers, to favor and give utmost rank, shaking and disturbing the southern lands, preparing exhaustive etiquette. Also [Sūn] Quán attended to [Sù] Shū and [Sūn] Zōng, carving out full details, ruler and servant high and low, completing joy and exhausting feeling. But I had his four envoys be killed, their heads shown ten thousand lǐ, their soldiers and armies wandering in destitution, slaughtering and killing on ford and islet, his shame and disgrace distantly spreads, pain and humiliation filling the Heavens. [Sūn] Quán’s resentment and hatred, will carve into his flesh and bone. If Heaven weakens his enterprise, it will cause him to reach death and downfall, and [Sūn] Quán will from internal injury of indignation and outrage die. If his fated time is not yet finished, he will spread venomous stings, and certainly one fears this long snake will come to plunder and harm. Xú Province’s various garrisons and Chéngyáng’s various prefectures, with each other are close, if there are boats and armies in later years heading out Hǎimén, when obtaining these news, I beg it quickly be reported to I your servant, to be able to prepare.”
- It also states: “I your servant’s gates [family] received favor, truly deep and truly heavy, from since I your servant took over and carried on affairs onward, repeatedly I was given glory and favor, unique and special without measure, and if failing, I should exhaust strength to death. But I your servant was wild and foolish, my intentions and plans confused and muddled, I did not at once capture the rebels, to the extent of meeting with suspicion. What previous memorial gave full account on incidents and situation, was true but wishing to stop the harm of these rebels, the envoys were trapped but themselves escaped, I truly do not dare turn back on generations worth of favor, and join with usurping and thieving caitiffs. But later people of love and hate, to affairs added false accusation, falsely producing accounts, in the end having the wise listen to suspicion in the market tiger, removing grace and changing favor, rising and moving authority and anger, almost drowning, rising to bearing shame. Trusting and depending on compassion and grace, like bending down to three pardons, to be able to correct wrongs, removing faults and reproaches. If Heaven’s Authority distantly is added, not seeing borrowed use, early matching break down, disgrace first abolishing sacrifice, what cause for self wisdom, establishing this small achievement. I your servant am pleased in the matter’s success, obtaining self explanation, grieving for the past, up to this unforeseen change, remaining terror leaps up, and one does not dare again be at peace. May Your Majesty esteem the benevolence of spring day bearing security, remove anger and close rift, restrain and repress small, push present bright dealing, examine I your servant’s fundamental heart, spread and order embrace and support, accepting and distributing the three springs.”
- It also states: “I your servant was given honor and glory, kindness and affection is not yet repaid, but due to guilt and quarrel, myself incurring reprimand and anger, distributing immediate killing, to be for the many altars warning. Therefore exceeding standards and contradicting constants, falsely communicating with Wú, truly I myself considered exhaustive urgency, my repayment was not yet established, but for what Heaven’s authority and commanding penalty added, spreading fear abruptly and neglectfully so that I was unable clean myself. Therefore I dared myself substitute and abolish for one year, sending envoy to tempt Wú, knowing they would certainly come, [Sūn] Quán’s seeking prefectures, accumulating for years, at first without instigation answered one remark’s answer, now [Sūn] Quán allowed envoy, coming certainly did not suspect, so that like this in one move, indeed it was as what was planned. High ministers and great armies, awe-inspiring wealth, riches and goods and bribes bequeathed, overturning state for utmost rank, arrived and met with capture. The wandering exiles and dead, over one thousand men, are extinguished and never to return. This truly is the vanguard of the cruel and crafty rebels, opportunity to repress their boasting, clearly declare to the realm Under Heaven, break and destroy their enterprise, and it is sufficient to shame them. I your servant humbly ponder action for the state, and although I have exceptional wrongs, I also have exceptional achievements. May Your Majesty pardon these transgressions of exceeding authority, pluck fine hairs of goodness, employ the state’s grace, and protect and preserve end to beginning.”
- (3) Wèi Míngchén Zòu records that Central Manager of the Army Xiàhóu Xiàn’s memorial states: “Gōngsūn Yuān in previous years dared violate the Ruler’s Command, abandoning and cutting off plans for tribute, truly dealing both sides. He relies on rugged terrain, and also depends on Sūn Quán. Therefore he dares be domineering, abandoning restraint beyond the seas. Formerly he personally observed the rebel [Sūn] Quán’s armies and treasury, and knew they were weak and few and insufficient to depend on, and therefore decided to behead the rebel’s envoys. Also Gāogōulí and Huìmò with Yuān are enemies, and together they invade and plunder. Now outside he has lost Wú’s assistance, inside there are Hú plundering, his heart knows our state is able to follow land routes, and in this situation he cannot but harbor terrified fearful heart. Therefore at this time, it is appropriate to send envoy to explain to him disaster or fortune. Presenting Chariot Commandant Zōng Hóng, in Wǔ Huángdì‘s time first served in envoy mission, opening and connecting roads. When Wén-dì ascended the throne, he wished to connect envoy mission, sending [Zōng] Hóng to lead his wives and children back to return to their home town, bestowing on them chariot, oxen, and fabric of a hundred pǐ. [Zōng] Hóng as he had received favor, was determined to die for the state and court, and had no wish to return, and begged to leave behind his wives and children, and alone present envoy mission. Gōngsūn Kāng therefore declared himself subject. As [Zōng] Hóng served as envoy well, he was bestowed rank as Marquis within the Passes. [Zōng] Hóng by nature was resolute and fierce, thus his heart was with the state, morning to night earnest and sincere, attending to exerting himself. A powerful clan’s descendant, when young he enjoyed scholarship and learning, widely reading books and records, much he waded through, his mouth speech is fast and nimble, in debating he is not ordinary, attaches to standards and order, if letting out inner feelings, additionally in service in his home prefecture, he always was to the right [senior] of others, and other scholars always deferred to and admired him. If there is to be sending of envoy, one believes one can send [Zōng] Hóng to go. [Zōng] Hóng then is himself from the territory, accustomed to the state’s customs, in persuading on advantages and disadvantages, his debate is sufficient to move their intentions, his wisdom sufficient to observe their affairs, his talent sufficient to enact them, his speech sufficient to meet with trust. If this plan is followed, then even Lìshēng’s surrender to the King of Qí, Lù Jiǎ’s persuasion of Wèi Tuó, would also not surpass it. Wishing to advance on distant road, it is not appropriate to release a fine horse, when already ill, it is not appropriate to depose [famed physician] Biǎn Què. May you investigate my humble advice.”
The envoy arrived, Yuān arranged armored troops in military lines, going out to meet the envoy, and also repeatedly toward these state guests let out malicious speech. (4)
- (4) Wúshū states: Wèi sent envoys Fù Róng, Niè Kuí to appoint Yuān as Duke of Lèlàng. Yuān’s Planning Official from Luòyáng returned, and said to Yuān: “Emissary Zuǒ Jùnbó, those he has sent are all chosen from the valorous and strong, not ordinary men.” Yuān because of this was suspicious and afraid. [Fù] Róng and [Niè] Kuí arrived, and resided in the school office. Yuān first with infantry and cavalry surrounded them, and afterward entered to receive appointment. [Fù] Róng and [Niè] Kuí were greatly afraid, and because of this returned to Luò and spoke of the situation.
Jǐngchū Inaugural Year , therefore Yōu Province Inspector Guànqiū Jiǎn and others were sent to present seal and written summons for Yuān. Yuān therefore dispatched troops, opposing at Liáosuì, with [Guànqiū] Jiǎn and the rest battling. [Guànqiū] Jiǎn and the rest were unsuccessful and returned. Yuān therefore established himself as King of Yān, installing bureaucracy and officials, sending envoys Wielding Staff, to give to the Xiānbēi Shànyú seals, fief and appointments to frontier peoples, enticing and calling on the Xiānbēi, to invade and disturb the northern regions. (5)
- (5) Wèishū states: Yuān knew this change was not only due to [Guànqiū] Jiǎn, and therefore made preparations. He sent envoys to apologize to Wú, declared himself King of Yān, and asked to be an allied state. However he yet ordered his subordinate officials to send up letter to explain himself to Wèi stating: “Marshal-in-Chief’s Chief Clerk your servant Guō Xīn, Advisor to the Army Liǔ Pǔ and others of 789 men say:
- ‘Respectfully receiving This Year’s Seventh Moon’s Jiǐmǎo Written Imperial Order, in prostration reading earnestly, [our] spirits are scattered exceedingly, not knowing where our bodies and lives should be cast and handled! We [Guō] Xīn and the rest in prostration’s own thoughts examined, are crickets and ants small and disgraceful, as tools are not timely used, by chance were valued in a thousand ages, received from Gōngsūn Yuān’s grandfather and father onward’s radiant and enlightened virtue, in kindness were immersed and enriched, enveloped in glory and splendor, without cùn or chǐ of achievement, have weariness of carrying burdens; therefore covered in commendations and awards, ascending name in heavenly office, both as old crippled steeds attached to dragons and entrusted to thoroughbreds, winding blue-green dragging violet, flying and soaring cloud stairs, grateful and pondering repayment, dying without chosen land.
- ‘We your servants have heard an enlightened lord is above, listening to government and selecting advice, servants of men are below, are they without ulterior motives, therefore there is opportunity to complain and yield, offending and accusing injustices.
- ‘The prefecture is on the frontier borders, secluded and not controlled, to pacify the former three provinces, transferred transport expenses and movements, to provide endowments and rewards, yearly using accumulated hundred millions, emptying and consuming the central states. However yet domineering, revering the Liú on the borders, beacons of fire to look out for one another, feather dispatches arriving at one another, city gates in the daytime closed, roads without travelers, province and prefectures with weapons and spears, fleeing and scattered and capsized. Yuān’s grandfather Dù in the beginning approached the prefecture, inherited desolation and destruction, and opened the light of sun and moon, establishing strategies of divine military ability, gathering crow gathering [i.e. unorganized] peoples, sweeping the land for enterprise, authority shaking and shining through different customs, virtue penetrating through various living things. That Liáo’s lands were not ruined, truly was because it had Dù to depend on. Kǒng-zǐ said: “If not for Guǎn Zhòng, we would have unbound hair and left lapels.” If not for encountering Dù, then the prefecture early would have become grave ruins, and the people bound in barbarian courts. Tradition and remaining love, forever not perishing.
- ‘When Dù passed away, the officials and people were emotional and admiring, and happy to support his son Kāng, honoring and serving him. Kāng succeeded in gathering the vast threads, overcoming strong plans, civil bright and martial ardent, striding virtue and cultivating benevolence; therefore heart capital carriage, following reverently and respectfully, assisting the state in pacifying chaos, effecting merits diverse and many, achievements grand and matters great, rewards stored in the King’s Office. Dù and Kāng dutifully served Emperor Wǔ [Cáo Cāo]’s great and enlightened union, gathering plans of talley name, supporting and assisting the Hàn House, surrendering body and entrusting pledge, humbling self in serving Wèi. Bandits occupying small and loathing large, fearing and submitting, thus admiring and entrusting in high customs, is harboring and looking up to flourishing virtue. Emperor Wǔ also was open in heart and accepting, treated [him] without lesser, achievement without big or small, always not seeing neglect. Also he ordered him: “The sea’s north lands, are divided to attach to you, from generations to generations your descendants, truly will obtain and have it.” August Heaven and Lordly Earth, truly heard this virtuous voice. We your servants small and large, at ease at lower custom, present these dealings, not daring to omit.
- ‘Yuān was born with orchid stone beauty, when young held friendly teachings, both civil and martial, loyal and kind and upright; the people admire and respect him, and none do not harbor affection. Yuān gathered weapons of his grandfather and father, ruled and overlooked ten thousand people, serving the state with courtesy, warm cultivation spreading about, alone seeing former sights, collecting and gathering distant regions, serving the Ruler with righteousness, watching danger like the Yí, generations carrying on loyalty and brightness, not failing name. Sūn Quán admired righteousness, not minding distance of ten thousand lǐ, for successive years sending envoy, wishing to himself join and aid, and though was met with cutting off and killing, he did not ponder old resentments, delicately going and coming, seeking accomplishment of grace and goodness. Yuān executed integrity completely firm, did not for profit turn, holding to will like stone, for sure completely resolute. Yet fearing his red [loyal] heart was not yet met with sure understanding, thus with humble expression for generous donation, he enticed the arrival of [Sūn] Quán’s envoys, cutting off heads and delivering ears, to show he had no second [thoughts]. Wú although is distant, the water roads are connected favorably, raising sails to easily arrive, without any separation or limit. Yuān in spite of the deepness of the enemy’s enmity, pondered and kept the integrity of a servant of men, cut off strong Wú’s joy, to clearly serve Wèi’s heart, spirits of earth understand and reflect, all heaven everywhere hears.
- ‘Your Majesty is of excellent beauty and vast intensity, virtuous ever to martial achievement, increasing bestowment and good command, giving favor second [only] to Qí and Lǔ, down to the accompany ministers, everyone receiving good fortune. Truly by Heaven’s overflowing grace, just to the end from beginning, exhaustively to trusted aides, forever protecting salary and rank, but unexpectedly in one morning, unreasonably giving cruelty. Thinking of generosity of nurturing, pondering the efficacy of accumulation, sorrowfully thinking of not achieving, painfully meeting with abandonment, raising the state to cry and wail, beating breast and sobbing blood. That which the Three Armies cuts down, are the Mán and Yí and Róng and Dí, the arrogant and without reverence, and therefore they are delivered warefare, and one does not year of a righteous state turning and receiving punishment and suppression. Overall the Sagely King’s regulations, Five Submissions’ Domains, if there is not upholding office, then correct with civil virtue, and if again it does not arrive, then afterward campaign and cut down. Yuān’s small heart is cautious, scrupulous and respectful to rank, diligently serving the superior, and can be said to make exertion. Utmost loyalty and exhaustive integrity, yet still receives suffering and disaster. Xiǎo Biàn’s [‘Small Cap’ poem] compisition, Lí Sāo’s [‘Parting Sorrow’ poem] flourishing, all came from this. Then some flatter evilly, theives speak full of sweetness, yet with pure observation, one detests and knows goodness; slander by opportunity appears upright, confusing and disordering sagely listening, yet hoping for written proclamation, to make known the reason. If trusting in guilt, then bequeath three forgivenesses; if not changing awakening, plan achievement decreasing and falling, then with eight discussions. But hidden army watches to attack, great army suddenly arrives, brandishing spear long and hurrying, charing and striking Liáo’s lands. Dogs and horses detest death, so all the more for humankind! The officials and people will risk death, to oppose the Ruler’s Army.
- ‘Yuān although was wrongly accused, facing and overlooking grave danger, yet relies on sagely grace, disappointed and frustrated in repeatedly fleeing, hoping that certainly treacherous minister Jiǎo Zhì, rash unrestrained authority and tyranny, and therfore said to we your servants: “Hàn Ān-dì Jiànguāng Inaugural Year , Liáodōng Dependent State Commandant Páng Fèn, received the Third Moon Yǐwèi Written Imperial Order, saying to arrest Yōu Province Inspector Féng Huàn and Xuántù Administrator Yáo Guāng. Citing precedent without a Yǐwèi Written Imperial Order, sending attendant censor to Yōu Province to arrest and interrogate treacherous minister Jiǎo Zhì, now the Inspector might unexcptedly wrongly carry on Jiǎo Zhì?” We your Servants commented: “If the Inspector raises troops, shaking and moving the realm Under Heaven, the danger is not Jiǎo Zhì, it is certainly Imperial Order command.”
- Yuān therefore exhorted and looked up and sighed, himself injured without crime. Deeply thinking of the reason the land nurtures people, secretly admiring ancient public staff’s majesty, therefore wished to cast off cap and release sash, to pass and return to the woods and hills.
- We your servants maintained, pledging to the death, to garrison and guard office gates, not listening to executions. And seven regiments of tiger troops, five divisions of Mán and Yí, each harboring satisfied nature, not planning same heart, exert arm greatly shouting, lining gates and setting out. Near suburbs farmers, release their hoes and spades, cut down firewood to make clubs, changing tables to sculls, hurriedly going to serve against trouble, army traveling complete, and though treading through boiling flame, they die without regard of life. Yuān although met with abandonment, resents but is not angry, sending orders to the army, not permitting arming and violation, hand writing letter of announcement, earnestly sorrowful and sincere. But the people and soldiers are fierce and tough, and cannot be disbanded, hoping to give their lives, charging into death without regret. Yuān fears the officials and soldiers will not follow instructions and commands, and thus personally hurries, himself going to resolve, and barely then stopped them. Kindness of a bowl of rice, a common fellow will die for, so all the more for Yuān’s accumulated faith binding with the common people, kindness known in the people’s hearts.
- From when the Late Emperor [Cáo Pī] first rose, then reaching to Your Majesty [Cáo Ruì], the honor of Yuān accumulated, ample achievement and virtuous virtue, talley names commended and praised, discussed and shown in the Court and Temple, superior clothes and raising tread, reciting and singing enlightened word, to be spoken true. To bury and dig it, is what the ancients were ashamed of. Xiǎobái and Chóngěr, were declining generations’ various lords, yet admired and showed faith, to prosper the overlord’s enterprise. The Shī praises Wén-wáng creating trust in ten thousand nations, the Lùnyǔ praises Zhòngní abandoning food to uphold faith; the virtue of faith, assuredly is also great.
- Now Wú and Shǔ with the Emperor, as tripod legs reside, the realm Under Heaven is shake and disolute, without unification, we your servants always for Your Majesty fear this dangerous heart. Yuān occupies metal city wall’s firmness, wields harmonious people, the state flourishes and the army is strong, and can go on rampage. Talley name enstrusting pledge, holding to the death good principle, loyalty reaching utmost righteousness, for the Nine Provinces’ border. Now the Two Enemies watch and spy, it is not yet known who will settle, they are not guarded against, and yet Yuān is harmed. Eating soft and spitting hard, is not a King’s principle. We your servants although are base, truly are ashamed of this. If withou Heaven, we your servant’s one prefecture’s good and bad fortune, cannot yet be known; if clouds with Heaven, then also what is to be feared! We your servants have heard in serving a family, the second generation then take as master, third generation then take as lord. We your servants were born in desolte frontier lands, came out from among tablet apertures, without great assistance from Wèi, for generations attached to the Gōngsūn clan, repaying life with bestowal, in to the death strength. In the past Kuǎi Tōng spoke frankly, and Hàn [Gāo-]zǔ [Liú Bāng] pardoned him from execution; Zhèng Zhān spoke obediently, and Jìn [Duke] Wén forgave him from death. We your servants are stubborn and foolish, do not reach great integrity, but recklessly hold to one thing, baring our liver and guts, speaking in opposition to dragon scales, guilt worth ten thousand deaths. May Your Majesty recover lofty nurturing, and understand these charges, to have your distant servants, forever have preservation.'”
Second Year  Spring, Excellency Commandant Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng was sent to campaign against Yuān. Sixth Moon, the army reached Liáodōng. (6)
- (6) Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: Gōnsūn Yuān enthroned himself, declaring Shàohàn Inaugural Year. He heard the Wèi men were about to suppress him, and again declared himself subject to Wú, begging that troops go on northern expedition to save himself. The Wú men wished to kill his envoys. Yáng Chén said: “It cannot be. That would be the anger of an unrestrained coarse fellow and to abandon the planning of an overload. It is not as good as therefore generously treating them, sending hidden troops to secretly go to seek the accomplishments. If Wèi attacks Yuān and cannot overcome him, and our army distantly visits, it will be your grace connecting with distant foreigners, your righteousness covering ten thousand lǐ. If their troops connect and are unresolved, head and tail parted and partitioned, then we can capture their nearby prefectures, quickly plundering and returning, and also this is sufficient to deliver Heaven’s punishments, and avenge and wipe away the previous matter.” [Sūn] Quán said: “Excellent.” Therefore he led troops and greatly set out. He said to Yuān’s envoy: “Please wait for later news. We will follow the request letter, and certainly will with my younger brother [Gōngsūn Yuān] share in rest or grief, together living or perishing. Even to die in the central plains [fighting Wèi], I have willing heart.” He also said: “Where Sīmǎ Yì goes he cannot be matched, I am deeply for my younger brother [Gōngsūn Yuān] worried.”
Yuān sent Generals Bēi Yǎn, Yáng Zuò and others with infantry and cavalry of several tens of thousands to garrison Liáosuì, the walls and moats were over twenty lǐ. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng‘s army arrived, [Bēi] Yǎn was ordered to oppose and battle. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng sent General Hú Zūn and others to strike and defeated them. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng ordered the army to bore through the walls, led the troops to head southeast, but quickly hurried northeast, immediately hurrying to Xiāngpíng. [Bēi] Yǎn and the rest feared Xiāngpíng had no defenses, and in the night fled. The various armies advanced reaching Shǒushān, Yuān again sent [Bēi] Yǎn and the rest to lead the army in to-the-death battle. [Sīmǎ Yì] again struck, greatly defeating them, and therefore advanced army to below Zào city walls, making walls and moats. It happened that there was continued rain for over thirty days, the Liáo river violently grew, transport boats from Liáo’s mouth could directly reach below the city walls. The rain cleared, and [Sīmǎ Yì] raised earth mounds, built towers, and made stone shooting repeating crossbows to fire into the city. Yuān was distressed and anxious. The provisions were exhausted, people ate each other, the dead were extremely many. General Yáng Zuò and others surrendered.
Eighth Moon Bǐngyín [238 Sep 3] night, great shooting star several tens of zhàng long, from Shǒu mountain’s northeast falling to Xiāngpíng city’s southeast. Rénwǔ [238 Sep 19], Yuān’s army dispersed, and he with his son Xiū commanded several hundred cavalry to charge out the encirclement and fled southeast, the main army urgently struck them, right where the shooting star had fallen, beheading Yuān father and son. The city was defeated, beheading the Chancellor of State on down so that the severed heads were in the thousands, sending Yuān’s head to Luòyáng, and Liáodōng, Dàifāng, Lèlàng, Xuántù were all pacified.
Previously, Yuān’s family repeatedly had strangeness, a dog wearing headscarf and purple-red clothes ascending house, while cooking food a small boy was steamed to death in a cauldron. In Xiāngpíng’s north market appeared flesh, length and circumference each several chǐ, it had head and eyes and mouth and snout, no hands or feet but shook and swayed. A diviner said: “It has form but is incomplete, has body but no sound, this is the state’s destruction.” Beginning from Dù in Zhōngpíng Sixth Year  occupying Liáodōng, reaching Yuān the third generation, altogether was fifty years and then destruction. (1)
- (1) Wèilüè states: Previously Yuān’s elder brother Huǎng was for Gōng a hostage [for Gōng’s behavior], was at Luò, heard Yuān had seized Gōng’s position, and said Yuān in the end could not be protected, and repeatedly himself memorialized news, wishing to have the state suppress Yuān. The Emperor because Yuān already held power, therefore sought to succor him. Reaching Yuān’s rebellion, therefore by the state’s law they arrested Huǎng. Although Huǎng had previous warning, and hoped to not be connected, however inside because he was bone and flesh kin, he knew when Yuān was defeated then he himself would follow. Yuān’s head arrived, and Huǎng himself knew he would certainly die, and with his sons faced each other and wept. At the time the Ascended [Cáo Ruì] also wished to spare them, but the managers believed it could not be, and therefore killed them.