(44.1) Jiǎng Wǎn 蔣琬 [Gōngyǎn 公琰]

Liú Mǐn 劉敏

Jiǎng Wǎn appellation Gōngyǎn was a Línglíng Xiāngxiāng man. When capped he with his maternal side younger cousin Quánlíng’s Liú Mǐn both had known reputation. Wǎn as Provincial Document Aide accompanied Xiānzhǔ [Liú Bèi] in entering Shǔ, and was sent out as Guǎngdū Chief. Xiānzhǔ once while touring and observing suddenly reached Guǎngdū, saw Wǎn’s multitude of affairs were not attended to, and at the time he was also thoroughly intoxicated, Xiānzhǔ was greatly furious, and about to apply punishment and execution. Master of the Army General Zhūgě Liǎng pleaded: “Jiǎng Wǎn is a tool for the State Altars, not a talent for a hundred lǐ [county]. He takes government for securing the people as his foundation, and does not take cultivation and ornamentation as foremost; may your Excellency again investigate this.” Xiānzhǔ respected [Zhūgě] Liàng, and therefore did not increase punishment, and only hurriedly dismissed him from office and nothing more.


After Wǎn met with dismissal, in the night he dreamed of an ox head in front of a door, shedding blood overflowing, and his thoughts were extremely fearful of this, and he called and asked a dream diviner Zhào Zhí. [Zhào] Zhí said: “Seeing blood, the matter is evident. Ox horns and nose form the image of the word ‘Excellency’ 公; your rank certainly will reach the Excellencies, it is an omen of great fortune.” Shortly afterward, he became Shífāng Magistrate. Xiānzhǔ became King of Hànzhōng [219], and Wǎn entered as Secretariat Documents Cadet.


Jiànxīng Inaugural Year [223], Chancellor [Zhūgě] Liàng established his Office, and recruited Wǎn as East Department Official. He was nominated as an Abundant Talent candidate, but Wǎn firmly deferred to Liú Yōng, Yīn Huà, Páng Yán, Liào Chún. [Zhūgě] Liàng’s instructions answered: “Thinking of [your] turning back on kin and abandoning virtue, in order to aide the common people, everyone does not conceal their hearts, and truly also cause the far and near to not understand this meaning, and therefore you should make known this achievement and nomination, in order to show this selection is pure and serious.” He was promoted to Advisor to the Army.


Fifth Year [227], [Zhūgě] Liàng stationed at Hànzhōng, and Wǎn with Chief Clerk Zhāng Yì governed the Remaining Office affairs [at Chéngdū]. Eighth Year [230], he succeeded [Zhāng] Yì as Chief Clerk, and was added office General Supporting the Army. [Zhūgě] Liàng repeatedly set out outside, and Wǎn always with sufficient provisions and sufficient troops supplied him. [Zhūgě] Liàng every time said: “Gōngyǎn entrusted with will is loyal and elegant, and rightly with me together support the Ruling Enterprise.” He secretly memorialized to Hòuzhǔ [Liú Shàn]: “If I your servant suffer misfortune [and die], later affairs should be entrusted to Wǎn.”


[Zhūgě] Liàng died, and Wǎn became Secretariat Director, and very soon was added office as Acting Regional Protector, with Acting Staff, office as Yì Province Inspector, promoted to General-in-Chief, with authority over Secretariat affairs, and fief as Ānyáng precinct Marquis. At the time they were newly mourning for the foremost commander [Zhūgě Liàng], and far and near were frightened. Wǎn exceeded out from the masses, resided to the right [senior] of all the various officials, had no sorrowful look, and also no cheerful appearance, like a spirit maintaining his bearing, like any ordinary day, and by this everyone’s expectations gradually turned to him. Yánxī Inaugural Year [238], Imperial Order to Wǎn said: “The bandit troubles are not yet repressed, Cáo Ruì is arrogant and vicious, Liáodōng’s three prefectures suffer his brutal oppression, and therefore join together with us, with him separating and dividing. [Cáo] Ruì greatly raises army conscription, returning to attack and campaign. In former times Qín’s destruction, first began from the difficulty of [Chén] Shèng and [Wú] Guǎng; now there is this change, and this then is a Heaven sent time. You must manage and organize, assemble and command the various armies and garrisons and station at Hànzhōng, wait for Wú to move, East [Wú] and West [Shǔ] as pincer horns, to take advantage of this quarrel.” He also ordered Wǎn to establish Office, and next year was also promoted to Marshal-in-Chief.


East Department Official Yáng Xì by nature was terse and succinct, Wǎn with him talked and discussed, and often he did not reply. Someone wished to undermine [Yáng] Xì to Wǎn and said: “Your Excellency with [Yáng] Xì speaks but do not meet with reply, [Yáng] Xì’s disrespect to superiors, is it not also extreme?”


Wǎn said: “People’s hearts are not the same, each like their appearance; appearance of agreeing but later speaking [disagreement], were what the ancients warned against. If [Yáng] Xì wished to praise me as correct, then it would not be his true intentions; if he wished to oppose my words, then it would make prominent my wrong; therefore he was silent, and this is Xì’s wit.”


Also Agriculture Commander Yáng Mǐn previously slandered Wǎn: “His handling of affairs is confused, and truly not matching his predecessor.” Someone reported this to Wǎn, and the manager asked to dismiss and punish [Yáng] Mǐn. Wǎn said: “I truly do not match my predecessor; he cannot be dismissed.” The manager again requested but [Jiǎng Wǎn] would not dismiss, and so he asked about what was confused [as Yáng Mǐn had accused]. Wǎn said: “If I cannot compare, then my matters are not properly managed, if matters are not properly managed, then they are confused. Again what is there to ask?” Later [Yáng] Mǐn in connection to a matter was bound and imprisoned, everyone feared he would certainly die, but Wǎn’s heart did not believe it proper, and he obtained pardon from serious crime.


His likes and dislikes and holding to principle, was all of this sort.


Wǎn believed in the past Zhūgě Liàng repeatedly invaded the Qín rivers, the roads were rugged and transportation difficult, and indeed he could not be successful, and it was not as good as riding the rivers to go east downstream. Therefore he made many boats, wishing to follow the Hàn and Miǎn [rivers] attack Wèixīng and Shàngyōng. It happened that his old illnesses repeatedly broke out, and he did not have time to enact it. And the many commentators all said if they could not achieve victory, the return road would be extremely difficult, and this was not a good strategy. Therefore Secretariat Director Fèi Yī and Central Supervisor of the Army Jiāng Wéi and others were sent to report this.


Wǎn received the order and sent up memorial: “Eliminating filth and repressing trouble, is I your servant’s duty and handling. From when I your servant accepted and order and took leave to Hànzhōng, it has already been six years. I your servant am muddled and weak, and additionally am very ill, my schemes are not achieved, and morning to night I am sorrowful and wretched. Now Wèi spans across nine [of thirteen] provinces, their roots grow and spread, and leveling and eliminating them is not yet easy. If East [Wú] and West [Shǔ] join strength, head and tail pincer horns, although we cannot yet quickly obtain our ambition, yet we can divide and nibble away, first breaking away their branch groups. However Wú’s timing changes again and again, repeatedly they are unable to be resolute, so we high and low are troubled, and truly neglect to rest and eat. Then with Fèi Yī and the rest discussing, we believe Liáng Province’s border passes are critical, advancing and retreating are provided for, what the bandits fear; moreover the Qiāng and Hú yet think of Hàn like a thirst, and also in the past the Assisting General [Wèi Yán] entered among the Qiāng, Guō Huái was defeated and fled, considering these strengths and weaknesses, we believe the first matter, should be to appoint Jiāng Wéi as Liáng Province Inspector. If [Jiāng] Wéi campaigns, seizing and holding the Hé’s right [west], then I your servant will command the army to be [Jiāng] Wéi’s defense and support. Now the Fú’s river and lands are well connected, and is critical for reacting, so that if the northeast has anticipation, going there is not difficult.” Therefore Wǎn then returned to station at Fú.


His illness returned and became severe, and reaching the Ninth Year [246] he died, posthumous name Gōng “Respectful.”


His son [Jiǎng] Bīn was Soothing Martial General and Hànchéng Protector of the Army. Wèi General-in-Chief Zhōng Huì reached Hànchéng, and with [Jiǎng] Bīn sent letter: “Bā-Shǔ’s worthy and wise civil and military elites are many. Reaching you and Zhūgě Sīyuán, you are like grass and trees, my sort of spirit. Veneration for one’s homeland, the ancients and the present esteem. I have arrived west, wishing to see and pay respects to your great father’s tomb, to wash and sweep the graves, and present sacrifices with veneration. May you inform me of its location!”


[Jiǎng] Bīn’s reply letter said: “I know your intentions and concerns are grand, and am willing to communicate, and will not refuse your words that came. My late father in the past encountered illness, and died at Fú county, diviners said it was auspicious, and therefore he was buried there. I know you are on the west border, and so wish to bow and with carriage and ornamentation pay veneration at the graves. Your regard for my father, is Yán-zǐ’s benevolence; hearing your words I am moved and grieved, and increased my feelings of melancholy.”


[Zhōng] Huì obtained [Jiǎng] Bīn’s reply letter, praised and sighed at his meaning, and when he arrived at Fú, he did as his letter had said.


When Hòuzhǔ surrendered to Dèng Ài, [Jiǎng] Bīn visited [Zhōng] Huì at Fú, and treated him with the courtesy of making friends. He accompanied [Zhōng] Huì to Chéngdū, and was by the chaos of troops killed. [Jiǎng] Bīn’s younger brother [Jiǎng] Xiǎn was an Heir-Apparent’s Charioteer, [Zhōng] Huì also favored his talent and learning, and he with [Jiǎng] Bīn at the same time died.


Liú Mǐn was a Left Protector of the Army and Raising Authority General, and with General-in-Chief Defending North Wáng Píng both defended Hànzhōng. At the time Wèi sent General-in-Chief Cáo Shuǎng to attack Shǔ, of the commentators some said they need only defend cities, not go out to resist the enemy, and they would themselves retreat. [Liú] Mǐn believed that the men and women were scattered in the fields, the farming grain were still in the fields, so if they let the enemy enter, then the Great Matter would be lost. Therefore he commanded those he led with [Wáng] Píng occupied Xīngshì, setting up many flags and banners, filling and extending over a hundred lǐ. It happened that General-in-Chief Fèi Yī from Chéngdū arrived, the Wèi army then withdrew, and [Liú] Mǐn for his achievement was given fief as Yún precinct Marquis.


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