(44.1) Jiǎng Wǎn 蔣琬 [Gōngyǎn 公琰]

Liú Mǐn 劉敏


Jiǎng Wǎn appellation Gōngyǎn was a Línglíng Xiāngxiāng man. When capped he with his maternal side younger cousin Quánlíng’s Liú Mǐn both had known reputation. Wǎn as Provincial Document Aide accompanied Xiānzhǔ [Liú Bèi] in entering Shǔ, and was sent out as Guǎngdū Chief. Xiānzhǔ once while touring and observing suddenly reached Guǎngdū, saw Wǎn’s multitude of affairs were not attended to, and at the time he was also thoroughly intoxicated, Xiānzhǔ was greatly furious, and about to apply punishment and execution. Master of the Army General Zhūgě Liǎng pleaded: “Jiǎng Wǎn is a tool for the State Altars, not a talent for a hundred lǐ [county]. He takes government for securing the people as his foundation, and does not take cultivation and ornamentation as foremost; may your Excellency again investigate this.” Xiānzhǔ respected [Zhūgě] Liàng, and therefore did not increase punishment, and only hurriedly dismissed him from office and nothing more.

蔣琬字公琰、零陵湘鄉人也。弱冠與外弟泉陵劉敏俱知名。琬以州書佐隨先主入蜀,除廣都長。先主嘗因游觀奄至廣都,見琬眾事不理,時又沈醉,先主大怒,將加罪戮。軍師將軍諸葛亮請曰:「蔣琬,社稷之器,非百里之才也。其為政以安民為本,不以脩飾為先,願主公重加察之。」先主雅敬亮,乃不加罪,倉卒但免官而已。

After Wǎn met with dismissal, in the night he dreamed of an ox head in front of a door, shedding blood overflowing, and his thoughts were extremely fearful of this, and he called and asked a dream diviner Zhào Zhí. [Zhào] Zhí said: “Seeing blood, the matter is evident.” Ox horns and nose form the image of the word ‘Excellency’ 公; your rank certainly will reach the Excellencies, it is an omen of great fortune.” Shortly afterward, he became Shífāng Magistrate. Xiānzhǔ became King of Hànzhōng [219], and Wǎn entered as Secretariat Cadet.

琬見推之後,夜夢有一牛頭在門前,流血滂沱,意甚惡之,呼問占夢趙直。直曰:「夫見血者,事分明也。牛角及鼻,『公』字之象,君位必當至公,大吉之徵也。」頃之,為什邡令。先主為漢中王,琬入為尚書郎。

Jiànxīng Inaugural Year [223], Chancellor [Zhūgě] Liàng established his Office, and recruited Wǎn as East Department Official. He was nominated as an Abundant Talent candidate, but Wǎn firmly deferred to Liú Yōng, Yīn Huà, Páng Yán, Liào Chún. [Zhūgě] Liàng’s instructions answered: “Thinking of [your] turning back on kin and abandoning virtue, in order to aide the common people, everyone does not conceal their hearts, and truly also cause the far and near to not understand this meaning, and therefore you should make known this achievement and nomination, in order to show this selection is pure and serious.” He was promoted to Advisor to the Army.

建興元年,丞相亮開府,辟琬為東曹掾。舉茂才,琬固讓劉邕、陰化、龐延、廖淳,亮教答曰:「思惟背親捨德,以殄百姓,眾人既不隱於心,實又使遠近不解其義,是以君宜顯其功舉,以明此選之清重也。」遷為參軍。

Fifth Year [227], [Zhūgě] Liàng stationed at Hànzhōng, and Wǎn with Chief Clerk Zhāng Yì governed the Remaining Office affairs [at Chéngdū]. Eighth Year [230], he succeeded [Zhāng] Yì as Chief Clerk, and was added office General Supporting the Army. [Zhūgě] Liàng repeatedly set out outside, and Wǎn always with sufficient provisions and sufficient troops supplied him. [Zhūgě] Liàng every time said: “Gōngyǎn entrusted with will is loyal and elegant, and rightly with me together support the Ruling Enterprise.” He secretly memorialized to Hòuzhǔ [Liú Shàn]: “If I your servant suffer misfortune [and die], later affairs should be entrusted to Wǎn.”

五年,亮住漢中,琬與長史張裔統留府事。八年,代裔為長史,加撫軍將軍。亮數外出,琬常足食足兵以相供給。亮每言:「公琰託志忠雅,當與吾共贊王業者也。」密表後主曰:「臣若不幸,後事宜以付琬。」


[Zhūgě] Liàng died, and Wǎn became Secretariat Director, and very soon was added office as Acting Regional Protector, with Acting Staff, office as Yì Province Inspector, promoted to General-in-Chief, with authority over Secretariat affairs, and fief as Ānyáng precinct Marquis. At the time they were newly mourning for the foremost commander [Zhūgě Liàng], and far and near were frightened. Wǎn exceeded out from the masses, resided to the right [senior] of all the various officials, had no sorrowful look, and also no cheerful appearance, like a spirit maintaining his bearing, like any ordinary day, and by this everyone’s expectations gradually turned to him. Yánxī Inaugural Year [238], Imperial Order to Wǎn said: “The bandit troubles are not yet repressed, Cáo Ruì is arrogant and vicious, Liáodōng’s three prefectures suffer his brutal oppression, and therefore join together with us, with him separating and dividing. [Cáo] Ruì greatly raises army conscription, returning to attack and campaign. In former times Qín’s destruction, first began from the difficulty of [Chén] Shèng and [Wú] Guǎng; now there is this change, and this then is a Heaven sent time. You must manage and organize, assemble and command the various armies and garrisons and station at Hànzhōng, wait for Wú to move, East [Wú] and West [Shǔ] as pincer horns, to take advantage of this quarrel.” He also ordered Wǎn to establish Office, and next year was also promoted to Marshal-in-Chief.

亮卒,以琬為尚書令,俄而加行都護,假節,領益州刺史,遷大將軍,錄尚書事,封安陽亭侯。時新喪元帥,遠近危悚。琬出類拔萃,處群僚之右,既無戚容,又無喜色,神守舉止,有如平日,由是眾望漸服,延熙元年,詔琬曰:「寇難未弭,曹叡驕凶,遼東三郡苦其暴虐,遂相糾結,與之離隔。叡大興眾役,還相攻伐。曩秦之亡,勝、廣首難,今有此變,斯乃天時。君其治嚴,總帥諸軍屯住漢中,須吳舉動,東西掎角,以乘其釁。」又命琬開府,明年就加為大司馬。


East Department Official Yáng Xì by nature was terse and succinct, Wǎn with him talked and discussed, and often he did not reply. Someone wished to undermine [Yáng] Xì to Wǎn and said: “Your Excellency with [Yáng] Xì speaks but do not meet with reply, [Yáng] Xì’s disrespect to superiors, is it not also extreme?”

東曹掾楊戲素性簡略,琬與言論,時不應答。或欲搆戲於琬曰:「公與戲語而不見應,戲之慢上,不亦甚乎!」

Wǎn said: “People’s hearts are not the same, each like their appearance; appearance of agreeing but later speaking [disagreement], were what the ancients warned against. If [Yáng] Xì wished to praise me as correct, then it would not be his true intentions; if he wished to oppose my words, then it would make prominent my wrong; therefore he was silent, and this is Xì’s wit.”

琬曰:「人心不同,各如其面;面從後言,古人之所誡也。戲欲贊吾是耶,則非其本心,欲反吾言,則顯吾之非,是以默然,是戲之快也。」

Also Agriculture Commander Yáng Mǐn previously slandered Wǎn: “His handling of affairs is confused, and truly not matching his predecessor.” Someone reported this to Wǎn, and the manager asked to dismiss and punish [Yáng] Mǐn. Wǎn said: “I truly do not match my predecessor; he cannot be dismissed.” The manager again requested but [Jiǎng Wǎn] would not dismiss, and so he asked about what was confused [as Yáng Mǐn had accused]. Wǎn said: “If I cannot compare, then my matters are not properly managed, if matters are not properly managed, then they are confused. Again what is there to ask?” Later [Yáng] Mǐn in connection to a matter was bound and imprisoned, everyone feared he would certainly die, but Wǎn’s heart did not believe it proper, and he obtained pardon from serious crime.

又督農楊敏曾毀琬曰:「作事憒憒,誠非及前人。」或以白琬,主者請推治敏,琬曰:「吾實不如前人,無可推也。」主者重據聽不推,則乞問其憒憒之狀。琬曰:「苟其不如,則事不當理,事不當理,則憒憒矣。復何問邪?」後敏坐事繫獄,眾人猶懼其必死,琬心無適莫,得免重罪。

His likes and dislikes and holding to principle, was all of this sort.

其好惡存道,皆此類也。


Wǎn believed in the past Zhūgě Liàng repeatedly invaded the Qín rivers, the roads were rugged and transportation difficult, and indeed he could not be successful, and it was not as good as riding the rivers to go east downstream. Therefore he made many boats, wishing to follow the Hàn and Miǎn [rivers] attack Wèixīng and Shàngyōng. It happened that his old illnesses repeatedly broke out, and he did not have time to enact it. And the many commentators all said if they could not achieve victory, the return road would be extremely difficult, and this was not a good strategy. Therefore Secretariat Director Fèi Yī and Central Supervisor of the Army Jiāng Wéi and others were sent to report this.

琬以為昔諸葛亮數闚秦川,道險運艱,竟不能克,不若乘水東下。乃多作舟船,欲由漢,沔襲魏興、上庸。會舊疾連動,未時得行。而眾論咸謂如不克捷,還路甚難,非長策也。於是遣尚書令費禕、中監軍姜維等喻指。

Wǎn received the order and sent up memorial: “Eliminating filth and repressing trouble, is I your servant’s duty and handling. From when I your servant accepted and order and took leave to Hànzhōng, it has already been six years. I your servant am muddled and weak, and additionally am very ill, my schemes are not achieved, and morning to night I am sorrowful and wretched. Now Wèi spans across nine [of thirteen] provinces, their roots grow and spread, and leveling and eliminating them is not yet easy. If East [Wú] and West [Shǔ] join strength, head and tail pincer horns, although we cannot yet quickly obtain our ambition, yet we can divide and nibble away, first breaking away their branch groups. However Wú’s timing changes again and again, repeatedly they are unable to be resolute, so we high and low are troubled, and truly neglect to rest and eat. Then with Fèi Yī and the rest discussing, we believe Liáng Province’s Hú and passes are critical, advancing and retreating it has resources, what the bandits cherish; moreover the Qiāng and Hú yet think of Hàn like a thirst, and also in the past the Assisting General [Wèi Yán] entered among the Qiāng, Guō Huái was defeated and fled, considering these strengths and weaknesses, we believe the first matter, should be to appoint Jiāng Wéi as Liáng Province Inspector. If [Jiāng] Wéi campaigns, seizing and holding the Hé’s right [west], then I your servant will command the army to be [Jiāng] Wéi’s defense and support. Now the Fú’s river and lands are well connected, and is critical for reacting, so that if the northeast has anticipation, going there is not difficult.” Therefore Wǎn then returned to station at Fú.

琬承命上疏曰:「芟穢弭難,臣職是掌。自臣奉辭漢中,已經六年,臣既闇弱,加嬰疾疢,規方無成,夙夜憂慘。今魏跨帶九州,根蔕滋蔓,平除未易。若東西并力,首尾掎角,雖未能速得如志,且當分裂蠶食,先摧其支黨。然吳期二三,連不克果,俯仰惟艱,實忘寢食。輒與費禕等議,以涼州胡塞之要,進退有資,賊之所惜;且羌、胡乃心思漢如渴,又昔偏軍入羌,郭淮破走,算其長短,以為事首,宜以姜維為涼州刺史。若維征行,銜持河右,臣當帥軍為維鎮繼。今涪水陸四通,惟急是應,若東北有虞,赴之不難。」由是琬遂還住涪。

His illness returned and became severe, and reaching the Ninth Year [256] he died, posthumous name Gōng “Respectful.”

疾轉增劇,至九年卒,諡曰恭。


His son [Jiǎng] Bīn was Soothing Martial General and Hànchéng Protector of the Army. Wèi General-in-Chief Zhōng Huì reached Hànchéng, and with [Jiǎng] Bīn sent letter: “Bā-Shǔ’s worthy and wise civil and military elites are many. Reaching you and Zhūgě Sīyuán, you are like grass and trees, my sort of spirit. Veneration for one’s homeland, the ancients and the present esteem. I have arrived west, wishing to see and pay respects to your great father’s tomb, to wash and sweep the graves, and present sacrifices with veneration. May you inform me of its location!”

子斌嗣,為綏武將軍、漢城護軍。魏大將軍鍾會至漢城,與斌書曰:「巴蜀賢智文武之士多矣。至於足下、諸葛思遠,譬諸草木,吾氣類也。桑梓之敬,古今所敦。西到,欲奉瞻尊大君公侯墓,當洒掃墳塋,奉祠致敬。願告其所在!」

[Jiǎng] Bīn’s reply letter said: “I know your intentions and concerns are grand, and am willing to communicate, and will not refuse your words that came. My late father in the past encountered illness, and died at Fú county, diviners said it was auspicious, and therefore he was buried there. I know you are on the west border, and so wish to bow and with carriage and ornamentation pay veneration at the graves. Your regard for my father, is Yán-zǐ’s benevolence; hearing your words I am moved and grieved, and increased my feelings of melancholy.”

斌答書曰:「知惟臭味意眷之隆,雅託通流,未拒來謂也。亡考昔遭疾疢,亡於涪縣,卜云其吉,遂安厝之。知君西邁,乃欲屈駕脩敬墳墓。視予猶父,顏子之仁也,聞命感愴,以增情思。」

[Zhōng] Huì obtained [Jiǎng] Bīn’s reply letter, praised and sighed at his meaning, and when he arrived at Fú, he did as his letter had said.

會得斌書報,嘉歎意義,及至涪,如其書云。


When Hòuzhǔ surrendered to Dèng Ài, [Jiǎng] Bīn visited [Zhōng] Huì at Fú, and treated him with the courtesy of making friends. He accompanied [Zhōng] Huì to Chéngdū, and was by the chaos of troops killed. [Jiǎng] Bīn’s younger brother [Jiǎng] Xiǎn was an Heir-Apparent’s Charioteer, [Zhōng] Huì also favored his talent and learning, and he with [Jiǎng] Bīn at the same time died.

後主既降鄧艾,斌詣會於涪,待以交友之禮。隨會至成都,為亂兵所殺。斌弟顯,為太子僕,會亦愛其才學,與斌同時死。


Liú Mǐn was a Left Protector of the Army and Raising Authority General, and with General-in-Chief Defending North Wáng Píng both defended Hànzhōng. At the time Wèi sent General-in-Chief Cáo Shuǎng to attack Shǔ, of the commentators some said they need only defend cities, not go out to resist the enemy, and they would themselves retreat. [Liú] Mǐn believed that the men and women were scattered in the fields, the farming grain were still in the fields, so if they let the enemy enter, then the Great Matter would be lost. Therefore he commanded those he led with [Wáng] Píng occupied Xīngshì, setting up many flags and banners, filling and extending over a hundred lǐ. It happened that General-in-Chief Fèi Yī from Chéngdū arrived, the Wèi army then withdrew, and [Liú] Mǐn for his achievement was given fief as Yún precinct Marquis.

劉敏,左護軍、揚威將軍,與鎮北大將軍王平俱鎮漢中。魏遣大將軍曹爽襲蜀時,議者或謂但可守城,不出拒敵,必自引退。敏以為男女布野,農穀栖畝,若聽敵入,則大事去矣。遂帥所領與平據興勢,多張旗幟,彌亙百餘里。會大將軍費禕從成都至,魏軍即退,敏以功封雲亭侯。

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s