son Xuán 玄, Xuán’s son Shàng 尚
Qín Sōng 秦松 [Wénbiǎo 文表]
Chén Duān 陳端 [Zǐzhēng 子正]
Zhāng Hóng appellation Zǐgāng was a Guǎnglíng man. He traveled to study in the capital. (1) He returned to his home prefecture, was nominated as Abundant Talent candidate, the Excellencies Offices recruited him, but all he did not accept, (2) and he fled the troubles to the Jiāng’s east. Sūn Cè began his enterprise, and therefore he entrusted and pledged himself to him. He was memorialized as Upright Consultant Colonel, (3) and followed in suppressing Dānyáng. [Sūn] Cè personally overlooked and went into the front lines, and Hóng remonstrated saying: “The commanding officer is the planner for setting out, what the Three Armies fastens to for commands, and it is not appropriate to be reckless, and personally face lesser bandits. May you commander value your heaven-sent body, support the Four Seas’ hopes, and not have the state’s high and low be anxious and afraid.”
- (1) Wúshū states: Hóng entered the Grand Academy, served Academic Scholar Hán Zōng studied the Jīngshì Yì, Ōuyáng Shàngshū, and outside at Huáng [county] followed Púyáng Kǎi in learning the Hán Shī and Lǐjì, and the Zuǒshì Chūnqiū.
- (2) Wúshū states: General-in-Chief Hé Jìn, Excellency Commandant Zhū Juàn, Excellency of Works Xún Shuǎng, Three Offices, recruited him as an Official, but for all he claimed illness and did not accept.
- (3) Wúshū states: Hóng with Zhāng Zhāo together advised and strategized, always ordering one man to remain and defend, one man to accompany on campaign. Later Lǚ Bù attacked and captured Xú Province, therefore became its Governor, and did not wish to allow Hóng to for [Sūn] Cè serve in matters. He called and nominated him as Abundant Talent candidate, sending letter to call for sending Hóng. Hóng in his heart hated [Lǚ] Bù, and was shamed to bow to him. [Sūn] Cè also valued and cherished Hóng, and wished to have him be his own support. The answering note of not sending, said: “[Where] the sea produces bright pearls, that place is precious. Though Chǔ had talents, Jìn actually employed them. An exceptional and great gentleman, when traveling and seeing something precious, why must he return home?”
Jiàn’ān Fourth Year , [Sūn] Cè sent Hóng to present memorial to Xǔ Palace, and remained as Attendant Censor. Minister Treasurer Kǒng Róng and the rest all with him were close and friendly. (1) Excellency Cáo heard [Sūn] Cé had died, and wished to take advantage of the mourning to attack Wú. Hóng remonstrated, believing “Taking advantage of a man’s mourning, is not the ancients’ righteousness, and if it is not successful, it will achieve enmity and discard good will, it is not as good as taking advantage to generously treat them.” Excellency Cáo followed this advice, and thus memorialized [Sūn] Quán as Suppressing Caitiffs General, office as Kuàijī Administrator. Excellency Cáo wished to have Hóng assist Quán as inner support, and sent out Hóng as Kuàijī East Division Commandant. (2)
- Wúshū states: Hóng arrived, and with the Court’s Excellencies and Ministers and old acquaintances narrated [Sūn] Cè’s ability and planning decisive and unique, how he pacified and settled three prefectures, like wind blowing and grass bending, and moreover that his loyalty and veneration was truly sincere, and his heart was with the Ruling House. At the time Excellency Cáo was Excellency of Works, wished to add kindness and generosity, in order to please distant men, so that he then with excellent writing commended and esteemed, changing title and adding fief, recruited Hóng as an Official, nominating him as a High Degree candidate, filling vacancy as Attendant Censor, later appointing Hóng as Jiǔjiāng Administrator. But Hóng’s heart cherished former kindness, and he thought of returning to reply order, and claiming illness firmly declined.
- Wúshū states: [Sūn] Quán first succeeded governance, his springs and autumns were still abundant [i.e. he was still young], [his mother] the dowager because outside had many troubles, deeply harbored worries, and repeatedly had excellent orders of humility and gratitude, for his subordinates to hold to the righteousness of assisting and supporting. Hóng at once sent letter answering in thanks, thinking of mending and investigating [deficiencies]. Every time there were unique matters to secretly plan and memorials to write, to across the Four Quarters be communicated, it was always ordered that Hóng with Zhāng Zhāo would draft first and compile and compose. Hóng believed “Breaking Caitiffs [General Sūn Jiān] had achievements of defeating and driving way Dǒng Zhuó and assisting the Hàn House, Punishing Rebels [General Sūn Cè] pacified and settled beyond the Jiāng, establishing a great enterprise, and there should be records and eulogies to show clearly their righteousness.” When it was completed, he presented it to [Sūn] Quán, [Sūn] Quán examined and read and was sorrowful and moved, and said: “You truly understand my family’s experiences.” Thus he sent Hóng to his division [as East Division Commandant]. Someone believed Hóng originally received the north’s appointment, and suspected his inclinations were not necessarily with them, but [Sūn] Quán did not pay it any attention. Previously, Lángyé’s Zhào Yù was Guǎnglíng Administrator, examined Hóng as Filial and Incorruptible candidate, [Zhào] Yù later was by Zé Róng killed, Hóng was deeply sorrowful and angry, but his strength could not punish. [Zhào] Yù’s household was exterminated, and Hóng was at the east division, and sent his Registrar to Lángyé to set up sacrifices, and also seek out relatives to be descendants, writing a letter to Lángyé Chancellor Zāng Xuān, and [Zāng] Xuān from the Zhào clan found a five year old boy to carry on [Zhào] Yù’s sacrifices. [Sūn] Quán heard and praised this. When suppressing Jiāngxià, as the east division had few affairs, he ordered Hóng to reside and defend [Sūn Quán’s headquarters in Wú], and remotely manage his duties [as Kuàijī East Division Commandant]. Kǒng Róng sent Hóng a letter that said: “One hears the main army to the west campaigns, and you sir remain to defend. If there is not one residing, who would defend the State Altars? Deep firmness breaking charges, also is a great achievement. Why not have Lǐ Guǎng’s aura, hair bursting forth in anger, happily alone facing the Chányú, to use up remaining anger? South and North are both settled, the world about be without problems, Sūn Shū throwing aside spear, Jiàng and Guàn giving sacrifices, also are today, but [our] employment is separated, with no opportunity to meet, and for that I worry and sigh and that is all. The road is straight and the route clear, to meet each other how is it difficult?” [Sūn] Quán because Hóng had labors of defending and guarding, wished to evaluate achievements and add rewards. Hóng stressed his own lack of importance, not daring to receive favor, and [Sūn] Quán did not contest these intentions. Always he was easygoing in serving in attendance, at small discussions and secret directions, he always had tactful admonishments.
- Jiāngbiǎozhuàn states: Previously, [Sūn] Quán with his various ministers often called them by their appellations, only calling Zhāng Zhāo as Excellency Zhāng, Hóng as Eastern Division, such was his esteem for the two men.
Later [Sūn] Quán appointed Hóng as his Chief Clerk, following the campaign against Héféi. (1) [Sūn] Quán led light cavalry and was about to go charge the enemy, Hóng remonstrated: “Warfare is a vicious tool, battle is a dangerous matter. Now you commander rely on aura of flourishing strength, neglecting the strong and violent caitiffs, of the Three Armies’s masses, none are not cold in heart, and though you behead officers and capture flags, authority shaking the enemy fields, this is yet a deputy officer’s duty, not what the commanding officer should do. May you restrain [Mèng] Bēn’s and [Xià] Yù’s valor, and think of an overlord’s planning.” [Sūn] Quán accepted Hóng’s words and stopped.
- (1) Wúshū states: Héféi city for a long time was not taken, Hóng advanced plan saying: “The ancients in besieging cities, opened on one side, to cast doubt in the army’s hearts. Now encircling it is very thick, attacking it is also hard-pressed, and truly they are afraid and devote to the death strength. Enemies fighting to the death, is difficult for soldiers to take. As rescue has not yet arrive, we can slightly be lenient on them, and observe for changes.” Commentators did not agree. It happened that rescue quickly arrived, repeatedly reaching below the encirclement, charging and challenging battle.
They returned, and next year he was about to again send out the army, Hóng again remonstrated: “From ancient times monarchs receiving the mandate, though they had August spirits assisting above, culture and virtue sowed below, they also depended on martial achievement to show clearly their achievements. However they valued the timing to act, and only afterward had authority and that is all. Now you commander stand at four hundred [years] distress, have achievement of relieving distress, and should temporarily conceal and rest the armies, expand and open sowing and growing, appoint the virtuous and employ the able, attend to lenience and benevolence, comply with Heaven’s Mandate to enact punishments, and can without labor obtain settlement.” Therefore he then stopped and did not go.
Hóng recommended that they should move their capital to Mòlíng, and [Sūn] Quán followed this. (2) He was ordered to return to Wú to welcome [Sūn Quán’s] family, but on the road fell ll and died. Facing the end, he gave his son [Zhāng] Jìng a remaining letter that said: “Since ancient times those with states and with families, all wished to cultivate virtuous government to rise to a flourishing age, but in reaching government, many did not leave fragrant legacy. It was not that there were no loyal ministers and worthy assistants, it was ignorance in government structure, so the ruler could not understand their feelings, and was not able to use them and that is all. Human feeling dreads difficulty and chases easiness, likes the similar and dislikes the different, and this with government principle is contrary with each other. The Zhuàn states: ‘Following good is like climbing, following evil is like falling.’ This is saying that good is difficult. A lord over men carries on abundant age as foundation, occupies natural power, wields eight handles of authority, is willing to enjoy changing the same, (3) is without seeking to take from other men; and loyal officials knowing difficulty advance, say words hard on the ear, and this is disunity. Is it not also appropriate? Separating then there is dispute, skillfully debate between, dazzling with little loyalty, longing for kind favor, worthy and foolish are mixed together, senior and junior lose order, from this origin, leads to chaos. Therefore the wise lord is aware of this, seeks the worthy like hunger and thirst, receives remonstrants and does not resent it, restrains emotion and decreases desires, with righteousness cuts apart kindness, above without accepting deception, below without hoping for hopes. It is appropriate to add reconsideration, to bear disgrace and hide resentment, to achieve benevolent utmost greatness.” At the time at sixty years he died. [Sūn] Quán reading the letter shed tears.
- (2) Jiāngbiǎozhuàn states: Hóng said to [Sūn] Quán: “Mòlíng, was by Chǔ King Wǔ established, and named Jīnlíng. The terrain is mountainous and connects with Shítóu, and asking the local elders, they say in the past Qín Shǐhuáng on eastern tour to Kuàijī passed through this county, and someone observing the aura said that Jīnlíng’s terrain had the aura for a ruler’s capital city, and therefore he dug up and broke the connecting ridges, and change the name to Mòlíng. Now this place still survives, the land has this aura, this is what Heaven has mandated, and should be a capital city.” [Sūn] Quán agreed with this suggestion, but could not yet follow it. Later Liú Bèi came east, lodged at Mòlíng, went about observing the terrain, and also encouraged [Sūn] Quán to make it his capital. [Sūn] Quán said: “The wise think alike.” Therefore he made it his capital.
- Xiàndì Chūnqiū says: Liú Bèi arrived at the capital, and said to Sūn Quán: “Wú from here is several hundred lǐ, if there is alarm of emergency, going to the rescue would be difficult. General, do you have no intention to stay long at this capital?” [Sūn] Quán said: “Mòlíng has small rivers of over a hundred lǐ, and can support large ships, I am about to manage a navy, and so moved to occupy it.” [Liú] Bèi said: “Wúhú is near Rúxū, and also is good.” [Sūn] Quán said: “I wish to plan for Xú Province, and should be close and downstream.”
- Your Servant Sōngzhī believes Mòlíng compared to Wúhú, the roads have hardly any difference, and invading north being easy, also has what difference? Yet saying he wishes to attack Xú Province, eager for Mòlíng being near and downstream, is not his reasoning. The various documents all say Liú Bèi encouraged setting capital at Mòlíng, but this alone says [Sūn] Quán himself wished to set capital there, and also should be a mistake.
- (3) Zhōulǐ Tàizǎizhí states: With eight handles of command the King manages on the various ministers. One is rank, to manage their nobility. Two is salary, to manage their wealth. Three is self, to manage their intimacy. Four is installations, to manage their travels. Five is life, to manage their fortune. Six is seizure, to manage their deficiencies. Seven is removal, to manage their guilt. Eight is punishment, to manage their wrongdoings.
Hóng composed poems and rhapsodies and inscriptions and eulogies of over ten piān. (1) His son Xuán, office reached Nán prefecture Administrator and Secretariat. (2) Xuán’s son Shàng, (3) in Sūn Hào’s time was Attendant Cadet, for his speech and debate ability met with fame, was selected out as Attendant Internal and Internal Document Director. [Sūn] Hào sent Shàng to drum and play zither, Shàng answered: “I cannot.” Order sent him to study it. Later at a banquet there was discussion on ranking zither exquisiteness, and Shàng therefore explained: “Jìn Duke Píng sent Shī Kuàng to perform a pure piece, [Shī] Kuàng said: ‘My lord’s virtue, is insufficient to hear it.'” [Sūn] Hào believed Shàng was using this to criticize him, and was displeased. Later for accumulated other affairs he was sent down to prison, all because of this criticism, (4) and he was sent to Jiàn’ān to build boats. Long after this, he was also executed.
- (1) Wúshū states: Hóng saw a machilus and pomegranate pillow, loved its embroidery, and for it composed a rhapsody. Chén Lín was in the north and saw it, and showed it to people saying: “This was composed by my hometown’s Zhāng Zǐgāng.” Later Hóng saw Chén Lín’s composed Wǔkù Fù “Military Arsenal Rhapsody” and Yìngjī Lún “Answering Opportunities Essay,” and with [Chén] Lín wrote letter deeply sighing and praising it. [Chén] Lín answered: “Since I came to the Hé’s north, it was with the realm Under Heaven divided, this area had few produced written works, it was easy to be dominant, and therefore it led me to receive this overblown reputation, that was not genuine. Now [Wáng Lǎng] Jǐngxīng is here, you and [Zhāng Zhāo] Zǐbù are over there, this is what is called a lesser magician meeting a great magician, so my pretensions are exhausted.” Hóng enjoyed literature study, and also was good at Regular Script and Seal Script [calligraphy], and with Kǒng Róng wrote letter, with his own writing. [Kǒng] Róng sent Hóng letter that said: “Previously laboring hand and brush, most are in seal script. Every time lifting the writing to see your script, I am cheerful and alone laugh, like again seeing you in person.”
- (2) Jiāngbiǎozhuàn states: Xuán was pure and upright and had high conduct, but his talent did not match Hóng.
- (3) Jiāngbiǎozhuàn appraises Shàng as having eminent talent.
- (4) Huánshì Wújì states: [Sūn] Hào once asked: “The Shī says: ‘Floating those cedar boats,’ Are only cedars used in boats?” Shàng answered: ‘The Shī says: ‘Cypress oars pine boats,’ so then pine also are used in boats.’ [Sūn Hào] also asked: “Of birds are the largest only cranes, the smallest only sparrows?” Shàng answered: “Of the large there are bald orioles, of the small there are wrens.” [Sūn] Hào by nature feared those surpassing him, and Shàng in discussions always produced these memorials, and gradually it reached hate. Later he asked: “I in drinking liquor can be compared to who?” Shàng answered: “Your Majesty has capacity for a hundred goblets.” [Sūn] Hào said: “Shàng knows Kǒng Qiū was not a King, but has me compared to him!” Because of this he was angry and arrested Shàng. Secretariat Cén Hūn led the Excellencies and Ministers on down of over a hundred men, to visit the Palace and knocking head [on ground] to plead, so Shàng’s punishment was reduced from death.
- [translator’s note: This is a reference to the saying “King Wén drank liquor of a thousand goblets, Kǒng-zǐ a hundred goblets.” Sūn Hào was offended to be appraised as 100 instead of 1000.]
Previously, Hóng’s same prefecture’s Qín Sōng appellation Wénbiǎo and Chén Duān appellation Zǐzhēng, both with Hóng met with care from Sūn Cè, and participated in planning and strategy. Each early died.