(53.1) Zhāng Hóng 張紘 [Zǐgāng 子綱]

son Xuán 玄, Xuán’s son Shàng 尚

Qín Sōng 秦松 [Wénbiǎo 文表]

Chén Duān 陳端 [Zǐzhēng 子正]

Zhāng Hóng appellation Zǐgāng was a Guǎnglíng man. He traveled to study in the capital. (1) He returned to his home prefecture, was nominated as Abundant Talent candidate, the Excellencies Offices recruited him, but all he did not accept, (2) and he fled the troubles to the Jiāng’s east. Sūn Cè began his enterprise, and therefore he entrusted and pledged himself to him. He was memorialized as Upright Consultant Colonel, (3) and followed in suppressing Dānyáng. [Sūn] Cè personally overlooked and went into the front lines, and Hóng remonstrated saying: “The commanding officer is the planner for setting out, what the Three Armies fastens to for commands, and it is not appropriate to be reckless, and personally face lesser bandits. May you commander value your heaven-sent body, support the Four Seas’ hopes, and not have the state’s high and low be anxious and afraid.”


  • (1) Wúshū states: Hóng entered the Grand Academy, served Academic Scholar Hán Zōng studied the Jīngshì Yì, Ōuyáng Shàngshū, and outside at Huáng [county] followed Púyáng Kǎi in learning the Hán Shī and Lǐjì, and the Zuǒshì Chūnqiū.

〔一〕 吳書曰:紘入太學,事博士韓宗,治京氏易、歐陽尚書,又於外黃從濮陽闓受韓詩及禮記、左氏春秋。

  • (2) Wúshū states: General-in-Chief Hé Jìn, Excellency Commandant Zhū Juàn, Excellency of Works Xún Shuǎng, Three Offices, recruited him as an Official, but for all he claimed illness and did not accept.

〔二〕 吳書曰:大將軍何進、太尉朱雋、司空荀爽三府辟為掾,皆稱疾不就。

  • (3) Wúshū states: Hóng with Zhāng Zhāo together advised and strategized, always ordering one man to remain and defend, one man to accompany on campaign. Later Lǚ Bù attacked and captured Xú Province, therefore became its Governor, and did not wish to allow Hóng to for [Sūn] Cè serve in matters. He called and nominated him as Abundant Talent candidate, sending letter to call for sending Hóng. Hóng in his heart hated [Lǚ] Bù, and was shamed to bow to him. [Sūn] Cè also valued and cherished Hóng, and wished to have him be his own support. The answering note of not sending, said: “[Where] the sea produces bright pearls, that place is precious. Though Chǔ had talents, Jìn actually employed them. An exceptional and great gentleman, when traveling and seeing something precious, why must he return home?”

〔三〕 吳書曰:紘與張昭並與參謀,常令一人居守,一人從征討,後呂布襲取徐州,因為之牧,不欲令紘與策從事。追舉茂才,移書發遣紘。紘心惡布,恥為之屈。策亦重惜紘,欲以自輔。答記不遣,曰:「海產明珠,所在為寶,楚雖有才,晉實用之。英偉君子,所游見珍,何必本州哉?」

Jiàn’ān Fourth Year [199], [Sūn] Cè sent Hóng to present memorial to Xǔ Palace, and remained as Attendant Censor. Minister Treasurer Kǒng Róng and the rest all with him were close and friendly. (1) Excellency Cáo heard [Sūn] Cé had died, and wished to take advantage of the mourning to attack Wú. Hóng remonstrated, believing “Taking advantage of a man’s mourning, is not the ancients’ righteousness, and if it is not successful, it will achieve enmity and discard good will, it is not as good as taking advantage to generously treat them.” Excellency Cáo followed this advice, and thus memorialized [Sūn] Quán as Suppressing Caitiffs General, office as Kuàijī Administrator. Excellency Cáo wished to have Hóng assist Quán as inner support, and sent out Hóng as Kuàijī East Division Commandant. (2)


  • Wúshū states: Hóng arrived, and with the Court’s Excellencies and Ministers and old acquaintances narrated [Sūn] Cè’s ability and planning decisive and unique, how he pacified and settled three prefectures, like wind blowing and grass bending, and moreover that his loyalty and veneration was truly sincere, and his heart was with the Ruling House. At the time Excellency Cáo was Excellency of Works, wished to add kindness and generosity, in order to please distant men, so that he then with excellent writing commended and esteemed, changing title and adding fief, recruited Hóng as an Official, nominating him as a High Degree candidate, filling vacancy as Attendant Censor, later appointing Hóng as Jiǔjiāng Administrator. But Hóng’s heart cherished former kindness, and he thought of returning to reply order, and claiming illness firmly declined.

〔一〕 吳書曰:紘至,與在朝公卿及知舊述策材略絕異,平定三郡,風行草偃,加以忠敬款誠,乃心王室。時曹公為司空,欲加恩厚,以悅遠人,至乃優文褒崇,改號加封,辟紘為掾,舉高第,補侍御吏,後以紘為九江太守。紘心戀舊恩,思還反命,以疾固辭。

  • Wúshū states: [Sūn] Quán first succeeded governance, his springs and autumns were still abundant [i.e. he was still young], [his mother] the dowager because outside had many troubles, deeply harbored worries, and repeatedly had excellent orders of humility and gratitude, for his subordinates to hold to the righteousness of assisting and supporting. Hóng at once sent letter answering in thanks, thinking of mending and investigating [deficiencies]. Every time there were unique matters to secretly plan and memorials to write, to across the Four Quarters be communicated, it was always ordered that Hóng with Zhāng Zhāo would draft first and compile and compose. Hóng believed “Breaking Caitiffs [General Sūn Jiān] had achievements of defeating and driving way Dǒng Zhuó and assisting the Hàn House, Punishing Rebels [General Sūn Cè] pacified and settled beyond the Jiāng, establishing a great enterprise, and there should be records and eulogies to show clearly their righteousness.” When it was completed, he presented it to [Sūn] Quán, [Sūn] Quán examined and read and was sorrowful and moved, and said: “You truly understand my family’s experiences.” Thus he sent Hóng to his division [as East Division Commandant]. Someone believed Hóng originally received the north’s appointment, and suspected his inclinations were not necessarily with them, but [Sūn] Quán did not pay it any attention. Previously, Lángyé’s Zhào Yù was Guǎnglíng Administrator, examined Hóng as Filial and Incorruptible candidate, [Zhào] Yù later was by Zé Róng killed, Hóng was deeply sorrowful and angry, but his strength could not punish. [Zhào] Yù’s household was exterminated, and Hóng was at the east division, and sent his Registrar to Lángyé to set up sacrifices, and also seek out relatives to be descendants, writing a letter to Lángyé Chancellor Zāng Xuān, and [Zāng] Xuān from the Zhào clan found a five year old boy to carry on [Zhào] Yù’s sacrifices. [Sūn] Quán heard and praised this. When suppressing Jiāngxià, as the east division had few affairs, he ordered Hóng to reside and defend [Sūn Quán’s headquarters in Wú], and remotely manage his duties [as Kuàijī East Division Commandant]. Kǒng Róng sent Hóng a letter that said: “One hears the main army to the west campaigns, and you sir remain to defend. If there is not one residing, who would defend the State Altars? Deep firmness breaking charges, also is a great achievement. Why not have Lǐ Guǎng’s aura, hair bursting forth in anger, happily alone facing the Chányú, to use up remaining anger? South and North are both settled, the world about be without problems, Sūn Shū throwing aside spear, Jiàng and Guàn giving sacrifices, also are today, but [our] employment is separated, with no opportunity to meet, and for that I worry and sigh and that is all. The road is straight and the route clear, to meet each other how is it difficult?” [Sūn] Quán because Hóng had labors of defending and guarding, wished to evaluate achievements and add rewards. Hóng stressed his own lack of importance, not daring to receive favor, and [Sūn] Quán did not contest these intentions. Always he was easygoing in serving in attendance, at small discussions and secret directions, he always had tactful admonishments.
  • Jiāngbiǎozhuàn states: Previously, [Sūn] Quán with his various ministers often called them by their appellations, only calling Zhāng Zhāo as Excellency Zhāng, Hóng as Eastern Division, such was his esteem for the two men.

〔二〕 吳書曰:權初承統,春秋方富,太夫人以方外多難,深懷憂勞,數有優令辭謝,付屬以輔助之義。紘輒拜牋答謝,思惟補察。每有異事密計及章表書記,與四方交結,常令紘與張昭草創撰作。紘以破虜有破走董卓,扶持漢室之勳;討逆平定江外,建立大業,宜有紀頌以昭公義。既成,呈權,權省讀悲感,曰:「君真識孤家門閥閱也。」乃遣紘之部。或以紘本受北任,嫌其志趣不止於此,權不以介意。初,琅邪趙昱為廣陵太守,察紘孝廉,昱後為笮融所殺,紘甚傷憤,而力不能討。昱門戶絕滅,及紘在東部,遣主簿至琅邪設祭,并求親戚為之後,以書屬琅邪相臧宣,宣以趙宗中五歲男奉昱祀,權聞而嘉之。及討江夏,以東部少事,命紘居守,遙領所職。孔融遺紘書曰:「聞大軍西征,足下留鎮。不有居者,誰守社稷?深固折衝,亦大勳也。無乃李廣之氣,倉髮益怒,樂一當單于,以盡餘憤乎?南北並定,世將無事,孫叔投戈,絳、灌俎豆,亦在今日,但用離析,無緣會面,為愁歎耳。道直途清,相見豈復難哉?」權以紘有鎮守之勞,欲論功加賞。紘厚自挹損,不敢蒙寵,權不奪其志。每從容侍燕,微言密指,常有以規諷。江表傳曰:初,權於群臣多呼其字,惟呼張昭曰張公,紘曰東部,所以重二人也。

Later [Sūn] Quán appointed Hóng as his Chief Clerk, following the campaign against Héféi. (1) [Sūn] Quán led light cavalry and was about to go charge the enemy, Hóng remonstrated: “Warfare is a vicious tool, battle is a dangerous matter. Now you commander rely on aura of flourishing strength, neglecting the strong and violent caitiffs, of the Three Armies’s masses, none are not cold in heart, and though you behead officers and capture flags, authority shaking the enemy fields, this is yet a deputy officer’s duty, not what the commanding officer should do. May you restrain [Mèng] Bēn’s and [Xià] Yù’s valor, and think of an overlord’s planning.” [Sūn] Quán accepted Hóng’s words and stopped.


  • (1) Wúshū states: Héféi city for a long time was not taken, Hóng advanced plan saying: “The ancients in besieging cities, opened on one side, to cast doubt in the army’s hearts. Now encircling it is very thick, attacking it is also hard-pressed, and truly they are afraid and devote to the death strength. Enemies fighting to the death, is difficult for soldiers to take. As rescue has not yet arrive, we can slightly be lenient on them, and observe for changes.” Commentators did not agree. It happened that rescue quickly arrived, repeatedly reaching below the encirclement, charging and challenging battle.

〔一〕 吳書曰:合肥城久不拔,紘進計曰:「古之圍城,開其一面,以疑眾心。今圍之甚密,攻之又急,誠懼并命戮力。死戰之寇,固難卒拔,及救未至,可小寬之,以觀其變。」議者不同。會救騎至,數至圍下,馳騁挑戰。

They returned, and next year he was about to again send out the army, Hóng again remonstrated: “From ancient times monarchs receiving the mandate, though they had August spirits assisting above, culture and virtue sowed below, they also depended on martial achievement to show clearly their achievements. However they valued the timing to act, and only afterward had authority and that is all. Now you commander stand at four hundred [years] distress, have achievement of relieving distress, and should temporarily conceal and rest the armies, expand and open sowing and growing, appoint the virtuous and employ the able, attend to lenience and benevolence, comply with Heaven’s Mandate to enact punishments, and can without labor obtain settlement.” Therefore he then stopped and did not go.


Hóng recommended that they should move their capital to Mòlíng, and [Sūn] Quán followed this. (2) He was ordered to return to Wú to welcome [Sūn Quán’s] family, but on the road fell ll and died. Facing the end, he gave his son [Zhāng] Jìng a remaining letter that said: “Since ancient times those with states and with families, all wished to cultivate virtuous government to rise to a flourishing age, but in reaching government, many did not leave fragrant legacy. It was not that there were no loyal ministers and worthy assistants, it was ignorance in government structure, so the ruler could not understand their feelings, and was not able to use them and that is all. Human feeling dreads difficulty and chases easiness, likes the similar and dislikes the different, and this with government principle is contrary with each other. The Zhuàn states: ‘Following good is like climbing, following evil is like falling.’ This is saying that good is difficult. A lord over men carries on abundant age as foundation, occupies natural power, wields eight handles of authority, is willing to enjoy changing the same, (3) is without seeking to take from other men; and loyal officials knowing difficulty advance, say words hard on the ear, and this is disunity. Is it not also appropriate? Separating then there is dispute, skillfully debate between, dazzling with little loyalty, longing for kind favor, worthy and foolish are mixed together, senior and junior lose order, from this origin, leads to chaos. Therefore the wise lord is aware of this, seeks the worthy like hunger and thirst, receives remonstrants and does not resent it, restrains emotion and decreases desires, with righteousness cuts apart kindness, above without accepting deception, below without hoping for hopes. It is appropriate to add reconsideration, to bear disgrace and hide resentment, to achieve benevolent utmost greatness.” At the time at sixty years he died. [Sūn] Quán reading the letter shed tears.


  • (2) Jiāngbiǎozhuàn states: Hóng said to [Sūn] Quán: “Mòlíng, was by Chǔ King Wǔ established, and named Jīnlíng. The terrain is mountainous and connects with Shítóu, and asking the local elders, they say in the past Qín Shǐhuáng on eastern tour to Kuàijī passed through this county, and someone observing the aura said that Jīnlíng’s terrain had the aura for a ruler’s capital city, and therefore he dug up and broke the connecting ridges, and change the name to Mòlíng. Now this place still survives, the land has this aura, this is what Heaven has mandated, and should be a capital city.” [Sūn] Quán agreed with this suggestion, but could not yet follow it. Later Liú Bèi came east, lodged at Mòlíng, went about observing the terrain, and also encouraged [Sūn] Quán to make it his capital. [Sūn] Quán said: “The wise think alike.” Therefore he made it his capital.
  • Xiàndì Chūnqiū says: Liú Bèi arrived at the capital, and said to Sūn Quán: “Wú from here is several hundred lǐ, if there is alarm of emergency, going to the rescue would be difficult. General, do you have no intention to stay long at this capital?” [Sūn] Quán said: “Mòlíng has small rivers of over a hundred lǐ, and can support large ships, I am about to manage a navy, and so moved to occupy it.” [Liú] Bèi said: “Wúhú is near Rúxū, and also is good.” [Sūn] Quán said: “I wish to plan for Xú Province, and should be close and downstream.”
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī believes Mòlíng compared to Wúhú, the roads have hardly any difference, and invading north being easy, also has what difference? Yet saying he wishes to attack Xú Province, eager for Mòlíng being near and downstream, is not his reasoning. The various documents all say Liú Bèi encouraged setting capital at Mòlíng, but this alone says [Sūn] Quán himself wished to set capital there, and also should be a mistake.

〔二〕 江表傳曰:紘謂權曰:「秣陵,楚武王所置,名為金陵。地勢岡阜連石頭,訪問故老,云昔秦始皇東巡會稽經此縣,望氣者云金陵地形有王者都邑之氣,故掘斷連岡,改名秣陵。今處所具存,地有其氣,天之所命,宜為都邑。」權善其議,未能從也。後劉備之東,宿於秣陵,周觀地形,亦勸權都之。權曰:「智者意同。」遂都焉。獻帝春秋云:劉備至京,謂孫權曰:「吳去此數百里,即有警急,赴救為難,將軍無意屯京乎?」權曰:「秣陵有小江百餘里,可以安大船,吾方理水軍,當移據之。」備曰:「蕪湖近濡須,亦佳也。」權曰:「吾欲圖徐州,宜近下也。」臣松之以為秣陵之與蕪湖,道里所校無幾,於北侵利便,亦有何異?而云欲闚徐州,貪秣陵近下,非其理也。諸書皆云劉備勸都秣陵,而此獨云權自欲都之,又為虛錯。

  • (3) Zhōulǐ Tàizǎizhí states: With eight handles of command the King manages on the various ministers. One is rank, to manage their nobility. Two is salary, to manage their wealth. Three is self, to manage their intimacy. Four is installations, to manage their travels. Five is life, to manage their fortune. Six is seizure, to manage their deficiencies. Seven is removal, to manage their guilt. Eight is punishment, to manage their wrongdoings.

〔三〕 周禮太宰職曰:以八柄詔王馭群臣。一曰爵,以馭其貴。二曰祿,以馭其富。三曰予,以馭其幸。四曰置,以馭其行。五曰生,以馭其福。六曰奪,以馭其貧。七曰廢,以馭其罪。八曰誅,以馭其過。

Hóng composed poems and rhapsodies and inscriptions and eulogies of over ten piān. (1) His son Xuán, office reached Nán prefecture Administrator and Secretariat. (2) Xuán’s son Shàng, (3) in Sūn Hào’s time was Attendant Cadet, for his speech and debate ability met with fame, was selected out as Attendant Internal and Internal Document Director. [Sūn] Hào sent Shàng to drum and play zither, Shàng answered: “I cannot.” Order sent him to study it. Later at a banquet there was discussion on ranking zither exquisiteness, and Shàng therefore explained: “Jìn Duke Píng sent Shī Kuàng to perform a pure piece, [Shī] Kuàng said: ‘My lord’s virtue, is insufficient to hear it.'” [Sūn] Hào believed Shàng was using this to criticize him, and was displeased. Later for accumulated other affairs he was sent down to prison, all because of this criticism, (4) and he was sent to Jiàn’ān to build boats. Long after this, he was also executed.


  • (1) Wúshū states: Hóng saw a machilus and pomegranate pillow, loved its embroidery, and for it composed a rhapsody. Chén Lín was in the north and saw it, and showed it to people saying: “This was composed by my hometown’s Zhāng Zǐgāng.” Later Hóng saw Chén Lín’s composed Wǔkù Fù “Military Arsenal Rhapsody” and Yìngjī Lún “Answering Opportunities Essay,” and with [Chén] Lín wrote letter deeply sighing and praising it. [Chén] Lín answered: “Since I came to the Hé’s north, it was with the realm Under Heaven divided, this area had few produced written works, it was easy to be dominant, and therefore it led me to receive this overblown reputation, that was not genuine. Now [Wáng Lǎng] Jǐngxīng is here, you and [Zhāng Zhāo] Zǐbù are over there, this is what is called a lesser magician meeting a great magician, so my pretensions are exhausted.” Hóng enjoyed literature study, and also was good at Regular Script and Seal Script [calligraphy], and with Kǒng Róng wrote letter, with his own writing. [Kǒng] Róng sent Hóng letter that said: “Previously laboring hand and brush, most are in seal script. Every time lifting the writing to see your script, I am cheerful and alone laugh, like again seeing you in person.”

〔一〕 吳書曰:紘見柟榴枕,愛其文,為作賦。陳琳在北見之,以示人曰:「此吾鄉里張子綱所作也。」後紘見陳琳作武庫賦、應機論,與琳書深歎美之。琳答曰:「自僕在河北,與天下隔,此閒率少於文章,易為雄伯,故使僕受此過差之譚,非其實也。今景興在此,足下與子布在彼,所謂小巫見大巫,神氣盡矣。」紘既好文學,又善楷篆,與孔融書,自書。融遺紘書曰:「前勞手筆,多篆書。每舉篇見字,欣然獨笑,如復睹其人也。」

  • (2) Jiāngbiǎozhuàn states: Xuán was pure and upright and had high conduct, but his talent did not match Hóng.

〔二〕 江表傳曰:玄清介有高行,而才不及紘。

  • (3) Jiāngbiǎozhuàn appraises Shàng as having eminent talent.

〔三〕 江表傳(曰)稱尚有俊才。

  • (4) Huánshì Wújì states: [Sūn] Hào once asked: “The Shī says: ‘Floating those cedar boats,’ Are only cedars used in boats?” Shàng answered: ‘The Shī says: ‘Cypress oars pine boats,’ so then pine also are used in boats.’ [Sūn Hào] also asked: “Of birds are the largest only cranes, the smallest only sparrows?” Shàng answered: “Of the large there are bald orioles, of the small there are wrens.” [Sūn] Hào by nature feared those surpassing him, and Shàng in discussions always produced these memorials, and gradually it reached hate. Later he asked: “I in drinking alcohol can be compared to who?” Shàng answered: “Your Majesty has capacity for a hundred goblets.” [Sūn] Hào said: “Shàng knows Kǒng Qiū was not a King, but has me compared to him!” Because of this he was angry and arrested Shàng. Secretariat Documenter Cén Hūn led the Excellencies and Ministers on down of over a hundred men, to visit the Palace and knocking head [on ground] to plead, so Shàng’s punishment was reduced from death.
  • [translator’s note: This is a reference to the saying “King Wén drank liquor of a thousand goblets, Kǒng-zǐ a hundred goblets.” Sūn Hào was offended to be appraised as 100 instead of 1000.]

〔四〕 環氏吳紀曰:皓嘗問:「詩云『汎彼柏舟』,惟柏中舟乎?」尚對曰:「詩言『檜楫松舟』,則松亦中舟也。」又問:「鳥之大者惟鶴,小者惟雀乎?」尚對曰:「大者有禿鶖,小者有鷦鷯。」皓性忌勝己,而尚談論每出其表,積以致恨。後問:「孤飲酒以方誰?」尚對曰:「陛下有百觚之量。」皓云:「尚知孔丘之不王,而以孤方之!」因此發怒收尚。尚書岑昏率公卿已下百餘人,詣宮叩頭請,尚罪得減死。

Previously, Hóng’s same prefecture’s Qín Sōng appellation Wénbiǎo and Chén Duān appellation Zǐzhēng, both with Hóng met with care from Sūn Cè, and participated in planning and strategy. Each early died.


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