(43.1) Huáng Quán 黃權 [Gōnghéng 公衡]

Huáng Quán appellation Gōnghéng was a Bāxī Lángzhōng man. When young he was a prefecture official, and Provincial Governor Liú Zhāng summoned him to be a Registrar. At the time Aide-de-Camp Zhāng Sōng established recommendation, that they should invite Xiānzhǔ [Liú Bèi], to send him to attack Zhāng Lǔ. Quán remonstrated: “The General of the Left has heroic reputation, now if he is invited and arrived, if we wish to as a guard retainer treat him, then it will not satisfy his heart, but if we wish to as a guest’s courtesy treat him, then one state cannot hold two rulers. If a guest has the security of Tài mountain, then the host has the danger of a pile of eggs. We can only close the borders, to wait for when the rivers are pure.” Liú Zhāng did not listen, and indeed sent envoy to welcome Xiānzhǔ, sending out Quán as Guǎnghàn Chief.

黃權字公衡,巴西閬中人也。少為郡吏,州牧劉璋召為主簿。時別駕張松建議,宜迎先主,使伐張魯。權諫曰:「左將軍有驍名,今請到,欲以部曲遇之,則不滿其心,欲以賓客禮待,則一國不容二君。若客有泰山之安,則主有累卵之危。可但閉境,以待河清。」璋不聽,竟遣使迎先主,出權為廣漢長。

When Xiānzhǔ attacked and captured Yì Province, his commanders divided and separately captured the prefectures and counties, and the prefectures and counties observed the situation and submitted, but Quán closed the city and firmly defended, waited until [Liú] Zhāng bowed and submitted, and then visited and surrendered to Xiānzhǔ. Xiānzhǔ brevet appointed Quán as Assistant General. (1)

及先主襲取益州,將帥分下郡縣,郡縣望風景附,權閉城堅守,須劉璋稽服,乃詣降先主。先主假權偏將軍。〔一〕

When Excellency Cáo defeated Zhāng Lǔ, [Zhāng] Lǔ fled into Bāzhōng, and Quán advanced and said: “If Hànzhōng is lost, then the three Bā cannot be saved, and this is to cut off Shǔ’s legs and arms.” Therefore Xiānzhǔ appointed Quán as Protector of the Army, to command the various officers to welcome [Zhāng] Lǔ. [Zhāng] Lǔ had already returned to Nánzhèng, to the north surrendering to Excellency Cáo, but in the end they defeated Dù Huò, Piáo Hú, killed Xiàhóu Yuān, occupied Hànzhōng, and these all originated from Quán’s plans.

及曹公破張魯,魯走入巴中,權進曰:「若失漢中,則三巴不振,此為割蜀之股臂也。」於是先主以權為護軍,率諸將迎魯。魯已還南鄭,北降曹公,然卒破杜濩、朴胡,殺夏侯淵,據漢中,皆權本謀也。

  • (1) Xú Zhòng’s Appraisal states: Quán thus loyally remonstrated his ruler, and also closed city and resisted and defended, obtaining the integrity of serving a lord. [Zhōu] Wǔ-wáng dismounted carriage, bestowed Bǐ Gān’s tomb, presented Shāng Róng’s gate, and therefore greatly made visible loyal and worthy scholars, and clearly showed the purpose of the noble. Xiānzhǔ brevet appointed Quán as a General, and this was good, but yet it was meager and little, and not sufficient to make manifest the height of his loyalty and righteousness, and greatly exhort the hearts of the good.

〔一〕 徐眾評曰:權既忠諫於主,又閉城拒守,得事君之禮。武王下車,封比干之墓,表商容之閭,所以大顯忠賢之士,而明示所貴之旨。先主假權將軍,善矣,然猶薄少,未足彰忠義之高節,而大勸為善者之心。


Xiānzhǔ became King of Hànzhōng, and kept office as Yì Province Governor, and appointed Quán as Internal Manager Attending Official. When claiming Imperial Title, and about to go east to attack Wú, Quán remonstrated: “Wú’s men are fierce in battle, and also our navy follows the river flow, advancing is easy but retreating difficult, I your servant request to be the front advance to test the bandits, and Your Majesty should be the rear defense.” Xiānzhǔ did not listen, appointed Quán as General Defending North, to command the Jiāng’s north’s armies to guard against Wèi’s armies, while Xiānzhǔ himself was at the Jiāng’s south. When Wú General Lù Yì rode the river flow to break the encirclement, the southern army was utterly defeated, and Xiānzhǔ retreated. But the road was cut off, and Quán could not return, and therefore led the officers he commanded to surrender to Wèi. Managers enforced the law, and reported and arrested Quán’s wife and children. Xiānzhǔ said: “I turned back on Huáng Quán, Quán did not turn back on me.” He treated them as before. (1)

先主為漢中王,猶領益州牧,以權為治中從事。及稱尊號,將東伐吳,權諫曰:「吳人悍戰,又水軍順流,進易退難,臣請為先驅以嘗寇,陛下宜為後鎮。」先主不從,以權為鎮北將軍,督江北軍以防魏師;先主自在江南。及吳將軍陸議乘流斷圍,南軍敗績,先主引退。而道隔絕,權不得還,故率將所領降于魏。有司執法,白收權妻子。先主曰:「孤負黃權,權不負孤也。」待之如初。〔一〕

  • (1) Your Servant Sōngzhī believes: Hàn [Liú Chè] used empty and deceiving words, exterminating Lǐ Líng’s Family, Ruler Liú [Bèi] refused the statute manager’s execution, and forgave Huáng Quán’s House; the two Rulers goods and faults are so clearly different. The Shī says: “Rejoice gentleman, protect and maintain posterity.” This of Ruler Liú [Bèi] speaks.

〔一〕 臣松之以為漢武用虛罔之言,滅李陵之家,劉主拒憲司所執,宥黃權之室,二主得失縣邈遠矣。詩云「樂只君子,保艾爾後」,其劉主之謂也。


Wèi Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] said to Quán: “You abandoned rebellion to effect obedience, do you wish to follow after Chén [Píng] and Hán [Xìn leaving Chǔ for Hàn]?

魏文帝謂權曰:「君捨逆效順,欲追蹤陳、韓邪?」

Quán answered: “I your servant previously received Ruler Liú [Bèi]’s special treatment, surrendering to Wú could not be, returning to Shǔ had no road, and therefore I submitted to your Mandate. Moreover I am a defeated army’s commander, pardoning from death is [already] fortune, how can it be admiring the ancients?” Wén-dì praised him, and appointed him General Defending South, with fief as Yùyáng Marquis, and also Internal Attendant, and had him together ride.

權對曰:「臣過受劉主殊遇,降吳不可,還蜀無路,是以歸命。且敗軍之將,免死為幸,何古人之可慕也!」文帝善之,拜為鎮南將軍,封育陽侯,加侍中,使之陪乘。

Of Shǔ surrendered men some said they had executed Quán’s wife and children, but Quán knew these were false words, and did not hold funeral, (1) and later he obtained thorough news, and indeed it was like he said. When Xiānzhǔ’s death’s news arrived, Wèi’s various ministers all congratulated but Quán alone did not. Wén-dì investigated Quán’s office supplies, wishing to test and alarm him, sending attendants with Imperial Order to Quán, and during the time he had not yet arrived, they repeatedly urged on the subordinates, the horses were made to gallop, intertwining on the road, and of the office associates and attendant followers none did not break vigor, but Quán’s bearing and countenance were at ease. Later he was given office as Yì Province Inspector, and moved to occupy Hénán.

蜀降人或云誅權妻子,權知其虛言,未便發喪,〔一〕後得審問,果如所言。及先主薨問至,魏群臣咸賀而權獨否。文帝察權有局量,欲試驚之,遣左右詔權,未至之間,累催相屬,馬使奔馳,交錯於道,官屬侍從莫不碎魄,而權舉止顏色自若。後領益州刺史,徙占河南。

General-in-Chief Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng was deeply impressed with him, and asked Quán: “In Shǔ there are how many men of your sort?” Quán laughed and answered: “I did not think your enlightened excellency would consider me so heavily!” [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng with Zhūgě Liàng wrote letter: “Huáng Gōnghéng, is a clever gentleman, every time seated he rises and sighs and speaks of you, not giving up talking material.” Jǐngchū Third Year, Shǔ’s Yánxī Second Year [239], Quán was promoted to Chariots and Cavalry General, Rites Equal to the Three Excellencies. (2) The next year he died, posthumous name Jǐng-hóu “Resolute Marquis.” His son Yōng succeeded. Yōng had no sons, cut off.

大將軍司馬宣王深器之,問權曰:「蜀中有卿輩幾人?」權笑而答曰:「不圖明公見顧之重也!」宣王與諸葛亮書曰:「黃公衡,快士也,每坐起歎述足下,不去口實。」景初三年,蜀延熙二年,權遷車騎將軍、儀同三司。〔二〕明年卒,諡曰景侯。子邕嗣。邕無子,絕。

  • (1) Hàn Wèi Chūnqiū states: Wén-dì gave Imperial Order to hold funeral, but Quán answered: “I your servant with Liú [Bèi] and [Zhū]gě [Liàng] truly trust one another, and they understand I your servant’s original intentions. It is doubtful and not yet certain, and I request to wait for later news.”

〔一〕 漢魏春秋曰:文帝詔令發喪,權答曰:「臣與劉、葛推誠相信,明臣本志。疑惑未實,請須後問。」

  • (2) Shǔjì states: Wèi Míng-dì asked Quán: “The realm Under Heaven is tripartite divided, so which land should be the correct succession?” Quán replied: “It should be by Heaven’s Signs decide the correct. Previously Yínghuò [Mars] defended Xīn [sky region] and Wén Huángdì [Cáo Pī] perished, while Wú’s and Shǔ’s Two Rulers were safe and secure; this was his sign.”

〔二〕 蜀記曰:魏明帝問權:「天下鼎立,當以何地為正?」權對曰:「當以天文為正。往者熒惑守心而文皇帝崩,吳、蜀二主平安,此其徵也。」


Quán left in Shǔ a son Chóng, who became Secretariat Cadet, and accompanied Guard General Zhūgě Zhān to resist Dèng Ài. Arriving at Fú county, [Zhūgě] Zhān lingered and did not yet advance, Chóng frequently urged [Zhūgě] Zhān that they should hurriedly go to occupy rugged defenses, and not let the enemy be able to enter flat ground. [Zhūgě] Zhān yet did not accept, and Chóng went so far as to weep. It happened that [Dèng] Ài increased drive and advanced, [Zhūgě] Zhān led fighting retreat reaching Miánzhú, Chóng commanded and urged on the soldiers, that this was the time to certainly die, and on the battle lines he was killed.

權留蜀子崇,為尚書郎,隨衛將軍諸葛瞻拒鄧艾。到涪縣,瞻盤桓未進,崇屢勸瞻宜速行據險,無令敵得入平地。瞻猶與未納,崇至于流涕。會艾長驅而前,瞻卻戰至綿竹,崇帥厲軍士,期於必死,臨陳見殺。

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