(57.5) Lù Mào 陸瑁 [Zǐzhāng 子璋]

Lù Mào appellation Zǐzhāng, was Chancellor [Lù] Xùn’s younger brother. When young he enjoyed study and was sincere in righteousness. Chén state’s Chén Róng, Chénliú’s Púyáng Yì, Pèi prefecture’s Jiǎng Zuǎn, Guǎnglíng’s Yuán Dí, and others, all were poor but had ambition, and with Mào roamed and lived, (1) and Mào divided what he little he had, with them sharing in plenty and in want. And the same prefecture’s Xú Yuán, then resided in Kuàijī, by nature did not know each other, but when facing death wrote posthumous will, to entrust him with his young orphans, and Mào for him established tomb, and received and cared for his sons. Also Mào’s second cousin’s father [Lù] Jì early died, had two sons and one daughter, all were several years old and returned, Mào welcomed and took in and raised them, until they were grown then they separated. The province and prefecture recruited and nominated him, but all he did not accept.


  • (1) [Yuán] Dí’s grandson [Yuán] Yè, appellation Sīguāng, made Xiàn-dì Chūnqiū, saying [Yuán] Dí with Zhāng Hóng and others all crossed the Jiāng, [Yuán] Dí’s father [Yuán] Suí was a Grand Tutor’s official, and when Zhāng Chāo suppressed Dǒng Zhuó, he appointed Suí to manage Guǎnglíng matters.

〔一〕 迪孫曄,字思光,作獻帝春秋,云迪與張紘等俱過江,迪父綏為太傅掾,張超之討董卓,以綏領廣陵事。

At the time Secretariat Jì Yàn was extensive in illuminating good and bad, investigated and judged the Three Offices, raising up people’s secret and hidden failings, to reveal their disgraces. Mào with him wrote letter saying: “The sagely man praises the good and sympathizes with the foolish, forgets faults and remembers merits, to achieve beautiful cultivation. Moreover now the Ruler’s Enterprise is first established, there is about to be one great unification, this then is the time of Hàn Gāo relinquishing blemishes to employ. If making good and evil distinct and separate, honoring Rǔ’s and Yǐng’s Moon Dawn criticism, it truly can by strict custom enlighten and teach, however one fears it is not yet easy to enact. It is appropriate to distantly imitate Zhòngní’s widespread love, in the middle then Guō Tài’s liberal relief, and closely have benefit of Great Principle.” [Jì] Yàn could not enact this, and in the end was by this destroyed.


Jiāhé Inaugural Year [232], the Public Carriage summoned Mào, appointed him Consultant Cadet, and Selections Department Secretariat. Sūn Quán was furious at Gōngsūn Yuān’s repeated deceitfulness, and wished to personally campaign against him, Mào sent up memorial remonstrating:


“I your servant have heard that sagely kings in restraining the distant Yí, halters and ties and nothing more, does not always hold and retain, and therefore the ancients’ system of land, called this the Uncultivated Region, saying it was unbearably confused and without permanence, and cannot be held. Now [Gōngsūn] Yuān is of the Eastern Yí and a small disgrace, a screen at the coastal area, though wearing a man’s face, [he is] with birds and beasts without difference. The country’s reasons for not begrudging goods and sending treasures distantly to give to him, was not to commend his virtue and righteousness, it truly was wishing to entice and use his foolishness, to scheme for his horses and that is all. [Gōngsūn] Yuān’s arrogance and craftiness, is relying on distance to turn back on command; this then is the desolate wilderness’s constant situation, how is sufficient to be deeply surprised? In the past Hàn’s various Emperors also tried decisive action to manage the outer Yí, hurriedly sending scattered goods, filling up the Western Regions, and although at times there was respectful obedience, however the envoys that met with harm, the wealth and goods simultaneously lost, cannot be counted. Now Your Majesty cannot bear impatient anger, wishing to cross the tremendous sea, personally tread on his land, the various ministers and I humbly comment, and say we are not at ease. Why is this? The northern bandits [Wèi] with the state [Wú], their lands are linked, and if there is a gap, they will answer the opportunity and arrive. The reason for crossing the sea to seek horses, to bend will to [Gōngsūn] Yuān, is to attend to the urgency in eyes’ front, and remove a stomach and heart disease, but to instead relinquish root to pursue the tip, abandon the near to govern the far, use anger to change plans, excitement to move the masses, this then is what the sly caitiffs hope to hear of, not Great Wú’s utmost planning. Also the Military Schools’ methods, is using achievement and toil to cause weariness, use rest to meet toil, the difference between gains and losses, when detected is very many. Moreover the many shores are apart from [Gōngsūn] Yuān, the road is very far, now to reach his shores, troop strength is divided in three, to have the strong advance, the next to defend the boats, and the next to transport provisions, so although the sent men are many, it is difficult to use them all; moreover the isolated infantry carry provisions, travel far and deeply penetrate, the rebel lands have many horses, and will intercept without warning. If [Gōngsūn] Yuān is deceitful, and with the north is not yet cut off, then on the day of moving the army, [like] lips and teeth they will rescue one another. If he truly is solitary with nothing to depend on, his fear and terror will distantly flee, and perhaps he would be difficult to finally destroy. If your Heavenly Punishment is checked in the northern fields, the mountain caitiffs will take advantage to rise, and one fears it is not a long term consideration for complete security.”


[Sūn] Quán did not yet agree.


Mào again sent up memorial saying: “Weapons and armor, assuredly in previous generations were used to punish rebellion and chaos, and awe the four Yí, however their toil all were when unscrupulous opportunists were already eliminated, the realm Under Heaven without problems, unworried above the Ancestral Temple, to with the remainder discuss it and that is all. Reaching when the Central Realms like a cauldron boils, the time when the Nine Regions divides apart, one must wait for deep roots and hard foundations, favored strength and begrudged expense, engaged in self rest and recovery, to wait for neighboring enemy’s deficiency, and there has never been the upright at this time, one who gave up of the near to govern the far, and with a weary army campaigned. In the past Commandant Tuó rebelled, usurped title and declared [himself] Emperor, at the time the realm Under Heaven was controlled and secure, the common people flourishing and abundant, and the number of stored armor, the accumulation of provisions and grain, could be said to be many. However Hàn [Emperor] Wén yet because distant expedition was not easy, heavily mobilized armies, to announce example and nothing more. Now the vicious and cruel are not yet exterminated, the borders yet on alert, and even the chaos of Chī Yóu and Guǐfāng, therefore must by priority investigate them, and it is not yet suitable to take [Gōngsūn] Yuān as foremost. May Your Majesty restrain your authority and employ strategy, temporarily rest the Six Armies, hide your divine regulation, to be later plan, and the realm Under Heaven’s fortune will be extreme.”


[Sūn] Quán again read Mào’s letter, praised its speech’s and logic’s extreme decisiveness, and therefore did not go.


Previously, Mào’s same prefecture’s Wénrén Mǐn met with good treatment in the state city, surpassing Zōng Xiū, only Mào believed this was incorrect, and later indeed it was as he said.


Chìwū Second Year [239], Mào died. His son Xǐ also waded into literary registers, was good at people discussions, and in Sūn Hào’s time became Selections Department Secretariat. (1)


  • (1) Wúlù states: Xǐ appellation Wénzhòng, was Mào’s second son, entered Jìn as Cavalier Regular Attendant. Mào’s grandson Yè, appellation Shìguāng, reached Chariots and Cavalry General, Rites Equal to the Three Excellencies. Yè’s younger brother Wán, appellation Shìyáo.
  • Jìnyángqiū says Wán was tolerant and elegant, rank reached Excellency of Works, posthumously titled Excellency Commandant.

〔一〕 吳錄曰:喜字文仲,瑁第二子也,入晉為散騎常侍。瑁孫曄,字士光,至車騎將車、儀同三司。曄弟玩,字士瑤。晉陽秋稱玩器量淹雅,位至司空,追贈太尉。

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