Sūn Zī 孫資 [Yànlóng 彥龍]
Liú Fàng appellation Zǐqì was a Zhuō prefecture man, Hàn’s Guǎngyáng Shùn-wáng [Liú Jiàn?]’s son Xīxiāng Marquis [Liú] Hóng’s descendant. He successively served as a prefecture Orderly, and was nominated as a Filial and Incorrupt candidate.
It happened that the world was in great chaos, at the time Yúyáng’s Wáng Sōng resided in the region, and Fàng went to join him. Tàizǔ overcame Jì Province, and Fàng advised [Wáng] Sōng: “Since Dǒng Zhuó created rebellion, heroes all rise, obstructing with soldiers and usurping command, men give themselves fiefs, only Excellency Cáo [Cāo] is able to overcome and rescue from danger and chaos, support and uphold Heaven’s Son, carry out orders and cut down the criminal, wherever he goes he is certain to overcome. Though the two Yuán’s [Shào, Shù] were strong, [Yuán Shù] defended Huái’s south and in cold perished, in battle then at Guāndù [Yuán Shào] was greatly defeated; [Cáo Cāo] follows up on victory to sweep up all, he will go to the Qīng’s and Hé’s north, his authority and punishment united, and his great power will be seen. The quick to join him will gradually enjoy fortune, and the late to submit will be first to perish, and this then is not the time to wait all day for messengers. In the past Qíng Bù relinquished the honor of facing south [independent position], wielding sword to join Hàn, truly noting the reason of downfall and rising, and examining the distinction between loss and accomplishing. You General should devote yourself to accepting command, and you will generously be accepted.” [Wáng] Sōng followed this.
It happened that Tàizǔ suppressed Yuán Tán at Nánpí, with letter summoned [Wáng] Sōng, and [Wáng] Sōng led Yōngnú, Quánzhōu, and Āncì to join him. Fàng for [Wáng] Sōng replied to Tàizǔ‘s letter, and his writing was very beautiful. Tàizǔ both praised him, and also heard of his advice, and therefore recruited Fàng. Jiàn’ān Tenth Year , he with [Wáng] Sōng both arrived.
Tàizǔ was greatly pleased, and said to Fàng: “In the past Bān Biāo joined Dòu Róng and had the Héxī achievement, now how similar is this!” Therefore he appointed Fàng an Advisor to the Excellency of Work’s Military Affairs, and he successively served as Registrar and Recorder, sent out as Héyáng, Duìxǔ, and Zàn Magistrate.
When Wèi state was first established , he with Tàiyuán’s Sūn Zī both were Confidential Document Cadets. Before this, Zī also successively served as county Magistrates and an Advisor to Chancellor’s Military Affairs. (1)
- (1) Zī Biézhuàn states: [Sūn] Zī appellation Yànlóng. From infancy he was intelligent, at three years he lost his two parents, and grew up under his elder brother and sister-in-law. He studied at the Grand University, read extensively of biographies and records, and his same prefecture’s Wáng Yǔn in one meeting was impressed with him. When Tàizǔ became Excellency of Works, he also recruited Zī. It happened that his elder brother was by a village man killed, and Zī with own hand and blade took revenge, and therefore led his family and dependents to flee the land to Hédōng, and therefore did not answer summons. He was again by his home prefecture summoned, but claimed illness to decline. His friend Hédōng’s Jiǎ Kuí said to Zī: “You possess talent excelling from the masses, and when in the past a state was about to collapse, leading figures were eagerly attentive, for a thousand lǐ craning neck, and you should esteem the ancient worthies’ righteousness toward their homelands. But you for a long time linger, resisting and refusing the ruler’s summons, this is like Yào Hé’s jade in the King of Qín’s Court, and blocking Liánchéng’s messengers. I humbly believe it is not what you should do!” Zī was moved by these words, and therefore went to answer it. He reached the bureau of the Merit Officer, and was raised as planning official. Secretariat Director Xún Yù met Zī, and sighed and said: “The northern provinces have suffered tragic chaos for a long time, and it was said its worthies and wise had scattered, only today to again see Planning Official Sūn!” He memorialized to keep him as a Secretariat Cadet. He declined citing family troubles, and was able to return to Hédōng.
Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] succeeded the throne [as King of Wèi], Fàng and Zī were transferred to Left and Right [Confidential Document] Assistants. After several moons, Fàng was moved to [Confidential Document] Director. At Huángchū’s beginning, Confidential Documents was changed to Internal Documents, with Fàng as Supervisor and Zī as Director, each also added office as Giving Affairs Center. Fàng was bestowed rank as Marquis Within the Passes, Zī as Marquis Inside the Passes, and thus they handled classified information. Third Year , Fàng was advanced in rank to Shòu precinct Marquis, Zī to Marquis Within the Passes.
When Míng-dì [Cáo Ruì] succeeded the throne , they met with exceptional favor and appointment, and both were added office as Cavalier Regular Attendants; Fàng advanced in rank to Xī village Marquis, Zī to Lèyáng precinct Marquis. (2) At Tàihé’s end, Wú sent General Zhōu Hè to sail the sea to visit Liáodōng, to recruit Gōngsūn Yuān. The Emperor wished to intercept and suppress them, but of the Court commentators many believed it could not be. Only Zī determined on enacting plan, and indeed they greatly defeated them, and he was advanced in rank to Zuǒ village Marquis. (3)
- (2) Zī Biézhuàn states: Zhūgě Liàng set out at Nánzhèng, at the time commentators believed they could therefore greatly raise troops, to meet and suppress them, and the Emperor’s intentions also agreed, and he asked about this to Zī. Zī said: “In the past Wǔ Huángdì [Cáo Cāo] campaigned against Nánzhèng, capturing Zhāng Lǔ, the Yángpíng campaign, was dangerous and afterward saved. Also he personally went to rescue out Xiàhóu Yuān’s army, he repeatedly said: ‘Nánzhèng is fit to be Heaven’s prison, in Xié valley’s roads are five hundred lǐ of stone caves and that is all,” saying that it was deeply rugged, and this expressed that he was happy just to get out [Xiàhóu] Yuān’s army. Also Wǔ Huángdì was a sage in using troops, observed the Shǔ bandits perched on mountaintops, inspected the Wú caitiffs scuttled about the rivers and lakes, and all disturbed but avoided them, not burdening the strength of the officers and soldiers, not contending the whole Court’s anger, and this truly can be called seeing victory and then battling, knowing difficulty and then withdrawing. Now if the army advances to Nánzhèng to suppress [Zhūgě] Liàng, the road is rugged and dangerous, and one must calculate using elite troops while also transferring defenses of four provinces for restraining the river bandits [Wú], altogether employing 150 to 160 thousand men, it will certainly again increase mobilization. The realm Under Heaven will be disturbed, the expense of strength will be vast and great, this truly is what Your Majesty should deeply think over. Of the strength of defenders, the strength of attackers must be threefold. Merely today showing troops, dividing and ordering great officers to occupy the critical positions, authority is sufficient to shake and awe the bandits, and calm the borders, the officers and soldiers like tigers sleep, and the common people will have no problems. Within several years, the Central States will daily prosper, and the two caitiffs Wú and Shǔ will certainly on their own fall.” The Emperor because of this stopped. At the time Wú man Péng Qǐ also raised righteousness [rebelled against Wú] south of the Jiāng, and commentators believed they should because of this campaign, and they would certainly overcome. The Emperor asked Zī, and Zī said: “Póyáng’s clans have from beginning to end repeatedly had people raise righteousness, but their armies are weak and plans shallow, and at once they will be scattered. In the past Wén Huángdì [Cáo Pī] once secretly discussed the rebels’ circumstances, speaking how at Dòngpǔ they had killed ten thousand people, capturing boats of ten million, but within days boats and people were again gathered; Jiānglíng was besieged for several moon, [Sūn] Quán decided to send a thousand and several hundred troops to station the east gate, and their earthworks had no collapse or breakdown. There are laws of prohibition, and high and low serve and maintain its clear example. By this the supporting of [Péng] Qǐ, one fears is not enough to cause [Sūn] Quán’s stomach or heart any great problems.” [Péng] Qǐ indeed was defeated and destroyed.
- (3) Wèishì Chūnqiū states: Wūhuán Colonel Tián Yù commanded the Western Xiānbēi Xièguīní and others to set out from the passes, suppress Kē Bǐnéng and Zhìyùzhùjiàn, defeated them, and returned to reach Mǎyì’s former city, and [Kē] Bǐnéng commanded thirty thousand cavalry to besiege [Tián] Yù. The Emperor heard of this, plans had not yet been sent out, and he went to the Central Documents office to ask the Supervisor and Director. Director Sūn Zī answered: “Shànggǔ Administrator Yán Zhì is [Yán] Róu’s younger brother, and previously was by [Kē] Bǐnéng trusted. Now hurriedly send Imperial Order to have him persuade [Kē] Bǐnéng, and we can without bothering the armies have it resolved on its own.” The Emperor followed this, and [Kē] Bǐnéng indeed released [Tián] Yù and returned.
Fàng was good with written dispatches, and of the Three Founders’ [Cāo, Pī, Ruì] Imperial Order’s explanations, many were by Fàng. At Qīnglóng’s beginning, Sūn Quán with Zhūgě Liàng joined alliance, wishing to together set out to plunder. Border scouts obtained [Sūn] Quán’s letter, and Fàng then changed the words, gradually changing its base words but keeping form, gave it to General Campaigning East Mǎn Chǒng, pretending to wish to submit, and sealing it showed it to [Zhūgě] Liàng. [Zhūgě] Liàng passed it on to Wú Chief General Bù Zhì and others, and [Bù] Zhì and others showed it to [Sūn] Quán. [Sūn] Quán feared [Zhūgě] Liàng would have doubts, and deeply explained himself.
That year, both [Liú Fàng and Sūn Zī] were added office as Attendant Internals and Merit Grandees. (4) Jǐngchū Second Year , Liáodōng was pacified and settled, and for their advising and planning achievements, each were advanced in rank, and given fief of their home counties, Fàng as Fāngchéng Marquis and Zī as Zhōngdū Marquis.
- (4) Zī Biézhuàn states: At the time, Sūn Quán and Zhūgě Liàng were the most severe rebels, no year did not have their armies campaign. But the Emperor gathered the various subordinates, inside making calculations to resist the bandits, outside composing Temple victory plans, and Zī all managed these. Naturally from this he was closely trusted, and always yielded in matters, to the Emperor saying: “Moving great army, raising great affairs, should be with the various subordinates together done; this shows clarity, and moreover investigations are expanded.” When the Court ministers gathered to discuss, Zī presented their rights and wrongs, selecting out the good to nominate them for completion, and to the end did not make prominent his own virtue. If everyone had words of wrongs and of loves and hates, then he would again ask to resolve it, in order to block slander at its origins. Like General Campaigning East Mǎn Chǒng and Liáng Province Inspector Xú Miǎo, both had slanderers, and Zī all thoroughly explained their natural conduct, so that to the end there were no small problems. [Mǎn] Chǒng and [Xú] Miǎo being able to protect their achievement and reputation, was due to Zī’s efforts. Previously, Zī was at Bāngyì, his reputation set out to the right [more senior] of those of the same sort. His village’s people Excellency of Works’s Official Tián Yù and Liáng Chancellor Zōng Yàn all envied and harmed him, but Yáng Fēng’s group attached to [Tián] Yù and the rest, gathering to be the origin of Zī’s structure of slanders, the blame and discord deeply heavy. Zī would not speak of this, and to the end had no resentment. [Tián] Yù and the rest were ashamed and submitted, asked to resolve their former dissatisfaction, and joined in marriage alliance. Zī said to them: “I have dissatisfied heart, and do not know of anything to resolve. This is only you being ungenerous to yourselves, you only need be more generous to yourselves and that is all.” Therefore he for his eldest son [Sūn] Hóng obtained their daughter. When he gained prominent position, Tián Yù was old and ill at home. Zī treated him with extreme generosity, and also sent his son to his home prefecture, to be a Filial and Incorrupt candidate. But Yáng Fēng’s son later became Craftsman Official, the Emperor due to a matter reprimanded him angrily, wishing to send him to be punished, and Zī begged to spare him. His not recalling of old grievances was like this.
That year, the Emperor was lying ill, and wished to appoint King of Yān [Cáo] Yǔ as General-in-Chief, to with Managing Army General Xiàhóu Xián, Martial Guard General Cáo Shuǎng, Garrison Cavalry Colonel Cáo Zhào, and Valorous Cavalry General Qín Lǎng together assist the government. [Cáo] Yǔ by nature was respectful and good, and sincerely firmly declined. The Emperor summoned to meet Fàng and Zī, they entered the inner bedroom, and he asked them: “Why is the King of Yān like this?” Fàng and Zī answered: “Because the King of Yān truly knows he cannot bear great appointment and that is all.” The Emperor said: “Can Cáo Shuǎng succeed [Cáo] Yǔ or not?” Fàng and Zī therefore approved of this.
Also they deeply explained it was appropriate to quickly summon Excellency Commandant Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng to guide and maintain the Imperial House. The Emperor accepted this advice, and immediately with Yellow Paper instructed Fàng to compose Imperial Order.
When Fàng and Zī went out, the Emperor’s intentions again changed, and Imperial Order stopped [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng to not have him come. Again he met Fàng and Zī and said: “I was about to summon the Excellency Commandant, but Cáo Zhào and the rest instead had me stop this, almost ruining my affairs.” He ordered them to again make Imperial Order, the Emperor alone summoned [Cáo] Shuǎng with Fàng and Zī together to receive Imperial Order command, and therefore dismissed [Cáo] Yǔ, [Xiàhóu] Xiàn, [Cáo] Zhào, and [Qín] Lǎng from office. The Excellency Commandant also arrived, ascended to the bed to receive Imperial Order, and afterward the Emperor perished. (1)
- (1) Shìyǔ states: Fàng and Zī for a long time controlled appointments, [Xiàhóu] Xiàn and [Cáo] Zhào’s hearts inside were not peaceful. Inside the palace hall was a fowl perched on a tree, and the two men said to each other: “This also has been for a long time, how much longer can it be?” This was speaking of Fàng and Zī. Fàng and Zī were afraid, and therefore urged the Emperor to summon [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng. The Emperor hand made Imperial Order, ordering to give the envoy tally to go, to give to [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng was at Jì, [Xiàhóu] Xiàn and the rest first gave Imperial Order having him go through Zhǐguān west to return to Cháng’ān, the tally also arrived, and [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng suspected there was a change [rebellion], and shouted to ask about the tally, and therefore rode pursuing charge chariot to hurriedly go to the capital. The Emperor asked Fàng and Zī: “Who can with the Excellency Commandant be matched?” Fàng said: “Cáo Shuǎng.” The Emperor said: “Can he bear these matters or not?” [Cáo] Shuǎng was in attendance, and perspiring could not answer. Fàng stepped on his foot, in his ear whispering: “I your servant to the death will serve the State Altars.” Cáo Zhào’s younger brother [Cáo] Zuǎn was General-in-Chief’s Major, and the King of Yān [Cáo Yǔ]’s mistakes were mostly blamed on him. [Cáo] Zhào went out, [Cáo] Zuǎn met him, and in alarm said: “The Ascended is not at ease, why did he have you all together go out? You should return.” It was already evening, and Fàng and Zī announced Imperial Order at the Palace Gates, not allowing [Cáo] Zhào and the rest to again go inside, and dismissed the King of Yān. [Cáo] Zhào the next day reached the gates, could not enter, was afraid, and went to the Minister of Justice, to for handling affairs inappropriately be dismissed. The Emperor said to [Xiàhóu] Xiàn: “I have already decided, get out.” [Xiàhóu] Xiàn shed tears and went out, and also was dismissed.
- What Shìyǔ says from the tree from beginning to end, with the base biography is not the same.
- Zī Biézhuàn states: The Emperor’s Imperial Order to Zī said: “I am a little grown, and also successively read what was in the Shū and Zhuàn, and all sigh for nothing not remembered. Planning for after Ten Thousand Years [i.e. the death of a ruler], none surpasses having close people expand and occupy office and power, and military appointment also heavy. Now the Shooting Sound Colonel position is vacant, and I have long wished to obtain someone close, who can be used?”
- Zī said: “Your Majesty thinks deeply and ponders distantly, and truly is not what I your foolish servant can match. What the Shū and Zhuàn records, is all investigations sages have heard, and supposing if Hàn Gāo [Liú Bāng] did not know [Chén] Píng and [Zhōu] Bó were able to secure the Liú clan, if Xiào-Wǔ [Liú Chè] did not note Jīn [Mìdī] and Huò [Guāng] could be entrusted with affairs, the danger could not be spoken of! The time when Wén Huángdì [Cáo Pī] first summoned Cáo Zhēn to return, he personally gave Imperial Order to I your servant to heavily consider, and reaching the Imperial Passing, Your Majesty succeeded the throne, and also had Cáo Xiū inside and outside watching, depending on judging days and moons, defending and reigning to prevent collapse, causing each and everyone to hold to their duties, and small problems did not appear. By this example, close ministers and noble consort families, though they should hold power and grasp soldiers, it should by lightness or heaviness of nature be decided. If the various vassals manage troops, with strength evenly balanced, favor equal and love spread, then they will not submit to each other; not submitting to each other then their intentions will have differences. Now the seen troops that the Five Regiments command, always do not surpass several hundred, choosing a Colonel, if it is of this sort, it will be of that category. Reaching heavy and great appointment, one able to maintain and guide it, should by sagely grace be selected, like [Chén] Píng, [Zhōu] Bó, Jīn [Mīdì], Huò [Guāng], [King of Chéngyáng] Liú Zhāng and others of those sort of men, gradually differentiate their heavy authority, to have them control each other, and for matters it will be good.”
- The Emperor said: “Agreed. Like your words, are indeed my planning of distant concerns. Today one able to be like [Chén] Píng and [Zhōu] Bó, comparable to Jīn [Mīdì] and Huò [Guāng], a match for Liú Zhāng, this is who?”
- Zī said: “I your servant have heard that knowing men then is wisdom, even for Emperors it is difficult. Táng [Yáo]’s and Yú [Shùn]’s saintliness, overall was in advancing and employing, clearly testing by achievement. Chén Píng first served the Hàn [Gāo]zǔ, Jiàng [Marquis Zhōu Bó] and Guàn [Yīng] and others slandered [Chén] Píng as having guilt of accepting gold [bribes] and stealing sister-in-law. Zhōu Bó for playing pipes attracted strength, first served Gāozǔ, and also was not yet known; Gāozǔ examined his track record, and afterward knew he could be entrusted with great affairs. Huò Guāng was Giving Affairs Central for over twenty years, cautious and prudent, and therefore met with close trust. [Jīn] Mìdī was of the Yí and Dí [a foreigner], but for his utmost filial nature and uprightness, specially met with selection and employment, those about still said: “Rashly obtaining a Hú boy and heavily ennobling him.” Although [Chén] Píng and [Zhōu] Bó secured Hàn’s succession, in the end, [Zhōu] Bó was reversed in reputation, and [Chén] Píng was debased and dismissed by Lǚ Xū’s slander. Shàngguān Jiè and Sānghóng Yáng with Huò Guāng fought for power, almost becoming disaster and chaos. This truly shows knowing men is not easy, and being a servant is difficult. Also in selection, it should be one close to Your Majesty, and one trusted by Your Majesty, truly not what I your foolish servant is able to distinguish.”
- Your Servant Sōngzhī believes Sūn [Zī] and Liú [Fàng] at the time were called for full appointment, controlled and decided confidential matters, in government matters nothing was not managed [by them]. Zī and Fàng were entrusted with being asked, at the decision between safety and danger, but instead depended on not answering, this was not appropriate. Receiving someone’s close appointment, by reason how can this be so? According to the base biography and the various documents all say that Fàng and Zī praised Cáo Shuǎng, urged summoning [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng, and the Wèi House’s downfall, the disaster began from this. Zī’s Biézhuàn “Supplemental Biography”, was produced by his family, and they wished to use proper words to cover up his great wrong, but one fears that the disgrace of betraying state, to the end none can polish away.
The King of Qí [Cáo] Fāng ascended the throne, and as Fàng and Zī had settled the Great Plan, increased their fiefs by 300, adding with Fàng’s previous to 1100, Zī to 1000 households, and gave fiefs to their favored sons one man as a precinct Marquis, the next son as Cavalry Commandant, and remaining sons all as Cadet Internals. Zhèngshǐ Inaugural Year , they again added office to Fàng as Left Merit Grandee, Zī as Right Merit Grandee, with gold seal and purple ribbon, Rites Equal to the Three Excellencies. Sixth Year , Fàng transferred to Elite Cavalry [General], Zī to Guard General, with office as Supervisor and Director as before. Seventh Year , again fief was given to one son as precinct Marquis, and each due to old age resigned position, to as ranked Marquis attend Court on the first of the moon, with rank as Specially Advanced. (2) After Cáo Shuǎng was executed, again they appointed Zī as Attendant Internal, office as Internal Documents Director.
- (2) Zī Biézhuàn states: General-in-Chief [Cáo] Shuǎng monopolized affairs, often changing old regulations. Zī sighed and said: “I for accumulated generations immersed in favor, and also happily was entrusted. Now in management I am unable to rectify and assist current affairs, how can I sit and accept salary?” Therefore he firmly claimed illness. Ninth Year  Second Moon, then he was bestowed with Imperial Order: “You handled classified information for over thirty years, engaging in numerous affairs, with achievements known to the previous Court. Reaching my accepting of rank, my movements depended on your good planning. Therefore in the past increased your honor and favor, at the same time holding three offices, outside leading the various officials, inside watching honest speech. As your years pass seventy and illness severe, sending up in return your seal and ribbon, from beginning to end serious and solemn, your resignation intention earnest and sincere. Heaven and Earth by Great Obedience achieve virtue, the superior gentleman by goodness and forgiveness achieve benevolence, heavily by office affairs, disobeying and opposing your intentions; now hearing your decisions, bestow on you coins of one million, and have the simultaneous Minister of Attendants and Minister Treasurer personally give Imperial Order to care for your illness in your mansion. You must exhort in taking medicine, nourish spirit and aura, to forever without end have blessings. Establish Resident Office Rider, to daily deliver meals of meats and liquor.”
Jiāpíng Second Year , Fàng died, posthumous name Jìng-hóu “Respected Marquis.” His son [Liú] Zhèng succeeded. (3) Zī again resigned office and returned to his mansion, then was appointed Elite Cavalry General, transferred to Attendant Internal, Specialy Advanced as before. Third Year  he died, posthumous name Zhēn-hóu “Pure Marquis.” His son [Sūn] Hóng succeeded.
- (3) Your Servant Sōngzhī cites Tóuzé Zǐyǔ states: Minister Liú Xǔ appellation Wénshēng was [Liú] Zhèng’s younger brother. He with Zhāng Huà six men, all were praised as having impressive writing, meaning detailed and orderly. In Jìn Huìdì [Sīmǎ Zhōng]’s reign, [Liú] Xǔ became Yuè Cavalry Colonel
Fàng’s talent and planning was superior to Zī, but his self cultivation did not compare. Fàng and Zī were good at complying with the ruler above, and also did not by prominence speak of merits and demerits, restricted Xīn Pí but assisted Wáng Sī, and by this obtained the ridicule of the world. However at the time because the various ministers remonstrated, supporting their meaning, at the time they secretly explained gains and losses, not passing on flattering words and speech. Reaching Xiánxī [264-265], the Five Ranks were established, and as Fàng and Zī had outstanding achievements to the previous Court, they changed fief of [Liú] Zhèng as Fāngchéng Viscount and [Sūn] Hóng as Líshí Viscount. (1)
- According to Sūnshìpǔ “Sūn Clan Registers”: [Sūn] Hóng became Nányáng Administrator. Hóng’s son Chǔ, appellation Zǐjīng.
- Jìnyángqiu states: [Sūn] Chǔ’s village man Wáng Jǐ was a heroic and eminent official’s son, and for his home province was a Great Fair and Honest candidate. He asked to for [Sūn] Chǔ grade appraisal, and [Wáng] Jǐ said: “This man is not able to be named.” His own appraisal he said: “Natural talent outstanding and extensive, bright and exceptional and not of the masses.” [Sūn] Chǔ’s rank reached Suppressing Caitiffs Protector of the Army and Féngyì Administrator. [Sūn] Chǔ’s son [Sūn] Xún was Yǐngchuān Administrator. [Sūn] Xún’s son [Sūn] Shèng, appellation Ānguó, was Giving Affairs Central, Confidential Documents Supervisor. [Sūn] Shèng’s younger first cousin [Sūn] Chuò appellation Xīnggōng was Ministry of Justice Rectifier. [Sūn] Chǔ and [Sūn] Shèng and [Sūn] Chuò, all had literary elegance, [Sūn] Shèng also was good in explaining name reasoning, and the treatises they wrote, all were passed through the ages.