(14.6) Liú Fàng 劉放 [Zǐqì 子棄]

Sūn Zī 孫資 [Yànlóng 彥龍]

Liú Fàng appellation Zǐqì was a Zhuō prefecture man, Hàn’s Guǎngyáng Shùn-wáng [Liú Jiàn?]’s son Xīxiāng Marquis [Liú] Hóng’s descendant. He successively served as a prefecture Orderly, and was nominated as a Filial and Incorrupt candidate.


It happened that the world was in great chaos, at the time Yúyáng’s Wáng Sōng resided in the region, and Fàng went to join him. Tàizǔ overcame Jì Province, and Fàng advised [Wáng] Sōng: “Since Dǒng Zhuó created rebellion, heroes all rise, obstructing with soldiers and usurping command, men give themselves fiefs, only Excellency Cáo [Cāo] is able to overcome and rescue from danger and chaos, support and uphold Heaven’s Son, carry out orders and cut down the criminal, wherever he goes he is certain to overcome. Though the two Yuán’s [Shào, Shù] were strong, [Yuán Shù] defended Huái’s south and in cold perished, in battle then at Guāndù [Yuán Shào] was greatly defeated; [Cáo Cāo] follows up on victory to sweep up all, he will go to the Qīng’s and Hé’s north, his authority and punishment united, and his great power will be seen. The quick to join him will gradually enjoy fortune, and the late to submit will be first to perish, and this then is not the time to wait all day for messengers. In the past Qíng Bù relinquished the honor of facing south [independent position], wielding sword to join Hàn, truly noting the reason of downfall and rising, and examining the distinction between loss and accomplishing. You General should devote yourself to accepting command, and you will generously be accepted.” [Wáng] Sōng followed this.


It happened that Tàizǔ suppressed Yuán Tán at Nánpí, with letter summoned [Wáng] Sōng, and [Wáng] Sōng led Yōngnú, Quánzhōu, and Āncì to join him. Fàng for [Wáng] Sōng replied to Tàizǔ‘s letter, and his writing was very beautiful. Tàizǔ both praised him, and also heard of his advice, and therefore recruited Fàng. Jiàn’ān Tenth Year [205], he with [Wáng] Sōng both arrived.


Tàizǔ was greatly pleased, and said to Fàng: “In the past Bān Biāo joined Dòu Róng and had the Héxī achievement, now how similar is this!” Therefore he appointed Fàng an Advisor to the Excellency of Work’s Military Affairs, and he successively served as Registrar and Recorder, sent out as Héyáng, Duìxǔ, and Zàn Magistrate.


When Wèi state was first established [213], he with Tàiyuán’s Sūn Zī both were Confidential Document Cadets. Before this, Zī also successively served as county Magistrates and an Advisor to Chancellor’s Military Affairs. (1)


  • (1) Zī Biézhuàn states: [Sūn] Zī appellation Yànlóng. From infancy he was intelligent, at three years he lost his two parents, and grew up under his elder brother and sister-in-law. He studied at the Grand University, read extensively of biographies and records, and his same prefecture’s Wáng Yǔn in one meeting was impressed with him. When Tàizǔ became Excellency of Works, he also recruited Zī. It happened that his elder brother was by a village man killed, and Zī with own hand and blade took revenge, and therefore led his family and dependents to flee the land to Hédōng, and therefore did not answer summons. He was again by his home prefecture summoned, but claimed illness to decline. His friend Hédōng’s Jiǎ Kuí said to Zī: “You possess talent excelling from the masses, and when in the past a state was about to collapse, leading figures were eagerly attentive, for a thousand lǐ craning neck, and you should esteem the ancient worthies’ righteousness toward their homelands. But you for a long time linger, resisting and refusing the ruler’s summons, this is like Yào Hé’s jade in the King of Qín’s Court, and blocking Liánchéng’s messengers. I humbly believe it is not what you should do!” Zī was moved by these words, and therefore went to answer it. He reached the bureau of the Merit Officer, and was raised as planning official. Secretariat Director Xún Yù met Zī, and sighed and said: “The northern provinces have suffered tragic chaos for a long time, and it was said its worthies and wise had scattered, only today to again see Planning Official Sūn!” He memorialized to keep him as a Secretariat Cadet. He declined citing family troubles, and was able to return to Hédōng.

〔一〕 資別傳曰:資字彥龍。幼而岐嶷,三歲喪二親,長於兄嫂。講業太學,博覽傳記,同郡王允一見而奇之。太祖為司空,又辟資。會兄為鄉人所害,資手刃報讎,乃將家屬避地河東,故遂不應命。尋復為本郡所命,以疾辭。友人河東賈逵謂資曰:「足下抱逸群之才,值舊邦傾覆,主將殷勤,千里延頸,宜崇古賢桑梓之義。而久盤桓,拒違君命,斯猶曜和璧於秦王之庭,而塞以連城之價耳。竊為足下不取也!」資感其言,遂往應之。到署功曹,舉計吏。尚書令荀彧見資,嘆曰:「北州承喪亂已久,謂其賢智零落,今日乃復見孫計君乎!」表留以為尚書郎。辭以家難,得還河東。

Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] succeeded the throne [as King of Wèi], Fàng and Zī were transferred to Left and Right [Confidential Document] Assistants. After several moons, Fàng was moved to [Confidential Document] Director. At Huángchū’s beginning, Confidential Documents was changed to Internal Documents, with Fàng as Supervisor and Zī as Director, each also added office as Giving Affairs Center. Fàng was bestowed rank as Marquis Within the Passes, Zī as Marquis Inside the Passes, and thus they handled classified information. Third Year [222], Fàng was advanced in rank to Shòu precinct Marquis, Zī to Marquis Within the Passes.


When Míng-dì [Cáo Ruì] succeeded the throne [226], they met with exceptional favor and appointment, and both were added office as Cavalier Regular Attendants; Fàng advanced in rank to Xī village Marquis, Zī to Lèyáng precinct Marquis. (2) At Tàihé’s end, Wú sent General Zhōu Hè to sail the sea to visit Liáodōng, to recruit Gōngsūn Yuān. The Emperor wished to intercept and suppress them, but of the Court commentators many believed it could not be. Only Zī determined on enacting plan, and indeed they greatly defeated them, and he was advanced in rank to Zuǒ village Marquis. (3)


  • (2) Zī Biézhuàn states: Zhūgě Liàng set out at Nánzhèng, at the time commentators believed they could therefore greatly raise troops, to meet and suppress them, and the Emperor’s intentions also agreed, and he asked about this to Zī. Zī said: “In the past Wǔ Huángdì [Cáo Cāo] campaigned against Nánzhèng, capturing Zhāng Lǔ, the Yángpíng campaign, was dangerous and afterward saved. Also he personally went to rescue out Xiàhóu Yuān’s army, he repeatedly said: ‘Nánzhèng is fit to be Heaven’s prison, in Xié valley’s roads are five hundred lǐ of stone caves and that is all,” saying that it was deeply rugged, and this expressed that he was happy just to get out [Xiàhóu] Yuān’s army. Also Wǔ Huángdì was a sage in using troops, observed the Shǔ bandits perched on mountaintops, inspected the Wú caitiffs scuttled about the rivers and lakes, and all disturbed but avoided them, not burdening the strength of the officers and soldiers, not contending the whole Court’s anger, and this truly can be called seeing victory and then battling, knowing difficulty and then withdrawing. Now if the army advances to Nánzhèng to suppress [Zhūgě] Liàng, the road is rugged and dangerous, and one must calculate using elite troops while also transferring defenses of four provinces for restraining the river bandits [Wú], altogether employing 150 to 160 thousand men, it will certainly again increase mobilization. The realm Under Heaven will be disturbed, the expense of strength will be vast and great, this truly is what Your Majesty should deeply think over. Of the strength of defenders, the strength of attackers must be threefold. Merely today showing troops, dividing and ordering great officers to occupy the critical positions, authority is sufficient to shake and awe the bandits, and calm the borders, the officers and soldiers like tigers sleep, and the common people will have no problems. Within several years, the Central States will daily prosper, and the two caitiffs Wú and Shǔ will certainly on their own fall.” The Emperor because of this stopped. At the time Wú man Péng Qǐ also raised righteousness [rebelled against Wú] south of the Jiāng, and commentators believed they should because of this campaign, and they would certainly overcome. The Emperor asked Zī, and Zī said: “Póyáng’s clans have from beginning to end repeatedly had people raise righteousness, but their armies are weak and plans shallow, and at once they will be scattered. In the past Wén Huángdì [Cáo Pī] once secretly discussed the rebels’ circumstances, speaking how at Dòngpǔ they had killed ten thousand people, capturing boats of ten million, but within days boats and people were again gathered; Jiānglíng was besieged for several moon, [Sūn] Quán decided to send a thousand and several hundred troops to station the east gate, and their earthworks had no collapse or breakdown. There are laws of prohibition, and high and low serve and maintain its clear example. By this the supporting of [Péng] Qǐ, one fears is not enough to cause [Sūn] Quán’s stomach or heart any great problems.” [Péng] Qǐ indeed was defeated and destroyed.

〔二〕 資別傳曰:諸葛亮出在南鄭,時議者以為可因發大兵,就討之,帝意亦然,以問資。資曰:「昔武皇帝征南鄭,取張魯,陽平之役,危而後濟。又自往拔出夏侯淵軍,數言『南鄭直為天獄,中斜谷道為五百里石穴耳』,言其深險,喜出淵軍之辭也。又武皇帝聖於用兵,察蜀賊棲於山巖,視吳虜竄於江湖,皆橈而避之,不責將士之力,不爭一朝之忿,誠所謂見勝而戰,知難而退也。今若進軍就南鄭討亮,道既險阻,計用精兵又轉運鎮守南方四州遏禦水賊,凡用十五六萬人,必當復更有所發興。天下騷動,費力廣大,此誠陛下所宜深慮。夫守戰之力,力役參倍。但以今日見兵,分命大將據諸要險,威足以震攝彊寇,鎮靜疆埸,將士虎睡,百姓無事。數年之間,中國日盛,吳蜀二虜必自罷弊。」帝由是止。時吳人彭綺又舉義江南,議者以為因此伐之,必有所克。帝問資,資曰:「鄱陽宗人前後數有舉義者,眾弱謀淺,旋輒乖散。昔文皇帝嘗密論賊形勢,言洞浦殺萬人,得船千萬,數日間船人復會;江陵被圍歷月,權裁以千數百兵住東門,而其土地無崩解者。是有法禁,上下相奉持之明驗也。以此推綺,懼未能為權腹心大疾也。」綺果尋敗亡。

  • (3) Wèishì Chūnqiū states: Wūhuán Colonel Tián Yù commanded the Western Xiānbēi Xièguīní and others to set out from the passes, suppress Kē Bǐnéng and Zhìyùzhùjiàn, defeated them, and returned to reach Mǎyì’s former city, and [Kē] Bǐnéng commanded thirty thousand cavalry to besiege [Tián] Yù. The Emperor heard of this, plans had not yet been sent out, and he went to the Central Documents office to ask the Supervisor and Director. Director Sūn Zī answered: “Shànggǔ Administrator Yán Zhì is [Yán] Róu’s younger brother, and previously was by [Kē] Bǐnéng trusted. Now hurriedly send Imperial Order to have him persuade [Kē] Bǐnéng, and we can without bothering the armies have it resolved on its own.” The Emperor followed this, and [Kē] Bǐnéng indeed released [Tián] Yù and returned.

〔三〕 魏氏春秋曰:烏丸校尉田豫帥西部鮮卑泄歸尼等出塞,討軻比能、智鬱築鞬,破之,還至馬邑故城,比能帥三萬騎圍豫。帝聞之,計未有所出,如中書省以問監、令。令孫資對曰:「上谷太守閻志,柔弟也,為比能素所歸信。令馳詔使說比能,可不勞師而自解矣。」帝從之,比能果釋豫而還。

Fàng was good with written dispatches, and of the Three Founders’ [Cāo, Pī, Ruì] Imperial Order’s explanations, many were by Fàng. At Qīnglóng’s beginning, Sūn Quán with Zhūgě Liàng joined alliance, wishing to together set out to plunder. Border scouts obtained [Sūn] Quán’s letter, and Fàng then changed the words, gradually changing its base words but keeping form, gave it to General Campaigning East Mǎn Chǒng, pretending to wish to submit, and sealing it showed it to [Zhūgě] Liàng. [Zhūgě] Liàng passed it on to Wú Chief General Bù Zhì and others, and [Bù] Zhì and others showed it to [Sūn] Quán. [Sūn] Quán feared [Zhūgě] Liàng would have doubts, and deeply explained himself.


That year, both [Liú Fàng and Sūn Zī] were added office as Attendant Internals and Merit Grandees. (4) Jǐngchū Second Year [238], Liáodōng was pacified and settled, and for their advising and planning achievements, each were advanced in rank, and given fief of their home counties, Fàng as Fāngchéng Marquis and Zī as Zhōngdū Marquis.


  • (4) Zī Biézhuàn states: At the time, Sūn Quán and Zhūgě Liàng were the most severe rebels, no year did not have their armies campaign. But the Emperor gathered the various subordinates, inside making calculations to resist the bandits, outside composing Temple victory plans, and Zī all managed these. Naturally from this he was closely trusted, and always yielded in matters, to the Emperor saying: “Moving great army, raising great affairs, should be with the various subordinates together done; this shows clarity, and moreover investigations are expanded.” When the Court ministers gathered to discuss, Zī presented their rights and wrongs, selecting out the good to nominate them for completion, and to the end did not make prominent his own virtue. If everyone had words of wrongs and of loves and hates, then he would again ask to resolve it, in order to block slander at its origins. Like General Campaigning East Mǎn Chǒng and Liáng Province Inspector Xú Miǎo, both had slanderers, and Zī all thoroughly explained their natural conduct, so that to the end there were no small problems. [Mǎn] Chǒng and [Xú] Miǎo being able to protect their achievement and reputation, was due to Zī’s efforts. Previously, Zī was at Bāngyì, his reputation set out to the right [more senior] of those of the same sort. His village’s people Excellency of Works’s Official Tián Yù and Liáng Chancellor Zōng Yàn all envied and harmed him, but Yáng Fēng’s group attached to [Tián] Yù and the rest, gathering to be the origin of Zī’s structure of slanders, the blame and discord deeply heavy. Zī would not speak of this, and to the end had no resentment. [Tián] Yù and the rest were ashamed and submitted, asked to resolve their former dissatisfaction, and joined in marriage alliance. Zī said to them: “I have dissatisfied heart, and do not know of anything to resolve. This is only you being ungenerous to yourselves, you only need be more generous to yourselves and that is all.” Therefore he for his eldest son [Sūn] Hóng obtained their daughter. When he gained prominent position, Tián Yù was old and ill at home. Zī treated him with extreme generosity, and also sent his son to his home prefecture, to be a Filial and Incorrupt candidate. But Yáng Fēng’s son later became Craftsman Official, the Emperor due to a matter reprimanded him angrily, wishing to send him to be punished, and Zī begged to spare him. His not recalling of old grievances was like this.

〔四〕 資別傳曰:是時,孫權、諸葛亮號稱劇賊,無歲不有軍征。而帝總攝群下,內圖禦寇之計,外規廟勝之畫,資皆管之。然自以受腹心,常讓事於帝曰:「動大眾,舉大事,宜與群下共之;既以示明,且於探求為廣。」既朝臣會議,資奏當其是非,擇其善者推成之,終不顯己之德也。若眾人有譴過及愛憎之說,輒復為請解,以塞譖潤之端。如征東將軍滿寵、涼州刺史徐邈,並有譖毀之者,資皆盛陳其素行,使卒無纖介。寵、邈得保其功名者,資之力也。初,資在邦邑,名出同類之右。鄉人司空掾田豫、梁相宗豔皆妒害之,而楊豐黨附豫等,專為資構造謗端,怨隙甚重。資既不以為言,而終無恨意。豫等慚服,求釋宿憾,結為婚姻。資謂之曰:「吾無憾心,不知所釋。此為卿自薄之,卿自厚之耳!」乃為長子宏取其女。及當顯位,而田豫老疾在家。資遇之甚厚,又致其子於本郡,以為孝廉。而楊豐子後為尚方吏,帝以職事譴怒,欲致之法,資請活之。其不念舊惡如此。

That year, the Emperor was lying ill, and wished to appoint King of Yān [Cáo] Yǔ as General-in-Chief, to with Managing Army General Xiàhóu Xián, Martial Guard General Cáo Shuǎng, Garrison Cavalry Colonel Cáo Zhào, and Valorous Cavalry General Qín Lǎng together assist the government. [Cáo] Yǔ by nature was respectful and good, and sincerely firmly declined. The Emperor summoned to meet Fàng and Zī, they entered the inner bedroom, and he asked them: “Why is the King of Yān like this?” Fàng and Zī answered: “Because the King of Yān truly knows he cannot bear great appointment and that is all.” The Emperor said: “Can Cáo Shuǎng succeed [Cáo] Yǔ or not?” Fàng and Zī therefore approved of this.


Also they deeply explained it was appropriate to quickly summon Excellency Commandant Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng to guide and maintain the Imperial House. The Emperor accepted this advice, and immediately with Yellow Paper instructed Fàng to compose Imperial Order.


When Fàng and Zī went out, the Emperor’s intentions again changed, and Imperial Order stopped [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng to not have him come. Again he met Fàng and Zī and said: “I was about to summon the Excellency Commandant, but Cáo Zhào and the rest instead had me stop this, almost ruining my affairs.” He ordered them to again make Imperial Order, the Emperor alone summoned [Cáo] Shuǎng with Fàng and Zī together to receive Imperial Order command, and therefore dismissed [Cáo] Yǔ, [Xiàhóu] Xiàn, [Cáo] Zhào, and [Qín] Lǎng from office. The Excellency Commandant also arrived, ascended to the bed to receive Imperial Order, and afterward the Emperor perished. (1)


  • (1) Shìyǔ states: Fàng and Zī for a long time controlled appointments, [Xiàhóu] Xiàn and [Cáo] Zhào’s hearts inside were not peaceful. Inside the palace hall was a fowl perched on a tree, and the two men said to each other: “This also has been for a long time, how much longer can it be?” This was speaking of Fàng and Zī. Fàng and Zī were afraid, and therefore urged the Emperor to summon [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng. The Emperor hand made Imperial Order, ordering to give the envoy tally to go, to give to [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng. [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng was at Jì, [Xiàhóu] Xiàn and the rest first gave Imperial Order having him go through Zhǐguān west to return to Cháng’ān, the tally also arrived, and [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng suspected there was a change [rebellion], and shouted to ask about the tally, and therefore rode pursuing charge chariot to hurriedly go to the capital. The Emperor asked Fàng and Zī: “Who can with the Excellency Commandant be matched?” Fàng said: “Cáo Shuǎng.” The Emperor said: “Can he bear these matters or not?” [Cáo] Shuǎng was in attendance, and perspiring could not answer. Fàng stepped on his foot, in his ear whispering: “I your servant to the death will serve the State Altars.” Cáo Zhào’s younger brother [Cáo] Zuǎn was General-in-Chief’s Major, and the King of Yān [Cáo Yǔ]’s mistakes were mostly blamed on him. [Cáo] Zhào went out, [Cáo] Zuǎn met him, and in alarm said: “The Ascended is not at ease, why did he have you all together go out? You should return.” It was already evening, and Fàng and Zī announced Imperial Order at the Palace Gates, not allowing [Cáo] Zhào and the rest to again go inside, and dismissed the King of Yān. [Cáo] Zhào the next day reached the gates, could not enter, was afraid, and went to the Minister of Justice, to for handling affairs inappropriately be dismissed. The Emperor said to [Xiàhóu] Xiàn: “I have already decided, get out.” [Xiàhóu] Xiàn shed tears and went out, and also was dismissed.
  • What Shìyǔ says from the tree from beginning to end, with the base biography is not the same.
  • Zī Biézhuàn states: The Emperor’s Imperial Order to Zī said: “I am a little grown, and also successively read what was in the Shū and Zhuàn, and all sigh for nothing not remembered. Planning for after Ten Thousand Years [i.e. the death of a ruler], none surpasses having close people expand and occupy office and power, and military appointment also heavy. Now the Shooting Sound Colonel position is vacant, and I have long wished to obtain someone close, who can be used?”
  • Zī said: “Your Majesty thinks deeply and ponders distantly, and truly is not what I your foolish servant can match. What the Shū and Zhuàn records, is all investigations sages have heard, and supposing if Hàn Gāo [Liú Bāng] did not know [Chén] Píng and [Zhōu] Bó were able to secure the Liú clan, if Xiào-Wǔ [Liú Chè] did not note Jīn [Mìdī] and Huò [Guāng] could be entrusted with affairs, the danger could not be spoken of! The time when Wén Huángdì [Cáo Pī] first summoned Cáo Zhēn to return, he personally gave Imperial Order to I your servant to heavily consider, and reaching the Imperial Passing, Your Majesty succeeded the throne, and also had Cáo Xiū inside and outside watching, depending on judging days and moons, defending and reigning to prevent collapse, causing each and everyone to hold to their duties, and small problems did not appear. By this example, close ministers and noble consort families, though they should hold power and grasp soldiers, it should by lightness or heaviness of nature be decided. If the various vassals manage troops, with strength evenly balanced, favor equal and love spread, then they will not submit to each other; not submitting to each other then their intentions will have differences. Now the seen troops that the Five Regiments command, always do not surpass several hundred, choosing a Colonel, if it is of this sort, it will be of that category. Reaching heavy and great appointment, one able to maintain and guide it, should by sagely grace be selected, like [Chén] Píng, [Zhōu] Bó, Jīn [Mīdì], Huò [Guāng], [King of Chéngyáng] Liú Zhāng and others of those sort of men, gradually differentiate their heavy authority, to have them control each other, and for matters it will be good.”
  • The Emperor said: “Agreed. Like your words, are indeed my planning of distant concerns. Today one able to be like [Chén] Píng and [Zhōu] Bó, comparable to Jīn [Mīdì] and Huò [Guāng], a match for Liú Zhāng, this is who?”
  • Zī said: “I your servant have heard that knowing men then is wisdom, even for Emperors it is difficult. Táng [Yáo]’s and Yú [Shùn]’s saintliness, overall was in advancing and employing, clearly testing by achievement. Chén Píng first served the Hàn [Gāo], Jiàng [Marquis Zhōu Bó] and Guàn [Yīng] and others slandered [Chén] Píng as having guilt of accepting gold [bribes] and stealing sister-in-law. Zhōu Bó for playing pipes attracted strength, first served Gāozǔ, and also was not yet known; Gāozǔ examined his track record, and afterward knew he could be entrusted with great affairs. Huò Guāng was Giving Affairs Central for over twenty years, cautious and prudent, and therefore met with close trust. [Jīn] Mìdī was of the Yí and Dí [a foreigner], but for his utmost filial nature and uprightness, specially met with selection and employment, those about still said: “Rashly obtaining a Hú boy and heavily ennobling him.” Although [Chén] Píng and [Zhōu] Bó secured Hàn’s succession, in the end, [Zhōu] Bó was reversed in reputation, and [Chén] Píng was debased and dismissed by Lǚ Xū’s slander. Shàngguān Jiè and Sānghóng Yáng with Huò Guāng fought for power, almost becoming disaster and chaos. This truly shows knowing men is not easy, and being a servant is difficult. Also in selection, it should be one close to Your Majesty, and one trusted by Your Majesty, truly not what I your foolish servant is able to distinguish.”
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī believes Sūn [Zī] and Liú [Fàng] at the time were called for full appointment, controlled and decided confidential matters, in government matters nothing was not managed [by them]. Zī and Fàng were entrusted with being asked, at the decision between safety and danger, but instead depended on not answering, this was not appropriate. Receiving someone’s close appointment, by reason how can this be so? According to the base biography and the various documents all say that Fàng and Zī praised Cáo Shuǎng, urged summoning [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng, and the Wèi House’s downfall, the disaster began from this. Zī’s Biézhuàn “Supplemental Biography”, was produced by his family, and they wished to use proper words to cover up his great wrong, but one fears that the disgrace of betraying state, to the end none can polish away.

〔一〕 世語曰:放、資久典機任,獻、肇心內不平。殿中有雞棲樹,二人相謂:「此亦久矣,其能復幾?」指謂放、資。放、資懼,乃勸帝召宣王。帝作手詔,令給使辟邪至,以授宣王。宣王在汲,獻等先詔令於軹關西還長安,辟邪又至,宣王疑有變,呼辟邪具問,乃乘追鋒車馳至京師。帝問放、資:「誰可與太尉對者?」放曰:「曹爽。」帝曰:「堪其事不?」爽在左右,流汗不能對。放躡其足,耳之曰:「臣以死奉社稷。」曹肇弟纂為大將軍司馬,燕王頗失指。肇出,纂見,驚曰:「上不安,云何悉共出?宜還。」已暮,放、資宣詔宮門,不得復內肇等,罷燕王。肇明日至門,不得入,懼,詣延尉,以處事失宜免。帝謂獻曰:「吾已差,便出。」獻流涕而出,亦免。案世語所云樹置先後,與本傳不同。資別傳曰:帝詔資曰:「吾年稍長,又歷觀書傳中,皆歎息無所不念。圖萬年後計,莫過使親人廣據職勢,兵任又重。今射聲校尉缺,久欲得親人,誰可用者?」資曰:「陛下思深慮遠,誠非愚臣所及。書傳所載,皆聖聽所究,向使漢高不知平、勃能安劉氏,孝武不識金、霍付屬以事,殆不可言!文皇帝始召曹真還時,親詔臣以重慮,及至晏駕,陛下即阼,猶有曹休外內之望,賴遭日月,御勒不傾,使各守分職,纖介不間。以此推之,親臣貴戚,雖當據勢握兵,宜使輕重素定。若諸侯典兵,力均衡平,寵齊愛等,則不相為服;不相為服,則意有異同。今五營所領見兵,常不過數百,選授校尉,如其輩類,為有疇匹。至於重大之任,能有所維綱者,宜以聖恩簡擇,如平、勃、金、霍、劉章等一二人,漸殊其威重,使相鎮固,於事為善。」帝曰:「然。如卿言,當為吾遠慮所圖。今日可參平、勃,侔金、霍,雙劉章者,其誰哉?」資曰:「臣聞知人則哲,惟帝難之。唐虞之聖,凡所進用,明試以功。陳平初事漢祖,絳、灌等謗平有受金盜嫂之罪。周勃以吹簫引彊,始事高祖,亦未知名也;高祖察其行跡,然後知可付以大事。霍光給事中二十餘年,小心謹慎,乃見親信。日磾夷狄,以至孝質直,特見擢用,左右尚曰『妄得一胡兒而重貴之』。平、勃雖安漢嗣,其終,勃被反名,平劣自免於呂須之讒。上官桀、桑弘羊與霍光爭權,幾成禍亂。此誠知人之不易,為臣之難也。又所簡擇,當得陛下所親,當得陛下所信,誠非愚臣之所能識別。」臣松之以為孫、劉于時號為專任,制斷機密,政事無不綜。資、放被託付之問,當安危所斷,而更依違其對,無有適莫。受人親任,理豈得然?案本傳及諸書並云放、資稱贊曹爽,勸召宣王,魏室之亡,禍基於此。資之別傳,出自其家,欲以是言掩其大失,然恐負國之玷,終莫能磨也。

The King of Qí [Cáo] Fāng ascended the throne, and as Fàng and Zī had settled the Great Plan, increased their fiefs by 300, adding with Fàng’s previous to 1100, Zī to 1000 households, and gave fiefs to their favored sons one man as a precinct Marquis, the next son as Cavalry Commandant, and remaining sons all as Cadet Internals. Zhèngshǐ Inaugural Year [240], they again added office to Fàng as Left Merit Grandee, Zī as Right Merit Grandee, with gold seal and purple ribbon, Rites Equal to the Three Excellencies. Sixth Year [245], Fàng transferred to Elite Cavalry [General], Zī to Guard General, with office as Supervisor and Director as before. Seventh Year [246], again fief was given to one son as precinct Marquis, and each due to old age resigned position, to as ranked Marquis attend Court on the first of the moon, with rank as Specially Advanced. (2) After Cáo Shuǎng was executed, again they appointed Zī as Attendant Internal, office as Internal Documents Director.


  • (2) Zī Biézhuàn states: General-in-Chief [Cáo] Shuǎng monopolized affairs, often changing old regulations. Zī sighed and said: “I for accumulated generations immersed in favor, and also happily was entrusted. Now in management I am unable to rectify and assist current affairs, how can I sit and accept salary?” Therefore he firmly claimed illness. Ninth Year [248] Second Moon, then he was bestowed with Imperial Order: “You handled classified information for over thirty years, engaging in numerous affairs, with achievements known to the previous Court. Reaching my accepting of rank, my movements depended on your good planning. Therefore in the past increased your honor and favor, at the same time holding three offices, outside leading the various officials, inside watching honest speech. As your years pass seventy and illness severe, sending up in return your seal and ribbon, from beginning to end serious and solemn, your resignation intention earnest and sincere. Heaven and Earth by Great Obedience achieve virtue, the superior gentleman by goodness and forgiveness achieve benevolence, heavily by office affairs, disobeying and opposing your intentions; now hearing your decisions, bestow on you coins of one million, and have the simultaneous Minister of Attendants and Minister Treasurer personally give Imperial Order to care for your illness in your mansion. You must exhort in taking medicine, nourish spirit and aura, to forever without end have blessings. Establish Resident Office Rider, to daily deliver meals of meats and liquor.”

〔二〕 資別傳曰:大將軍爽專事,多變易舊章。資歎曰:「吾累世蒙寵,加以豫聞屬託,今縱不能匡弼時事,可以坐受素餐之祿邪?」遂固稱疾。九年二月,乃賜詔曰:「君掌機密三十餘年,經營庶事,勳著前朝。暨朕統位,動賴良謀。是以曩者增崇寵章,同之三事,外帥群官,內望讜言。屬以年耆疾篤,上還印綬,前後鄭重,辭旨懇切。天地以大順成德,君子以善恕成仁,重以職事,違奪君志;今聽所執,賜錢百萬,使兼光祿勳少府親策詔君養疾于第。君其勉進醫藥,頤神和氣,以永無疆之祚。置舍人官騎,加以日秩肴酒之膳焉。」

Jiāpíng Second Year [250], Fàng died, posthumous name Jìng-hóu “Respected Marquis.” His son [Liú] Zhèng succeeded. (3) Zī again resigned office and returned to his mansion, then was appointed Elite Cavalry General, transferred to Attendant Internal, Specialy Advanced as before. Third Year [251] he died, posthumous name Zhēn-hóu “Pure Marquis.” His son [Sūn] Hóng succeeded.


  • (3) Your Servant Sōngzhī cites Tóuzé Zǐyǔ states: Minister Liú Xǔ appellation Wénshēng was [Liú] Zhèng’s younger brother. He with Zhāng Huà six men, all were praised as having impressive writing, meaning detailed and orderly. In Jìn Huìdì [Sīmǎ Zhōng]’s reign, [Liú] Xǔ became Yuè Cavalry Colonel

〔三〕 臣松之案頭責子羽曰:士卿劉許字文生,正之弟也。與張華六人,並稱文辭可觀,意思詳序。晉惠帝世,許為越騎校尉。

Fàng’s talent and planning was superior to Zī, but his self cultivation did not compare. Fàng and Zī were good at complying with the ruler above, and also did not by prominence speak of merits and demerits, restricted Xīn Pí but assisted Wáng Sī, and by this obtained the ridicule of the world. However at the time because the various ministers remonstrated, supporting their meaning, at the time they secretly explained gains and losses, not passing on flattering words and speech. Reaching Xiánxī [264-265], the Five Ranks were established, and as Fàng and Zī had outstanding achievements to the previous Court, they changed fief of [Liú] Zhèng as Fāngchéng Viscount and [Sūn] Hóng as Líshí Viscount. (1)


  • According to Sūnshìpǔ “Sūn Clan Registers”: [Sūn] Hóng became Nányáng Administrator. Hóng’s son Chǔ, appellation Zǐjīng.
  • Jìnyángqiu states: [Sūn] Chǔ’s village man Wáng Jǐ was a heroic and eminent official’s son, and for his home province was a Great Fair and Honest candidate. He asked to for [Sūn] Chǔ grade appraisal, and [Wáng] Jǐ said: “This man is not able to be named.” His own appraisal he said: “Natural talent outstanding and extensive, bright and exceptional and not of the masses.” [Sūn] Chǔ’s rank reached Suppressing Caitiffs Protector of the Army and Féngyì Administrator. [Sūn] Chǔ’s son [Sūn] Xún was Yǐngchuān Administrator. [Sūn] Xún’s son [Sūn] Shèng, appellation Ānguó, was Giving Affairs Central, Confidential Documents Supervisor. [Sūn] Shèng’s younger first cousin [Sūn] Chuò appellation Xīnggōng was Ministry of Justice Rectifier. [Sūn] Chǔ and [Sūn] Shèng and [Sūn] Chuò, all had literary elegance, [Sūn] Shèng also was good in explaining name reasoning, and the treatises they wrote, all were passed through the ages.

〔一〕 案孫氏譜:宏為南陽太守。宏子楚,字子荊。晉陽秋曰:楚鄉人王濟,豪俊公子也,為本州大中正。訪問關求楚品狀,濟曰:「此人非卿所能名。」自狀之曰:「天才英博,亮拔不群。」楚位至討虜護軍、馮翊太守。楚子洵,潁川太守。洵子盛,字安國,給事中,祕書監。盛從父弟綽,字興公,廷尉正。楚及盛、綽,並有文藻,盛又善言名理,諸所論著,並傳於世。

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