(36.2) Zhāng Fēi 張飛 [Yìdé 益德]

Zhāng Fēi appellation Yìdé was a Zhuō prefecture man. When young he with Guān Yǔ together served Xiānzhǔ [Liú Bèi]. [Guān] Yǔ was elder by several years, and [Zhāng] Fēi treated him as an older brother. Xiānzhǔ accompanied Excellency Cáo in defeating Lǚ Bù, and followed in returning to Xǔ, and Excellency Cáo appointed Fēi as Internal Cadet General. Xiānzǔ betrayed Excellency Cáo and joined Yuán Shào and Liú Biǎo. [Liú] Biǎo died, and Excellency Cáo entered Jīng Province, and Xiānzhǔ fled to the Jiāng’s south. Excellency Cáo pursued him, and in one day and one night, caught up at Dāngyáng’s Chángbǎn.

張飛字益德,涿郡人也,少與關羽俱事先主。羽年長數歲,飛兄事之。先主從曹公破呂布,隨還計,曹公拜飛為中郎將。先主背曹公依袁紹、劉表。表卒,曹公入荊州,先主奔江南。曹公追之,一日一夜,及於當陽之長阪。

Xiānzhǔ heard Excellency Cáo had arrived, and abandoned his wife and children and fled, sending Fēi to command twenty cavalry to resist at the rear. Fēi occupied by the river’s broken bridge, glaring eye and drawing lance saying: “I am Zhāng Yìdé, come to together decide death!” Of the enemy all none dared advance, and therefore they were able to escape.

先主聞曹公卒至,棄妻子走,使飛將二十騎拒後。飛據水斷橋,瞋目橫矛曰:「身是張益德也,可來共決死!」敵皆無敢近者,故遂得免。

When Xiānzhǔ settled the Jiāng’s south, he appointed Fēi as Yídū Administrator, Campaigning against Caitiffs General, with fief as Xīn precinct Marquis, later transferred to Nán prefecture. Xiānzhǔ entered Yì Province, returned to attack Liú Zhāng, and Fēi with Zhūgě Liàng and others went upstream, separately settling prefectures and counties. Reaching Jiāngzhōu, he defeated [Liú] Zhāng’s officer Bā prefecture Administrator Yán Yán, and captured alive [Yán] Yán. Fēi scolded [Yán] Yán: “The main army arrived, why did you not surrender but dare to oppose in battle?” [Yán] Yán replied: “You all are insolent, invading and seizing our province, our province only has Generals who lose heads, no Generals that surrender.” Fēi was furious, and ordered those around to drag him out and cut off his head. [Yán] Yán’s expression did not change, and he said: “Cutting off head is cutting off head, what is there to be angry about?” Fēi was impressed and released him, and brought him as guest retainer. (1)

先主既定江南,以飛為宜都太守、征虜將軍,封新亭侯,後轉在南郡。先主入益州,還攻劉璋,飛與諸葛亮等泝流而上,分定郡縣。至江州,破璋將巴郡太守嚴顏,生獲顏。飛呵顏曰:「大軍至,何以不降而敢拒戰?」顏答曰:「卿等無狀,侵奪我州,我州但有斷頭將軍,無有降將軍也。」飛怒,令左右牽去斫頭,顏色不變,曰:「斫頭便斫頭,何為怒邪!」飛壯而釋之,引為賓客。〔一〕

Wherever Fēi passed and battled he overcame, and with Xiānzhǔ met at Chéngdū. When Yì Province was pacified, bestowed on Zhūgě Liàng, Fǎ Zhèng, Fēi and Guān Yǔ gold of five hundred jīn, silver of one thousand jīn, cash of fifty million, embroidery of a thousand pǐ, and remaining awards each on individual basis. Fēi was given office as Bāxī Administrator.

飛所過戰克,與先主會于成都。益州既平,賜諸葛亮、法正、飛及關羽金各五百斤,銀千斤,錢五千萬,錦千匹,其餘頒賜各有差,以飛領巴西太守。

  • (1) Huàyáng Guózhì states: Previously, Xiānzhǔ entered Shǔ, reached Bā prefecture, [Yán] Yán beat his chest and sighed saying: “This is what is called alone sitting in destitute mountain, and releasing a tiger to guard oneself.”

〔一〕 華陽國志曰:初,先主入蜀,至巴郡,顏拊心歎曰:「此所謂獨坐窮山,放虎自衛也!」


Excellency Cáo defeated Zhāng Lǔ, leaving Xiàhóu Yuān and Zhāng Hé to defend the Hàn river. [Zhāng] Hé separately commanded various armies down to Bāxī, wishing to relocate its people to Hànzhōng, advancing army to Dàngqú, Méngtóu, and Dāngshí, and with Fēi resisted each other for over fifty days. Fēi led elite soldiers of over ten thousand men, along another road intercepted [Zhāng] Hé’s army and met in battle, the mountain roads were pressed and narrow, front and rear could not rescue each other, and Fēi therefore defeated [Zhāng] Hé. [Zhāng] Hé abandoned horse and climbed mountain, alone with bannermen of over ten people along lesser roads withdrew, leading the army back to Nánzhèng, and Bā’s territory obtained security.

曹公破張魯,留夏侯淵、張郃守漢川。郃別督諸軍下巴西,欲徙其民於漢中,進軍宕渠、蒙頭、盪石,與飛相拒五十餘日。飛率精卒萬餘人,從他道邀郃軍交戰,山道迮狹,前後不得相救,飛遂破郃。郃棄馬緣山,獨與麾下十餘人從問道退,引軍還南鄭,巴土獲安。

Xiānzhǔ became King of Hànzhōng [219], appointed Fēi as General of the Right, with Acting Staff. Zhāngwǔ Inaugural Year [221], he was promoted to Chariots and Cavalry General, office of Colonel Director of Retainers, advanced in fief to Xī village Marquis, the order read: “I carry on Heaven’s sequence, succeeding to Vast Enterprise, to remove ruin and quiet chaos, but have not yet illuminated reason. Now the bandits and caitiffs create harm, the people are tormented, and pondering Hàn’s people, craning neck to look. I am thus distressed indeed, sitting uneasy on mat, eating without tasting, organizing army to enjoin oath, about to enact Heaven’s punishment. As you are loyal and resolute, comparable in legacy to Shào and Hǔ, reputation announced near and far, therefore specially reveal order, to raise you high and advance your rank, to simultaneously manage the capital. Increase and lead Heaven’s authority, soften the submitted with virtue, cut down the rebellious with punishment, achieving my will. Does the Shī not say: ‘No guilt no thorns, King’s state comes utmost. Originate quickly of war achievement, so bestowment is your fortune.’ How can you not exhort yourself!”

先主為漢中王,拜飛為右將軍、假節。章武元年,遷車騎將軍,領司隸校尉,進封西鄉侯,策曰:「朕承天序,嗣奉洪業,除殘靖亂,未燭厥理。今寇虜作害,民被荼毒,思漢之士,延頸鶴望。朕用怛然,坐不安席,食不甘味,整軍誥誓,將行天罰。以君忠毅,侔蹤召、虎,名宣遐邇,故特顯命,高墉進爵,兼司于京。其誕將天威,柔服以德,伐叛以刑,稱朕意焉。詩不云乎,『匪疚匪棘,王國來極。肇敏戎功,用錫爾祉』。可不勉歟!」


Previously, Fēi was imposing and strong and bold and powerful, second to Guān Yǔ, and Wèi planning official Chéng Yù and others all appraised [Guān] Yǔ and Fēi as a match for ten thousand men. [Guān] Yǔ treated well soldiers and squads but was arrogant to scholar officials, Fēi favored and respected gentlemen but did not sympathize with petty men. Xiānzhǔ always warned him: “Your punishments and killing are excessive, and you also daily whip and beat strong warriors, yet have them as your nearby attendants, this is a path of seeking disaster.” Fēi yet did not reform. When Xiānzhǔ campaigned against Wú, Fēi was about to lead troops of ten thousand men, to from Lángzhōng meet at Jiāngzhōu. When about to set out, his bannermen officers Zhāng Dá and Fàn Qiáng killed Fēi, taking his head, going downstream to flee to Sūn Quán. Fēi’s Camp Commander memorialized report to Xiānzhǔ. Xiānzhǔ heard Fēi’s commander had a memorial, and said: “Ah, Fēi is dead.” Posthumous name was given on Fēi as Huán-hóu “Foundational Marquis.”

初,飛雄壯威猛,亞於關羽,魏謀臣程昱等咸稱羽、飛萬人之敵也。羽善待卒伍而驕於士大夫,飛愛敬君子而不恤小人。先主常戒之曰:「卿刑殺既過差,又日鞭撾健兒,而令在左右,此取禍之道也。」飛猶不悛。先主伐吳,飛當率兵萬人,自閬中會江州。臨發,其帳下將張達、范彊殺飛,持其首,順流而奔孫權。飛營都督表報先主,先主聞飛都督之有表也,曰:「噫!飛死矣。」追諡飛曰桓侯。

His eldest son Bāo early died. The next son Shào succeeded, office reaching Attendant Internal Secretariat Deputy-Director. Bāo’s son Zūn became Secretariat, accompanied Zhūgě Zhān to Miánzhú, with Dèng Ài battled, and died.

長子苞,早夭。次子紹嗣,官至侍中尚書僕射。苞子遵為尚書,隨諸葛瞻於綿竹,與鄧艾戰,死。

 

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s