(26.4) Guō Huái 郭淮 [Bójì 伯濟]

Guō Huái appellation Bójì was a Tàiyuán Yángqǔ man. (1) During Jiàn’ān he was nominated as a Filial and Incorrupt candidate, cent out as Píngyuán office assistant. When Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] became Five Office General, he summoned Huái to establish Below the Gate Bandit Department, transferred to Chancellor’s Soldier Department commentator director scribe, accompanying the campaign in Hànzhōng. Tàizǔ [Cáo Cāo] returned, leaving General Campaigning West Xiàhóu Yuān to resist Liú Bèi, with Huái as [Xiàhóu] Yuān’s Major.

郭淮字伯濟,太原陽曲人也。〔一〕建安中舉孝廉,除平原府丞。文帝為五官將,召淮署為門下賊曹,轉為丞相兵曹議令史,從征漢中。太祖還,留征西將軍夏侯淵拒劉備,以淮為淵司馬。

[Xiàhóu] Yuān with [Liú] Bèi battled, Huái at the time was ill and did not go out. [Xiàhóu] Yuān came to harm, the army inside was disturbed, Huái collected the scattered troops, and nominated General Washing away Bandits Zhāng Hé as the army’s leader, and the various camps were therefore settled. The next day, [Liú] Bèi wished to cross the Hàn river to come attack. The various officers commented that their army was few and could not match him, that [Liú] Bèi was following up on victory, and wished to rely on the river as the battle line to resist him. Huái said: “This is showing weakness and not enough to oppose the enemy, and is not to be considered. It is not as good as being far from the river to set battle line, to draw them out; if they are halfway crossed and then struck, [Liú] Bèi can be defeated.” Using this battle line, [Liú] Bèi was suspicious and did not cross, and Huái therefore firmly defending, showing he had no intention to return. The situation was reported, Tàizǔ praised him, giving [Zhāng] Hé Acting Staff, again with Huái as his Major.

淵與備戰,淮時有疾不出。淵遇害,軍中擾擾,淮收散卒,推盪寇將軍張郃為軍主,諸營乃定。其明日,備欲渡漢水來攻。諸將議眾寡不敵,備便乘勝,欲依水為陳以拒之。淮曰:「此示弱而不足挫敵,非算也。不如遠水為陳,引而致之,半濟而後擊,備可破也。」既陳,備疑不渡,淮遂堅守,示無還心。以狀聞,太祖善之,假郃節,復以淮為司馬。

When Wén-dì succeeded the King’s position, he was bestowed rank as Marquis Within the Passes, transferred to Defending West Chief Clerk. He was also Acting Protector of the Army Campaigning against the Qiāng, protecting General of the Left Zhāng Hé and Crowning Army General Yáng Qiū in suppressing mountain bandit Zhèng Gān and Lú Shuǐ rebelling Hú, defeating and pacifying them all. Guānzhōng was first settled, and the people were able to safely work.

文帝即王位,賜爵關內侯,轉為鎮西長史。又行征羌護軍,護左將軍張郃、冠軍將軍楊秋討山賊鄭甘、盧水叛胡,皆破平之。關中始定,民得安業。

  • According to Guō clan Registers: Huái’s grandfather Quán was a Minister of Agriculture; his father Yūn was a Yànmén Administrator.

〔一〕 按郭氏譜:淮祖全,大司農;父縕,雁門太守。


Huángchū Inaugural Year [220], he went to present congratulations to Wén-dì ascending the throne, but on the road he became ill, and therefore calculated distances to rest and remain. When the various ministers gathered, the Emperor sternly reproached him saying: “In the past Yǔ had meeting with the various lords at Túshān, Fángfēng later arrived, and so was killed. Now all Heaven is alike in celebration but you are most delayed and slow, what of it?”

黃初元年,奉使賀文帝踐阼,而道路得疾,故計遠近為稽留。及群臣歡會,帝正色責之曰:「昔禹會諸侯於塗山,防風後至,便行大戮。今溥天同慶而卿最留遲,何也?」

Huái answered: “I your servant have heard the Five Emperors first taught and guided the people by virtue, Xià later had governance decline, and was first to use punishments. Now I your servant encounter the time of Táng [Yáo] and Yú [Shùn], and therefore myself know I will be spared from Fángfēng’s execution.”

[note: Cáo Pī’s ascension was modeled after the abdication of Yáo to Shùn, the last two of the Five Emperors. Yǔ, who executed Fángfēng, was the founder of Xià. Guō Huái is giving a very witty answer.]

淮對曰:「臣聞五帝先教導民以德,夏后政衰,始用刑辟。今臣遭唐虞之世,是以自知免於防風之誅也。」

The Emperor was pleased with this, and selected him for acting office as Yōng Province Inspector, with fief as Marquis of Shèyáng precinct, and in five years was full office [as Inspector]. Āndìng’s Qiāng chief commander Bìtí rebelled, and [Guō Huái] suppressed and defeated him and accepted his surrender. Every time Qiāng and Hú came to surrender, Huái then first sent envoy to ask after their close family matters, how many sons and daughters, how old they were; when they met, he knew all their situations, asked with thorough consideration, and all praised him as divinely enlightened.

帝悅之,擢領雍州刺史,封射陽亭侯,五年為真。安定羌大帥辟蹏反,討破降之。每羌、胡來降,淮輒先使人推問其親理,男女多少,年歲長幼;及見,一二知其款曲,訊問周至,咸稱神明。


Tàihé Second Year [228], Shǔ Chancellor Zhūgě Liàng set out against Qíshān, sending General Mǎ Sù to reach Jiētíng, Gāo Xiáng to garrison Lièliǔchéng. Zhāng Hé struck [Mǎ] Sù, Huái attacked [Gāo] Xiáng’s camp, and defeated them all. He also defeated Lǒngxī’s famed Qiāng Tángtí at Fūhǎn, and was added office as General Establishing Authority.

太和二年,蜀相諸葛亮出祁山,遣將軍馬謖至街亭,高詳屯列柳城。張郃擊謖,淮攻詳營,皆破之。又破隴西名羌唐蹏於枹罕,加建威將軍。

Fifth Year [231], Shǔ set out against Lǔchéng. At the time, Lǒng’s right [west] had no grain, and commentators wished to from Guānzhōng greatly transport, Huái using his authority and grace comforted and went about the Qiāng and Hú, and each family gave out grain, fairly donated and shared, and the army’s provisions were enough for use. He was transferred to General Raising Martial.

五年,蜀出鹵城。是時,隴右無穀,議欲關中大運,淮以威恩撫循羌、胡,家使出穀,平其輸調,軍食用足,轉揚武將軍。

Qīnglóng Second Year [234], Zhūgě Liàng set out against Xiégǔ, and gathered farm fields at Lánkēng. At the time Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng garrisoned the Wèi [river]’s south; Huái calculated that [Zhūgě] Liàng would certainly contest the northern plain, and they should first resist him, of the commentators many said this could not be. Huái said: “If [Zhūgě] Liàng crosses the Wèi and ascends the plains, he will connect troops with the Northern Mountain, and cut off Lǒng’s roads, and shake and sweep away the people and foreigners; this is not to the state’s advantage.” [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng agreed with this, and Huái therefore garrisoned the northern plain. The moats and ramparts were not yet completed, when Shǔ soldiers greatly arrived, and Huái opposed and struck them. After several days, [Zhūgě] Liàng greatly led troops to go west, and the various officers all said he wished to attack Xīwéi, Huái alone believed: “This is to appear to go west, wishing to have the government troops follow after them; they will certainly attack Yángsuì and that is all.” That night they indeed attacked Yángsuì, but they were prepared and they could not ascend.

青龍二年,諸葛亮出斜谷,並田于蘭坑。是時司馬宣王屯渭南;淮策亮必爭北原,宜先據之,議者多謂不然。淮曰:「若亮跨渭登原,連兵北山,隔絕隴道,搖蕩民、夷,此非國之利也。」宣王善之,淮遂屯北原。塹壘未成,蜀兵大至,淮逆擊之。後數日,亮盛兵西行,諸將皆謂欲攻西圍,淮獨以為此見形於西,欲使官兵重應之,必攻陽遂耳。其夜果攻陽遂,有備不得上。


Zhèngshǐ Inaugural Year [240], Shǔ Officer Jiāng Wéi set out against Lǒngxī. Huái therefore advanced the army, pursuing them to Qiángzhōng, [Jiāng] Wéi retreated, and [Guō Huái] therefore suppressed the Qiāng Mídāng and others, capturing and consoling Dī of over three thousand tribes, pulling them out and relocating them to populate Guānzhōng. He was promoted to General of the Left. Liáng Province’s Xiūtú Hú man Liáng Yuánbì and others led their tribes of over two thousand families to attach to Yōng Province. Huái presented memorial asking to have them reside at Āndìng’s Gāopíng, to be the people’s safeguard, and afterward therefore installed a Western Province Commandant. He was transferred to General of the Front, with governance over the Province as before.

正始元年,蜀將羌維出隴西。淮遂進軍,追至彊中,維退,遂討羌迷當等,按撫柔氐三千餘落,拔徙以實關中。遷左將軍。涼州休屠胡梁元碧等,率種落二千餘家附雍州。淮奏請使居安定之高平,為民保障,其後因置(西川)〔西州〕都尉。轉拜前將軍,領州如故。


Fifth Year [244], Xiàhóu Xuán campaigned against Shǔ, and Huái commanded the various armies at the front line. Huài judged the situation was unfavorable, and then withdrew the army out, and therefore was not greatly defeated. Returning Huái was given Acting Staff.

五年,夏侯玄伐蜀,淮督諸軍為前鋒。淮度勢不利,輒拔軍出,故不大敗。還假淮節。

Eighth Year [247], Lǒngxī’s, Nán’ān’s, Jīnchéng’s, and Xīpíng’s various Qiāng leaders Èhé, Shāogē, Fátōng, Ézhēsāi and others joined together to rebel, attacking and besieging cities and towns, to the south welcoming Shǔ soldiers, and Liáng Province’s famed Hú man Zhìwúdài again rebelled to answer them. Protector of the Army Suppressing Shǔ Xiàhóu Bà commanded the various armies to garrison Wéichì. Huái’s army was first to arrive at Dídào, and commentators all said they should first first suppress and settle Fūhǎn, inside to pacify the evil Qiāng, outside to break off the bandit’s plans. Huái calculated [Jiāng] Wéi would certainly come to attack [Xiàhóu] Bà, and therefore entered Fēngzhōng, turning south to meet [Xiàhóu] Bà. [Jiāng] Wéi indeed attacked Wéichì, it happened that Huái’s army just arrived, and [Jiāng] Wéi withdrew and retreated. [Guō Huái] advanced to suppress the rebelling Qiāng, beheading Èhé and Shāogē, and the surrendered were over ten thousand tribes.

八年,隴西、南安、金城、西平諸羌餓何、燒戈、伐同、蛾遮塞等相結叛亂,攻圍城邑,南招蜀兵,涼州名胡治無戴復叛應之。討蜀護軍夏侯霸督諸軍屯為翅。淮軍始到狄道,議者僉謂宜先討定枹罕,內平惡羌,外折賊謀。淮策維必來攻霸,遂入渢中,轉南迎霸。維果攻為翅,會淮軍適至,維遁退。進討叛羌,斬餓何、燒戈,降服者萬餘落。

Ninth Year [248], [É]zhēsāi and others garrisoned Héguān and Báitǔ’s former cities, occupying the Hé to resist the army. Huái appeared to go upstream, but secretly went downstream to ferry troops and occupy Báitǔ city, struck, and greatly defeated them. Zhìwúdài besieged Wǔwēi, his family and dependents remained at Xīhǎi. Huái advanced army hurriedly to Xīhǎi, wishing to surprise and capture their heavy supplies, it happened that [Zhì]wúdài broke off and returned. [Guō Huái] with them battled at Lóngyí’s north, and defeated and drove them away. Língjū’s evil caitiffs were at Shítóu mountain’s west, blocking the main road, cutting off the Ruler’s envoys. Huái returned and passing them suppressed them, greatly defeating them.

九年,遮塞等屯河關、白土故城,據河拒軍。淮見形上流,密於下渡兵據白土城,擊,大破之。治無戴圍武威,家屬留在西海。淮進軍趨西海,欲掩取其累重,會無戴折還,與戰於龍夷之北,破走之。令居惡虜在石頭山之西,當大道止,斷絕王使。淮還過討,大破之。

Jiāng Wéi set out against Shíyíng, following the Qiáng river, and then going west to meet Zhìwúdài, leaving Yīnpíng Administrator Liào Huà at Chéngzhòng mountain to build fortifications, and gather the defeated Qiāng to uphold their pledge. Huái wished to divide troops to take them. The various officers believed: “[Jiāng] Wéi’s army to the west connects with strong Hú, [Liào] Huà occupies rugged terrain, so if dividing the army into two, the troops strength will become weak, advancing it cannot resist [Jiāng] Wéi, retreating it cannot overcome [Liào] Huà; this is not a plan. It is not as good as uniting and all going west, so before the Hú and Shǔ are joined, we can cut off their inside and outside. This is the way to cut apart their alliance.”

姜維出石營,從彊川,乃西迎治無戴,留陰平太守廖化於成重山築城,斂破羌保質。淮欲分兵取之。諸將以維眾西接彊胡,化以據險,分軍兩持,兵勢轉弱,進不制維,退不拔化,非計也,不如合而俱西,及胡、蜀未接,絕其內外,此伐交之兵也。

Huái said: “Now going to take [Liào] Huà, is outside the bandit’s consideration, and [Jiāng] Wéi will certainly like a wolf look back [in fear]. By the time [Jiāng] Wéi can arrive, it is sufficient to settle [Liào] Huà, and moreover it will have [Jiāng] Wéi exhausted in rushing for his life. The troops do not need go far to the west, and the alliance with the Hú will itself be broken. This is a plan to in one move have two successes.” Therefore he separately sent Xiàhóu Bà and others to pursue [Jiāng] Wéi at Tàzhōng, while Huái personally led the various armies to meet and attack [Liào] Huà and the rest. [Jiāng] Wéi indeed hurried returned to rescue [Liào] Huà, all like Huái had planned. He was advanced in fief to a capital village Marquis.

淮曰:「今往取化,出賊不意,維必狼顧。比維自致,足以定化,且使維疲於奔命。兵不遠西,而胡交自離,此一舉而兩全之策也。」乃別遣夏侯霸等追維於沓中,淮自率諸軍就攻化等。維果馳還救化,皆如淮計。進封都鄉侯。


Jiāpíng Inaugural Year [249], he was promoted to General Campaigning West, Regional Commander over Yōng’s and Liáng’s various military affairs. That year, he with Yōng Province Inspector Chén Tài joined plans, accepting the surrender of Shǔ Ivory Gate General Gōu Ān and others at Chìshàng.

嘉平元年,遷征西將軍,都督雍、涼諸軍事。是歲,與雍州刺史陳泰協策,降蜀牙門將句安等於翅上。

Second Year [250], Imperial Order said: “In the past at the Hàn river campaign, there was almost utter collapse. Huái facing danger relieved the troubles, his achievements written in the Ruler’s Office. He was to the Passes’ Right [West] for over thirty years, outside campaigning against bandits and caitiffs, inside soothing the people and foreigners. In recent years onward, he defeated Liào Huà, captured Gōu Ān, his achievements and merits outstanding, and I deeply commend him. Now Huái is appointed General of Chariots and Cavalry, with Rites Equal to the Three Excellencies, Wielding Staff, as Regional Commander as before.” He was advanced in fief to Marquis of Yángqǔ, his fief altogether 2780 households, then divided 300 households to give fief to one son as a precinct Marquis. (1)

二年,詔曰:「昔漢川之役,幾至傾覆。淮臨危濟難,功書王府。在關右三十餘年,外征寇虜,內綏民夷。比歲以來,摧破廖化,禽虜句安,功績顯著,朕甚嘉之。今以淮為車騎將軍、儀同三司,持節、都督如故。」進封陽曲侯,邑凡二千七百八十戶,分三百戶,封一子亭侯。〔一〕

Zhèngyuán Second Year [250] he died, posthumously titled General-in-Chief, posthumous name Zhēn-hóu “Chaste Marquis.” His son [Guō] Tǒng succeeded. [Guō] Tǒng’s office reached Jīng Province Inspector, he died, and his son [Guō] Zhèng succeeded. During Xiānxī [264-265], they began establishing the Five Ranks, and for Huái’s achievements for the previous dynasty, the fief was changed to Viscount of Fényáng. (2)

正元二年薨,追贈大將軍,諡曰貞侯。子統嗣。統官至荊州刺史,薨。子正嗣。咸熙中,開建五等,以淮著勳前朝,改封汾陽子。〔二〕

  • Shìyǔ states: Huái’s wife was Wáng Líng’s younger sister. [Wáng] Líng was executed, and his younger sister was about to be held in connection, and a Censor went to arrest her. The commanding officers and Qiāng and Hú great commanders of several thousand people bowed head to beg Huái to memorialize to keep his wife, but Huái would not listen. His wife went on the road, and none did not shed tears, person after person wrung their hands, wishing to forcefully stop her. Huái’s five sons bowed head until blood flowed to beg Huái, Huái could not bear to watch, and therefore ordered those around him to pursue his wife, and therefore pursuers of several thousand cavalry, after several days returned. Huái with letter explained to Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng: “My five sons mourned for their mother, not begrudging their own bodies; if they were without their mother, then I would be without my five sons; if I were without my five sons, then you would be without [Guō] Huái. Now I have pursued and recovered her, and if by law this is not permitted, then I will accept punishment from the ruler, and in audience explain myself.” The letter arrived, and [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng also pardoned her.

〔一〕 世語曰:淮妻,王淩之妹。淩誅,妹當從坐,御史往收。督將及羌、胡渠帥數千人叩頭請淮表留妻,淮不從。妻上道,莫不流涕,人人扼腕,欲劫留之。淮五子叩頭流血請淮,淮不忍視,乃命左右追妻。於是追者數千騎,數日而還。淮以書白司馬宣王曰:「五子哀母,不惜其身;若無其母,是無五子;無五子,亦無淮也。今輒追還,若於法未通,當受罪於主者,覲展在近。」書至,宣王亦宥之。

  • (2) Jìn Zhūgōng Zàn states: Huái’s younger brother [Guō] Pèi, appellation Zhòngnán, had heavy reputation, his rank reached Chéngyáng Administrator. Fěi Xiù and Jiǎ Chōng both were [Guō] Pèi’s daughter’s husbands. His son [Guō] Zhǎn, appellation Tàishū, had ability and judgement in employment, successively in office had achievements, and ended as Minister Charioteer. His next younger brother [Guō] Yù, appellation Tàiníng, was a Chancellor of State’s Advisor to the Army, had known reputation, and early died. His daughter was given to Wáng Yǎn. [Guō] Pèi’s younger brother [Guō] Zhèn, appellation Jìnán, was a Visitors Deputy-Director. [Guō] Zhèn’s son [Guō] Yì, appellation Tàiyè. Shān Tāo’s Qǐshì appraised [Guō] Yì as having high integrity and magnanimity, and he successively held rank as Yōng Province Inspector and Secretariat.

〔二〕 晉諸公贊曰:淮弟配,字仲南,有重名,位至城陽太守。斐秀、賈充皆配女婿。子展,字泰舒。有器度幹用,歷職著績,終於太僕。次弟豫,字泰寧,相國參軍,知名,早卒。女適王衍。配弟鎮,字季南,謁者僕射。鎮子奕,字泰業。山濤啟事稱奕高簡有雅量,歷位雍州刺史、尚書。

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