(13.5) Wáng Sù 王肅 [Zǐyōng 子雍]

[Wáng] Sù appellation Zǐyōng. At eighteen years, he under Sòng Zhōng studied the Tàixuán, but even more explained it. (1) During Huángchū [220-226], he became Cavalier Yellow Gate Attendant Cadet. Tàihé Third Year [229], he was appointed Cavalier Regular Attendant.


  • (1) Sù’s father [Wáng] Lǎng’s letter with Xǔ Jìng says: Sù was born in Kuàijī.

〔一〕 肅父朗與許靖書云:肅生於會稽。

Fourth Year [230], Marshal-in-Chief Cáo Zhēn campaigned against Shǔ, and Sù sent up memorial: “Previous records have this: ‘A thousand lǐ sending provisions, soldiers have hungry look; gathering firewood then cooking, the armies in the night are not full.’ This speaks of army traveling on flat roads. So all the more for deeply penetrating rugged terrain, digging out roads and advancing, then this toil certainly will be a hundredfold. Now also moreover there is continued rain, the mountain slopes are steep and slippery, the armies are pressured and cannot extend, provisions unsupported and difficult to connect, this truly is what the army greatly dreads. One hears Cáo Zhēn setting out is already over a month but has gone halfway through the valleys, building roads labor, the battle soldiers all make. This is the rebels then being able to obtain leisure to wait for labor, then what the Military Schools dreaded. In speaking of previous generations, then in Wǔ-wáng attacking Zhòu, he sent out of the passes but again returned; in discussing recent affairs, then [Cáo Cāo] and Wén [Cáo Pī] in campaigning against [Sūn] Quán, overlooked the Jiāng but did not cross. How was this not what is called following Heaven and knowing the times, to connect with changing situations? The countless people know Your Sagely Highness because of the rivers and rains have difficulty, and so rest and recuperate them, and in later days having quarrel, carrying on and employing them, then this is what is called ‘Pleased to oppose trouble, the people forget their dead.'” Therefore it was then ceased.


He also sent up memorial: “It is appropriate to observe ancient Rituals, to for the Great Ministers observe mourning, and offer sacrifices in the Ancestral Temple.” The matters were all enacted.


He also sent up memorial explaining government’s foundations: “Abolishing positions without affairs, decreasing salaries of the not urgent, stopping unnecessary expenditures, combining overlapping offices; enabling officials to certainly have duties, duties enact their affairs, affairs certain to receive salary, salary substitutes their plowing, this then was the ancients’ constant standard, and up to the present is what is appropriate. When officials are scant but salary generous, then the public families’ expenditures are few, and ambition to advance in office is encouraged. Each exhibits ability and strength, none helping one another. Presenting memorial to discuss, understanding examination by achievement, able to whether or not, selection in the Emperor’s heart. Therefore Táng [Yáo] and Yú [Shùn] established officials dividing duties, to extend orders to Excellencies and Ministers, each by their affairs, and afterward Pondering Dragon for accepting words, was like the present’s Secretariat. in sending out the internal Emperor’s commands and nothing more. Xià and Yīn cannot be understood in detail. The Gānshì states: ‘Six Matters’ people,’ explaining that the Six Ministers also managed affairs. The Zhōu Officials then were prepared, every five days holding Court, Excellencies and Minsiters and Grandees together advancing, and the Excellency over Scholars distinguished their positions. These records state: ‘Sitting and discussing principles, call them Kings and Dukes; making and enacting them, call them scholar officials.’ Reaching Hàn’s beginning, it imitated previous dynasties, and the Excellencies and Ministers all closely managed affairs and ascended Court. Therefore Gāozǔ [Liú Bāng] personally pursued the running away Zhōu Chāng, Wǔ-dì [Liú Chè] from afar could accept memorials from Jí Àn, Xuān-dì [Liú Xún] had the Excellencies and Ministers every five days have one Court meeting, Chéng-dì [Liú Ào] first installed a Secretariat of five men. From then there was decline, the Court’s Rites were therefore deficient. There can again be the ceremony of every five days meeting Court, to have the Excellencies and Ministers and Secretariat each with matters advance. Abolished Rites again restored, enlightens and declares sagely beginnings, and truly is what is called beautifully named and yet truly profound.”


During Qīnglóng, the Duke of Shānyáng passed away, who was Hàn’s Ruler. Sù sent up memorial: “In the past Táng abdicated to Yú, Yú abdicated to Xià, all to the end holding three years mourning, and afterward ascending the honor of Heaven’s Son. Therefore the Emperor’s title had no deficiency, and the ruler’s rites were yet maintained. Now the Duke of Shānyáng complied with Heaven’s Mandate, justly answered the people’s hopes, advancing abdicated to Great Wèi, withdrawing occupied guest’s position. The Duke’s reverence to Wèi, did not dare to not be of exhaustive integrity. Wèi’s treatment of the Duke, was exceptionally lofty and did not make him a subject. Then reaching his passing, the coffin’s regulations, the carriage’s and escort’s ornamentation, all are the same as for a King, and therefore far and near turn to your benevolence, believing it flourishing beauty. Moreover Hàn in assembling Emperor (dì) and Imperial (huáng) titles, title called Imperial Emperor (huángdì). Having difference is called Emperor (dì), without difference is called Imperial (huáng), then Imperial thus is slightly less. Therefore at Gāozǔ‘s time, the land cannot have two Rulers, and his father was alive and so called Imperial (huáng), to clearly show there was no doubt of two Rulers. All the more now in bestowing the end, it can use title of Imperial  (huáng) to join with posthumous name.” Míng-dì did not follow proposal to call him Imperial, and therefore gave posthumous name as Hàn Xiào-Xiàn Huángdì “Filial and Worthy Imperial Emperor.” (1)


  • (1) Sūn Shèng states: Cultivating in accord with Spirits is called Imperial (huáng), Virtue in accord with Heaven is called Emperor (dì). Therefore the Three Imperials began titles, and the Five Emperors were after them. In that case the Imperial as title, is more profound than Emperor. Sù saying it was lesser, was it not also wrong!
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī believes: High Antiquity spoke of Imperial Imperial Lord Emperor (huáng huáng hòu dì), then spoke of the Three and Five, first Imperials and afterwards Emperors, truly like [Sūn] Shèng says. However the Hàn dynasties’ various Emperors, though they honored fathers as Imperials, in truth it was honoring but without position, high but without people [to govern], so comparing them to Emperors, can it not be said to be lesser! Wèi followed Hàn’s Rites, names and titles without changes. Xiào-Xiàn‘s perishing, how could it have distantly investigating ancient meanings? What Sù said, was just following Hàn Regulations to speak and that is all. Calling it wrong, then is ridiculing Hàn, and not criticizing Sù.

〔一〕 孫盛曰:化合神者曰皇,德合天者曰帝。是故三皇創號,五帝次之。然則皇之為稱,妙於帝矣。肅謂為輕,不亦謬乎!臣松之以為上古謂皇皇后帝,次言三、五,先皇後帝,誠如盛言。然漢氏諸帝,雖尊父為皇,其實則貴而無位,高而無民,比之於帝,得不謂之輕乎!魏因漢禮,名號無改。孝獻之崩,豈得遠考古義?肅之所云,蓋就漢制而為言耳。謂之為謬,乃是譏漢,非難肅也。

Later Sù was Regular Attendant with office as Confidential Documents Supervisor, and also Esteemed Literature Observer Libationer. During Jǐngchū [237-239], Palaces and Residences were greatly raised, the people lost farming business, at the time trust was not honest, and punishment and killing was hurried.


Sù thus memorialized: “Great Wèi carries on the Hundred Kings’ utmost, the born people are very little, shield and spear not yet creased, and truly it is the time appropriate to rest the people and bestow kindness on them in order to secure and quite near and far. The business of raising and amassing and resting weary people, is in reducing conscripted labor and attending to sowing and reaping. Now the Palaces and Residences are not yet complete, achievement and enterprise not yet finished, cart and canal transportation dispatched, transferring to present offering. Therefore conscripts are weary in their effort, farmers leave their fields, planters of grain are few, eaters of grain are many, old grain is then gone, new grain is not collected. This then is the possessor of the state’s great worry, and not long term strategy to prepare for the future. Now observing builders are thirty to forty thousand men, Jiǔlóng [Palace] can secure the Sagely Body, its inside sufficient to arrange Six Palaces, and Xiǎnyáng’s Hall, also is about to complete, only Tàijí and its front, the labor effort is yet great, the region increasingly cold, and disease often appears. Truly may Your Majesty send out virtuous sound, send down enlightened Imperial Order, deeply pitying the conscripts’ weary labor, generously sympathize with the countless peoples’ lack of support, choose those with food supplies, not urgent for employment, select their strong, to choose out and keep ten thousand men, to have them in one season serve, so all know their time of rest has a date, then none will not be pleased to finish work, laboring without complaint. Calculating one year having 3,600,000 workers, also it is not few. After one year is finished, rest for three more years. Dividing and sending the remainder, having them all then farm, is planning without end. Granaries will have overflowing grain, people will have abundant strength: By this the building achievements, what achievement would not be established? By this enacting of cultivation, what cultivation would not be completed? Faith in the people, is the state’s great treasure. Zhòngní states: ‘From the ancients all had death, the people do not trust the not established.’ The trifling small Jìn state, the weak and humble Chóngěr, wished to employ their people, first showed them faith, and therefore although they were originally about to surrender, they considered faith and returned, and employed he was able to in one battle become Overlord, and to the present met with praise. Previously the Imperial Chariot was about to visit Luòyáng, sending people to build camps, and managers ordered that when the camps were completed then they would be dismissed. But at the completion, again there was profiting of their achievement and strength, not by the times they were sent. Managers touring the camps for the profit in front of their eyes, not looking back at the substance of ordering the state. I your servant humbly believe from now afterward, if again there is sending of people, it is appropriate to make clear their orders, so sending is certainly by the times. If there another matter next, it is better to again send out, than to perhaps break faith. Overall Your Majesty overlooking the times in enacting punishments, all officials with crimes, are people that should die. However the masses of commoners do not know, and say it is too hurried. Therefore may Your Majesty when arresting officials expose their crimes, to judge their death, to have no corruption in the Palaces for the far and near to suspect. Moreover people’s lives are of utmost importance, difficult to live and easy to kill, and once breath is cutoff it cannot be restored, and therefore the sagely worthies heavily value it. Mèng Kē said that killing one without guilt to obtain the realm Under Heaven was what the benevolent would not do. Hàn’s time had one who violated Imperial path and startled the carriages and horses, Minister of Justice Zhāng Shìzhī memorialized to have him pay fine of gold, Wén-dì [Liú Héng] was bewildered by its lightness, and [Zhāng] Shìzhī said: ‘If at that time the Ascended had sent to execute him then it would be finished. Now it was sent down to the Minister of Justice. The Minister of Justice is the realm Under Heaven’s judge, all follow it, the realm Under Heaven’s use of law all from it decides severity, can the people but enact as its hands and feet?’ I your servant believe this was greatly failing this righteousness, not what a loyal minister should explain. The Minister of Justice is Heaven’s Son’s official, yet cannot thus lose justice, but Heaven’s son’s body, can it instead be deceived? This heavily valuing self, but lightly valuing the ruler, is the utmost of disloyalty. Zhōu-gōng said: ‘Heaven’s Son must be without joking words; words then are recorded, laborers recite it, scholars appraise it.’ Speaking yet not joking, so all the more in enacting it? Therefore Shìzhī’s words could not but be investigated, Zhōu-gōng’s warnings cannot but be law.”


He also explained: “The various birds and beasts and things without use, yet having the expenditure of cutting grain people, all can be abolished.”


The Emperor once asked: “In Hàn Huán-dì‘s time, Bǎimá Magistrate Lǐ Yún sent up letter that said: ‘Emperor 帝 is to examine 諦. This Emperor wishes to not examine.’ Why did he not die?”


Sù replied: “Only his words had integrity of opposing obedience. His fundamental meaning, all was wishing to devote whole heart, attending to storing and mending the state. Moreover the Emperor’s authority, surpasses thunder, killing one common fellow, is no different from crickets and ants. Generously forgiving it, can thus show tolerance of cutting words, spreading virtue across the world Under Heaven. Therefore I your servant believe killing him was not necessarily correct.”


The Emperor also asked: “Sīmǎ Qiān because of receiving punishment, inside harbored hidden cuts, in writing the Shǐjì wrongly disparaged Xiào-Wǔ [Liú Chè], causing people to gnash teeth [in anger].”


He answered: “Sīmǎ Qiān’s recording of events, did not falsely beautify, and did not hide evils. Liú Xiàng and Yáng Xióng admired his good narration, had abilities of good historians, and said it was a true record. Hàn Wǔ-dì heard of this narration of the Shǐjì, obtained Xiào-Jǐng [Liú Qǐ]’s and his own Basic Annals and read them, and therefore was greatly furious, and cut and threw it. To the present these two Annals are noted but without writing. Later encountering the Lǐ Líng affair, therefore he arrested [Sīmǎ] Qiān to the silkworm room [for castration]. This then means the hidden cuts were with Xiào-Wǔ, and not with the historian [Sīmǎ] Qiān.”


Zhèngshǐ Inaugural Year [240], he was sent out as Guǎngpíng Administrator. Excellency matters summoned him back, appointing him Consultant Cadet. Shortly afterward, he became Attendant Internal, promoted to Minister of Ceremonies. At the time General-in-Chief Cáo Shuǎng concentrated power, appointing and employing Hé Yàn, Dèng Yáng and others. Sù with Excellency Commandant Jiǎng Jì, Minister of Agriculture Huán Fàn discussed the time’s government, and Sù with stern expression said: “This group is simply Hóng Gōng and Shí Xiǎn’s sort, what else is there to say?” [Cáo] Shuǎng heard this, and warned Hé Yàn and the rest saying: “You should together be cautious! The Excellencies and Ministers are already comparing you sirs to the previous ages’ evil men.” In connection to an Ancestral Temple matter he was dismissed. Later he became Minisiter of Merits.


At the time there were two fish a chǐ [~23 cm] long, gathered at the Military Store’s room, and managers believe it an auspicious sign. Sù said: “Fish live in the depths but are high on a room, it is a thing of armored scales losing its place. Will the frontier officers have danger change of losing armor?” Afterward there indeed was the Dōngguān defeat. He was transferred to Hénán Intendant.


Jiāpíng Sixth Year [254], Wielding Staff simultaneously as Minisiter of Ceremonies, he presented Imperial Chariot, to welcome the Duke of Gāoguì village at Yuánchéng. That year, a white mist passed through the sky, and General-in-Chief Sīmǎ [Shī] Jǐng-wáng asked Sù the cause. Sù replied: “This is Chī Yóu’s banner, will the southeast have chaos? If you cultivate yourself to secure the common people, then the realm Under Heaven’s pleased and secure will return to virtue, and those seeking chaos will first be destroyed.”


Next year spring, Defending East General Guànqiū Jiǎn and Yáng Province Inspector Wén Qīn rebelled, and [Sīmǎ Shī] Jǐng-wáng said to Sù: “Huò Guāng was moved by Xiàhóu Shèng’s words, first heavily valuing Classicist scholars, and had good result. To secure the state and calm the ruler, what method should be used?”


Sù said: “In the past Guān Yǔ led Jīng Province’s armies, forcing surrender of Yú Jīn at Hànbīn, and therefore had ambition to head north to contest the realm Under Heaven. Later Sūn Quán attacked and captured the families and dependents of his officers and soldiers, and [Guān] Yǔ’s armies in one morning collapsed. Now the Huái’s south’s officers and soldiers’ fathers and mothers and wives and children all are at inner provinces, merely quickly go to resist and guard, to have them unable to advance, it will certainly be the situation of Guān Yǔ’s collapse.”


[Sīmǎ Shī] Jǐng-wáng followed this, and therefore defeated [Guànqiū] Jiǎn and [Wén] Qīn.


Later he was promoted to Internal Manger of the Army, added office as Cavalier Regular Attendant, increased in fief by 300, adding to the previous to 2200 households. Gānlù Inaugural Year [256] he died, and the disciples wearing mourning garments and headband were in the hundreds. He was posthumously appointed General of the Guard, posthumous name Jǐng-hóu “Resolute Marquis.” His son Yún succeeded, Yún died, had no sons, state abolished. Jǐngyuán Fourth Year [263], fief was given on Sù’s son Xún as Lánlíng Marquis. During Xiánxī [264-265], they established the Five Ranks, and for Sù’s proven merits for the previous Court, changed fief of Xún to Zhěng Viscount. (1)


  • (1) Shìyǔ states: [Wáng] Xún appellation Liángfū, had erudition, and at Court was loyal and upright. He successively was Hénán Intendant, Attendant Internal, wherever he was he was praised. Thus his heart held to the public, and he had the integrity of not acting for himself. Gé Magistrate Yuán Yì gifted him a fine horse, but knowing of his greed for wealth, did not accept. [Yuán] Yì indeed due to embezzling funds was destroyed. He established two schools, esteeming and understanding the Five Classics, all by Xún established. He died at over forty years, and was posthumously Chariots and Cavalry General.
  • Sù’s daughter was matched to Sīmǎ [Zhāo] Wén-wáng, she was Wén-Míng Huánghòu, and bore Jìn Wǔ-dì [Sīmǎ Yán] and Qí Xiàn-wáng [Sīmǎ] Yōu.
  • Jìn Zhūgōng Zàn states: Xún’s brothers were eight men. Their notable ones were [Wáng] Qián appellation Gōngzǔ, who for achievement and ability met with praise, ranking reaching Secretariat, and his younger brother [Wáng] Kǎi, appellation Jūnfū, when young had talent and strength but his conduct was without restraint, with Minister of the Guard Shí Chóng was friendly, and both for heroism and extravagance were noted in the world, and in the end he was Rear General. [Wáng] Qián’s son [Wáng] Kāng and [Wáng] Lóng, also served as notable officials, and were by later generations heavily valued.

〔一〕 世語曰:恂字(子良大)〔良夫〕,有通識,在朝忠正。歷河南尹、侍中,所居有稱。乃心存公,有匪躬之節。鬲令袁毅餽以駿馬,知其貪財,不受。毅竟以黷貨而敗。建立二學,崇明五經,皆恂所建。卒時年四十餘,贈車騎將軍。肅女適司馬文王,即文明皇后,生晉武帝、齊獻王攸。晉諸公贊曰:恂兄弟八人。其達者,虔字恭祖,以功幹見稱,位至尚書。弟愷,字君夫,少有才力而無行檢,與衛尉石崇友善,俱以豪侈競於世,終於後將軍。虔子康、隆,仕亦宦達,為後世所重。

Previously, Sù was good with Jiǎ’s and Mǎ’s scholarship, but did not enjoy Zhèng’s, selected and gathered similarities and differences, and for the Shàngshū, Shī, Lúnyǔ, Sānlǐ, and Zuǒshì made explanations, and compiled and settled his father Lǎng’s composed Yìzhuàn, and all were arranged in the scholar offices. His discussions and edits on Court regulations, suburb sacrifices, Ancestral Temples, mourning organization, and severity, altogether were over a hundred piān. At the time Lè’ān’s Sūn Shūrán, (1) received study from Zhèng Xuán’s gate, and people appraised him as the Eastern Provinces’ Great Classicist. He was summoned to be Confidential Documents Supervisor, but did not accept. Sù compiled Shèngzhènglùn to ridicule the weaknesses of [Zhèng] Xuán, [Sūn] Shūrán edited and explained it, and composed for the Zhōuyì, Chūnqiū Lì, Máo Shī, Lǐjì, Chūnqiū Sānzhuàn, Guóyú, Ěryǎ various commentaries, and also commented documents of over ten piān.


  • (1) Your Servant Sōngzhī comments: [Sūn] Shūrán with Jìn Wǔ-dì [Sīmǎ Yán] had the same name [Yán], and therefore is called by his appellation.

〔一〕 臣松之案叔然與晉武帝同名,故稱其字。

From Wèi’s beginning the scholar Dùnhuáng’s Zhōushēng Liè, (2) in Míng-dì‘s time Minister of Agriculture Hóngnóng’s Dǒng Yù and others, also successively commented various classics, all transmitted through the ages. (3)


  • (2) Your Servant Sōngzhī comments: This man is surnamed Zhōushēng, named Liè. Hé Yàn’s Lúnyǔ Jíjiě includes Liè’s Yìlì. For his other writings, see Jìn Wǔ-dì‘s Zhōngjīngbù.

〔二〕 臣松之案此人姓周生,名烈。何晏論語集解有烈義例,餘所著述,見晉武帝中經簿。

  • (3)
  • Wèilüè states: [Dǒng] Yù appellation Jìzhí, his nature and character was inarticulate but he enjoyed studying. During Xīngpíng, Guānzhōng was disturbed and chaotic, and he with his elder brother Jìzhōng depended on General Duàn Wēi. He picked wild grain and carried to sell, but he always held classic books, in spare time studying and reading. His elder brother laughed at him but Yù did not change. Reaching the beginning of Jiàn’ān, the ruler’s authority was slightly established, the prefecture nominated him as filial and incorrupt, and was eventually promoted to Yellow Gate Attendant Cadet. At the time, the Hàn Emperor entrusted the government to Tàizǔ, Yù morning to evening attended and conversed, and was by Heaven’s Son favored and trusted. Reaching the twenty-second year [217], in Xǔ the hundred officials rectified systems, and though Yù did not with them plan, he was sent to visit Yè, transferred to supplementary staff. He once followed Tàizǔ on western campaign, on the road from Mèngjīn, passing the grave mound of the King of Hóngnóng. Tàizǔ hesitated and wished to visit, and turned to ask those around him, and of those around none answered. Yù therefore crossed the ranks to advance saying: “By the principles of the Chūnqiū, if a state’s ruler ascends the throne and within a year dies, he is not considered a ruler. The King of Hóngnóng in reigning was short, and also was by cruel ministers controlled, demoted to a vassal state, one should not visit.” Tàizǔ therefore passed by. During Huángchū, he was sent out as a prefecture administrator. In Míng-dì’s time, he entered to become an Attendant Internal, Minister of Agriculture. After several years, he of illness died. Previously, Yù was good at understanding the Lǎo-zǐ, and for the Lǎo-zǐ made educational annotations. He was also good with the Zuǒshì Zhuàn, and further for it made red and black distinguishing. Someone wished to follow him in study, Yù would not agree to teach, and instead said: “You must first read a hundred piān.” He said: “Read books of a hundred piān and the meanings you will yourself see.” The student said: “I am bitterly lacking in days.” Yù said: “You have three surpluses.” Someone asked the meaning of three surpluses, Yù said: “Winter is a year’s surplus, night is a day’s surplus, cloud and rain are a season’s surplus.” Because of this of students few followed Yù’s scholarship, with none to transmit his red and black.
  • Shìyǔ states: [Dǒng] Yù’s son Suí, rank reached Confidential Document Supervisor, and also had talent and learning. The King of Qí [Sīmǎ] Jiǒng’s accomplished minister Dǒng Ài, was Suí’s son.
  • Wèilüè takes Yù with Jiǎ Hóng, Hándān Chún, Xuē Xià, Wěi Xǐ, Sū Lín, Yuè Xiáng and others of seven men as Classicist Exemplars, its preface states:
    • From Chūpíng’s beginning, reaching to Jiàn’ān’s end, the realm Under Heaven was divided and collapsed, men harbored illicit relations, law and order declined, the classicist’s way greatly suffered. Reaching from Huángchū Inaugural Year and afterward, the new ruler then restored it, first sweeping and cleaning the Grand University’s ashes, repairing the old stone tablet’s damages, preparing the personnel of Academic Scholars, depending on Hàn’s Jiǎyǐ to examine and test. Extending and informing the provinces and prefectures, that those wishing to study, all should be sent to visit to the Grand University. The Grand University first opened, and had disciples of several hundred men. Reaching Tàihé and Qīnglóng, inside and outside had many affairs, and men wished to avoid conscription, and though their nature did not understand study, many sought to visit the Grand University. The Grand University’s students were in the thousands, but the Academic Scholars were all coarse and negligent, and there were none to teach disciples. The disciples originally were also only avoiding conscription, and indeed were without ability to study and learn, winter came and spring left, and year after year was like this. Also there were those that were elite, but the terrace pavillions raised standards too high, and moreover did not consider and manage the important principles, only asking investigating writing calligraphy methods, and of a hundred people in the same exam, those that passed were not even ten. Therefore the scholars with ambition in study, thus again declined [in number], and in the end only those seeking superficial empty reputation competed. During Zhèngshǐ, there was Imperial Order to comment on the Yuánqiū [sacrifices], generally asking the Bachelor Scholars. At the time the cadet officials and the Excellency over the Masses managed officials of over twenty thousand men, and though they were scattered about, those seen in the capital were still ten thousand men, but the answer letters and commentators were hardly any men. Also at the time the Court Hall Excellencies and Ministers on down of over four hundred men, those able to use brush were not even ten men, the majority all ate their fill of food and retired. Alas! Scholarship has fallen, reaching to this. Therefore few are those whose private hearts always value study, each amid desolation and chaos, but yet able to hold to will and remain steadfast.
  • Jiǎ Hóng appellation Shūyè was a Jīngzhào Xīnfēng man. [Rest not translated here].
  • Xuē Xià appellation Xuānshēng was a Tiānshuǐ man. [Rest not translated here].
  • Wěi Xǐ appellation Zǐyá was a Jīngzhào man. [Rest not translated here].
  • Hándān Chūn’s matters are in Wáng Càn’s Biography [SGZ 21], Sū Lín’s matters are in Liú Shào’s [SGZ 21] and Gāotáng Lóng’s Biography [SGZ 25], Yuè Xiáng’s matters are in Dù Jī’s Biography [SGZ 16].
  • Yú Huàn states: [Not translated here].

〔三〕 魏略曰:遇字季直,性質訥而好學。興平中,關中擾亂,與兄季中依將軍段煨。采稆負販,而常挾持經書,投閒習讀。其兄笑之而遇不改。及建安初,王綱小設,郡舉孝廉,稍遷黃門侍郎。是時,漢帝委政太祖,遇旦夕侍講,為天子所愛信。至二十二年,許中百官矯制,遇雖不與謀,猶被錄詣鄴,轉為宂散。常從太祖西征,道由孟津,過弘農王冢。太祖疑欲謁,顧問左右,左右莫對,遇乃越第進曰:「春秋之義,國君即位未踰年而卒,未成為君。弘農王即阼既淺,又為暴臣所制,降在藩國,不應謁。」太祖乃過。黃初中,出為郡守。明帝時,入為侍中、大司農。數年,病亡。初,遇善治老子,為老子作訓注。又善左氏傳,更為作朱墨別異。人有從學者,遇不肯教,而云「必當先讀百遍」。言「讀書百遍而義自見」。從學者云:「苦渴無日。」遇言「當以三餘」。或問三餘之意,遇言「冬者歲之餘,夜者日之餘,陰雨者時之餘也」。由是諸生少從遇學,無傳其朱墨者。世語曰:遇子綏,位至祕書監,亦有才學。齊王冏功臣董艾,即綏之子也。魏略以遇及賈洪、邯鄲淳、薛夏、隗禧、蘇林、樂詳等七人為儒宗,其序曰:「從初平之元,至建安之末,天下分崩,人懷苟且,綱紀既衰,儒道尤甚。至黃初元年之後,新主乃復,始掃除太學之灰炭,補舊石碑之缺壞,備博士之員錄,依漢甲乙以考課。申告州郡,有欲學者,皆遣詣太學。太學始開,有弟子數百人。至太和、青龍中,中外多事,人懷避就。雖性非解學,多求詣太學。太學諸生有千數,而諸博士率皆麄疏,無以教弟子。弟子本亦避役,竟無能習學,冬來春去,歲歲如是。又雖有精者,而臺閣舉格太高,加不念統其大義,而問字指墨法點注之間,百人同試,度者未十。是以志學之士,遂復陵遲,而末求浮虛者各競逐也。正始中,有詔議圜丘,普延學士。是時郎官及司徒領吏二萬餘人,雖復分布,見在京師者尚且萬人,而應書與議者略無幾人。又是時朝堂公卿以下四百餘人,其能操筆者未有十人,多皆相從飽食而退。嗟夫!學業沈隕,乃至於此。是以私心常區區貴乎數公者,各處荒亂之際,而能守志彌敦者也。」賈洪字叔業,京兆新豐人也。好學有才,而特精於春秋左傳。建安初,仕郡,舉計掾,應州辟。時州中自參軍事以下百餘人,唯洪與馮翊嚴苞(交)〔文〕通才學最高。洪歷守三縣令,所在輒開除廄舍,親授諸生。後馬超反,超劫洪,將詣華陰,使作露布。洪不獲已,為作之。司徒鍾繇在東,識其文,曰:「此賈洪作也。」及超破走,太祖召洪署軍謀掾。猶以其前為超作露布文,故不即敘。晚乃出為陰泉長。延康中,轉為白馬王相。善能談戲。王彪亦雅好文學,常師宗之,過於三卿。數歲病亡,亡時年五十餘,時人為之恨仕不至二千石。而嚴苞亦歷守二縣,黃初中,以高才入為祕書丞,數奏文賦,文帝異之。出為西平太守,卒官。薛夏字宣聲,天水人也。博學有才。天水舊有姜、閻、任、趙四姓,常推於郡中,而夏為單家,不為降屈。四姓欲共治之,夏乃游逸,東詣京師。太祖宿聞其名,甚禮遇之。後四姓又使囚遙引夏,關移潁川,收捕繫獄。時太祖已在冀州,聞夏為本郡所質,撫掌曰:「夏無罪也。漢陽兒輩直欲殺之耳!」乃告潁川使理出之,召署軍謀掾。文帝又嘉其才,黃初中為祕書丞,帝每與夏推論書傳,未嘗不終日也。每呼之不名,而謂之薛君。夏居甚貧,帝又顧其衣薄,解所御服袍賜之。其後征東將軍曹休來朝,時帝方與夏有所咨論,而外啟休到,帝引入。坐定,帝顧夏言之於休曰:「此君,祕書丞天水薛宣聲也,宜共談。」其見遇如此。尋欲用之,會文帝崩。至太和中,嘗以公事移蘭臺。蘭臺自以臺也,而祕書署耳,謂夏為不得移也,推使當有坐者。夏報之曰:「蘭臺為外臺,祕書為內閣,臺、閣,一也,何不相移之有?」蘭臺屈無以折。自是之後,遂以為常。後數歲病亡,敕其子無還天水。隗禧字子牙,京兆人也。世單家。少好學。初平中,三輔亂,禧南客荊州,不以荒擾,擔負經書,每以採稆餘日,則誦習之。太祖定荊州,召署軍謀掾。黃初中,為譙王郎中。王宿聞其儒者,常虛心從學。禧亦敬恭以授王,由是大得賜遺。以病還,拜郎中。年八十餘,以老處家,就之學者甚多。禧既明經,又善星官,常仰瞻天文,歎息謂魚豢曰:「天下兵戈尚猶未息,如之何?」豢又常從問左氏傳,禧答曰:「欲知幽微莫若易,人倫之紀莫若禮,多識山川草木之名莫若詩,左氏直相斫書耳,不足精意也。」豢因從問詩,禧說齊、韓、魯、毛四家義,不復執文,有如諷誦。又撰作諸經解數十萬言,未及繕寫而得聾,後數歲病亡也。其邯鄲淳事在王粲傳,蘇林事在劉邵、高堂隆傳,樂詳事在杜畿傳。魚豢曰:學之資於人也,其猶藍之染於素乎!故雖仲尼,猶曰「吾非生而知之者」,況凡品哉!且世人所以不貴學者,必見夫有「誦詩三百而不能專對於四方」故也。余以為是則下科耳,不當顧中庸以上,材質適等,而加之以文乎!今此數賢者,略余之所識也。檢其事能,誠不多也。但以守學不輟,乃上為帝王所嘉,下為國家名儒,非由學乎?由是觀之,學其胡可以已哉!

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