(13.5) Wáng Sù 王肅 [Zǐyōng 子雍]

[Wáng] Sù appellation Zǐyōng. At eighteen years, he under Sòng Zhōng studied the Tàixuán, but even more explained it. (1) During Huángchū [220-226], he became Cavalier Yellow Gate Attendant Cadet. Tàihé Third Year [229], he was appointed Cavalier Regular Attendant.

肅字子雍。年十八,從宋忠讀太玄,而更為之解。〔一〕黃初中,為散騎黃門侍郎。太和三年,拜散騎常侍。

  • (1) Sù’s father [Wáng] Lǎng’s letter with Xǔ Jìng says: Sù was born in Kuàijī.

〔一〕 肅父朗與許靖書云:肅生於會稽。

Fourth Year [230], Marshal-in-Chief Cáo Zhēn campaigned against Shǔ, and Sù sent up memorial: “Previous records have this: ‘A thousand lǐ sending provisions, soldiers have hungry look; gathering firewood then cooking, the armies in the night are not full.’ This speaks of army traveling on flat roads. So all the more for deeply penetrating rugged terrain, digging out roads and advancing, then this toil certainly will be a hundredfold. Now also moreover there is continued rain, the mountain slopes are steep and slippery, the armies are pressured and cannot extend, provisions unsupported and difficult to connect, this truly is what the army greatly dreads. One hears Cáo Zhēn setting out is already over a month but has gone halfway through the valleys, building roads labor, the battle soldiers all make. This is the rebels then being able to obtain leisure to wait for labor, then what the Military Schools dreaded. In speaking of previous generations, then in Wǔ-wáng attacking Zhòu, he sent out of the passes but again returned; in discussing recent affairs, then [Cáo Cāo] and Wén [Cáo Pī] in campaigning against [Sūn] Quán, overlooked the Jiāng but did not cross. How was this not what is called following Heaven and knowing the times, to connect with changing situations? The countless people know Your Sagely Highness because of the rivers and rains have difficulty, and so rest and recuperate them, and in later days having quarrel, carrying on and employing them, then this is what is called ‘Pleased to oppose trouble, the people forget their dead.'” Therefore it was then ceased.

四年,大司馬曹真征蜀,肅上疏曰:「前志有之,『千里饋糧,士有飢色,樵蘇後爨,師不宿飽』,此謂平塗之行軍者也。又況於深入阻險,鑿路而前,則其為勞必相百也。今又加之以霖雨,山阪峻滑,眾逼而不展,糧縣而難繼,實行軍者之大忌也。聞曹真發已踰月而行裁半谷,治道功夫,戰士悉作。是賊偏得以逸而待勞,乃兵家之所憚也。言之前代,則武王伐紂,出關而復還;論之近事,則武、文征權,臨江而不濟。豈非所謂順天知時,通於權變者哉!兆民知聖上以水雨艱劇之故,休而息之,後日有釁,乘而用之,則所謂悅以犯難,民忘其死者矣。」於是遂罷。

He also sent up memorial: “It is appropriate to observe ancient Rituals, to for the Great Ministers observe mourning, and offer sacrifices in the Ancestral Temple.” The matters were all enacted.

又上疏:「宜遵舊禮,為大臣發哀,薦果宗廟。」事皆施行。

He also sent up memorial explaining government’s foundations: “Abolishing positions without affairs, decreasing salaries of the not urgent, stopping unnecessary expenditures, combining overlapping offices; enabling officials to certainly have duties, duties enact their affairs, affairs certain to receive salary, salary substitutes their plowing, this then was the ancients’ constant standard, and up to the present is what is appropriate. When officials are scant but salary generous, then the public families’ expenditures are few, and ambition to advance in office is encouraged. Each exhibits ability and strength, none helping one another. Presenting memorial to discuss, understanding examination by achievement, able to whether or not, selection in the Emperor’s heart. Therefore Táng [Yáo] and Yú [Shùn] established officials dividing duties, to extend orders to Excellencies and Ministers, each by their affairs, and afterward Pondering Dragon for accepting words, was like the present’s Secretariat. in sending out the internal Emperor’s commands and nothing more. Xià and Yīn cannot be understood in detail. The Gānshì states: ‘Six Matters’ people,’ explaining that the Six Ministers also managed affairs. The Zhōu Officials then were prepared, every five days holding Court, Excellencies and Minsiters and Grandees together advancing, and the Excellency over Scholars distinguished their positions. These records state: ‘Sitting and discussing principles, call them Kings and Dukes; making and enacting them, call them scholar officials.’ Reaching Hàn’s beginning, it imitated previous dynasties, and the Excellencies and Ministers all closely managed affairs and ascended Court. Therefore Gāozǔ [Liú Bāng] personally pursued the running away Zhōu Chāng, Wǔ-dì [Liú Chè] from afar could accept memorials from Jí Àn, Xuān-dì [Liú Xún] had the Excellencies and Ministers every five days have one Court meeting, Chéng-dì [Liú Ào] first installed a Secretariat of five men. From then there was decline, the Court’s Rites were therefore deficient. There can again be the ceremony of every five days meeting Court, to have the Excellencies and Ministers and Secretariat each with matters advance. Abolished Rites again restored, enlightens and declares sagely beginnings, and truly is what is called beautifully named and yet truly profound.”

又上疏陳政本曰:「除無事之位,損不急之祿,止因食之費,并從容之官;使官必有職,職任其事,事必受祿,祿代其耕,乃往古之常式,當今之所宜也。官寡而祿厚,則公家之費鮮,進仕之志勸。各展才力,莫相倚仗。敷奏以言,明試以功,能之與否,簡在帝心。是以唐、虞之設官分職,申命公卿,各以其事,然後惟龍為納言,猶今尚書也,以出內帝命而已。夏、殷不可得而詳。甘誓曰『六事之人』,明六卿亦典事者也。周官則備矣,五日視朝,公卿大夫並進,而司士辨其位焉。其記曰:『坐而論道,謂之王公;作而行之,謂之士大夫。』及漢之初,依擬前代,公卿皆親以事升朝。故高祖躬追反走之周昌,武帝遙可奉奏之汲黯,宣帝使公卿五日一朝,成帝始置尚書五人。自是陵遲,朝禮遂闕。可復五日視朝之儀,使公卿尚書各以事進。廢禮復興,光宣聖緒,誠所謂名美而實厚者也。」


During Qīnglóng, the Duke of Shānyáng passed away, who was Hàn’s Ruler. Sù sent up memorial: “In the past Táng abdicated to Yú, Yú abdicated to Xià, all to the end holding three years mourning, and afterward ascending the honor of Heaven’s Son. Therefore the Emperor’s title had no deficiency, and the ruler’s rites were yet maintained. Now the Duke of Shānyáng complied with Heaven’s Mandate, justly answered the people’s hopes, advancing abdicated to Great Wèi, withdrawing occupied guest’s position. The Duke’s reverence to Wèi, did not dare to not be of exhaustive integrity. Wèi’s treatment of the Duke, was exceptionally lofty and did not make him a subject. Then reaching his passing, the coffin’s regulations, the carriage’s and escort’s ornamentation, all are the same as for a King, and therefore far and near turn to your benevolence, believing it flourishing beauty. Moreover Hàn in assembling Emperor (dì) and Imperial (huáng) titles, title called Imperial Emperor (huángdì). Having difference is called Emperor (dì), without difference is called Imperial (huáng), then Imperial thus is slightly less. Therefore at Gāozǔ‘s time, the land cannot have two Rulers, and his father was alive and so called Imperial (huáng), to clearly show there was no doubt of two Rulers. All the more now in bestowing the end, it can use title of Imperial  (huáng) to join with posthumous name.” Míng-dì did not follow proposal to call him Imperial, and therefore gave posthumous name as Hàn Xiào-Xiàn Huángdì “Filial and Worthy Imperial Emperor.” (1)

青龍中,山陽公薨,漢主也。肅上疏曰:「昔唐禪虞,虞禪夏,皆終三年之喪,然後踐天子之尊。是以帝號無虧,君禮猶存。今山陽公承順天命,允答民望,進禪大魏,退處賓位。公之奉魏,不敢不盡節。魏之待公,優崇而不臣。既至其薨,櫬斂之制,輿徒之飾,皆同之於王者,是故遠近歸仁,以為盛美。且漢總帝皇之號,號曰皇帝。有別稱帝,無別稱皇,則皇是其差輕者也。故當高祖之時,土無二王,其父見在而使稱皇,明非二王之嫌也。況今以贈終,可使稱皇以配其諡。」明帝不從使稱皇,乃追諡曰漢孝獻皇帝。〔一〕

  • (1) Sūn Shèng states: Cultivating in accord with Spirits is called Imperial (huáng), Virtue in accord with Heaven is called Emperor (dì). Therefore the Three Imperials began titles, and the Five Emperors were after them. In that case the Imperial as title, is more profound than Emperor. Sù saying it was lesser, was it not also wrong!
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī believes: High Antiquity spoke of Imperial Imperial Lord Emperor (huáng huáng hòu dì), then spoke of the Three and Five, first Imperials and afterwards Emperors, truly like [Sūn] Shèng says. However the Hàn dynasties’ various Emperors, though they honored fathers as Imperials, in truth it was honoring but without position, high but without people [to govern], so comparing them to Emperors, can it not be said to be lesser! Wèi followed Hàn’s Rites, names and titles without changes. Xiào-Xiàn‘s perishing, how could it have distantly investigating ancient meanings? What Sù said, was just following Hàn Regulations to speak and that is all. Calling it wrong, then is ridiculing Hàn, and not criticizing Sù.

〔一〕 孫盛曰:化合神者曰皇,德合天者曰帝。是故三皇創號,五帝次之。然則皇之為稱,妙於帝矣。肅謂為輕,不亦謬乎!臣松之以為上古謂皇皇后帝,次言三、五,先皇後帝,誠如盛言。然漢氏諸帝,雖尊父為皇,其實則貴而無位,高而無民,比之於帝,得不謂之輕乎!魏因漢禮,名號無改。孝獻之崩,豈得遠考古義?肅之所云,蓋就漢制而為言耳。謂之為謬,乃是譏漢,非難肅也。


Later Sù was Regular Attendant with office as Confidential Documents Supervisor, and also Esteemed Literature Observer Libationer. During Jǐngchū [237-239], Palaces and Residences were greatly raised, the people lost farming business, at the time trust was not honest, and punishment and killing was hurried.

後肅以常侍領祕書監,兼崇文觀祭酒。景初間,宮室盛興,民失農業,期信不敦,刑殺倉卒。

Sù thus memorialized: “Great Wèi carries on the Hundred Kings’ utmost, the born people are very little, shield and spear not yet creased, and truly it is the time appropriate to rest the people and bestow kindness on them in order to secure and quite near and far. The business of raising and amassing and resting weary people, is in reducing conscripted labor and attending to sowing and reaping. Now the Palaces and Residences are not yet complete, achievement and enterprise not yet finished, cart and canal transportation dispatched, transferring to present offering. Therefore conscripts are weary in their effort, farmers leave their fields, planters of grain are few, eaters of grain are many, old grain is then gone, new grain is not collected. This then is the possessor of the state’s great worry, and not long term strategy to prepare for the future. Now observing builders are thirty to forty thousand men, Jiǔlóng [Palace] can secure the Sagely Body, its inside sufficient to arrange Six Palaces, and Xiǎnyáng’s Hall, also is about to complete, only Tàijí and its front, the labor effort is yet great, the region increasingly cold, and disease often appears. Truly may Your Majesty send out virtuous sound, send down enlightened Imperial Order, deeply pitying the conscripts’ weary labor, generously sympathize with the countless peoples’ lack of support, choose those with food supplies, not urgent for employment, select their strong, to choose out and keep ten thousand men, to have them in one season serve, so all know their time of rest has a date, then none will not be pleased to finish work, laboring without complaint. Calculating one year having 3,600,000 workers, also it is not few. After one year is finished, rest for three more years. Dividing and sending the remainder, having them all then farm, is planning without end. Granaries will have overflowing grain, people will have abundant strength: By this the building achievements, what achievement would not be established? By this enacting of cultivation, what cultivation would not be completed? Faith in the people, is the state’s great treasure. Zhòngní states: ‘From the ancients all had death, the people do not trust the not established.’ The trifling small Jìn state, the weak and humble Chóngěr, wished to employ their people, first showed them faith, and therefore although they were originally about to surrender, they considered faith and returned, and employed he was able to in one battle become Overlord, and to the present met with praise. Previously the Imperial Chariot was about to visit Luòyáng, sending people to build camps, and managers ordered that when the camps were completed then they would be dismissed. But at the completion, again there was profiting of their achievement and strength, not by the times they were sent. Managers touring the camps for the profit in front of their eyes, not looking back at the substance of ordering the state. I your servant humbly believe from now afterward, if again there is sending of people, it is appropriate to make clear their orders, so sending is certainly by the times. If there another matter next, it is better to again send out, than to perhaps break faith. Overall Your Majesty overlooking the times in enacting punishments, all officials with crimes, are people that should die. However the masses of commoners do not know, and say it is too hurried. Therefore may Your Majesty when arresting officials expose their crimes, to judge their death, to have no corruption in the Palaces for the far and near to suspect. Moreover people’s lives are of utmost importance, difficult to live and easy to kill, and once breath is cutoff it cannot be restored, and therefore the sagely worthies heavily value it. Mèng Kē said that killing one without guilt to obtain the realm Under Heaven was what the benevolent would not do. Hàn’s time had one who violated Imperial path and startled the carriages and horses, Minister of Justice Zhāng Shìzhī memorialized to have him pay fine of gold, Wén-dì [Liú Héng] was bewildered by its lightness, and [Zhāng] Shìzhī said: ‘If at that time the Ascended had sent to execute him then it would be finished. Now it was sent down to the Minister of Justice. The Minister of Justice is the realm Under Heaven’s judge, all follow it, the realm Under Heaven’s use of law all from it decides severity, can the people but enact as its hands and feet?’ I your servant believe this was greatly failing this righteousness, not what a loyal minister should explain. The Minister of Justice is Heaven’s Son’s official, yet cannot thus lose justice, but Heaven’s son’s body, can it instead be deceived? This heavily valuing self, but lightly valuing the ruler, is the utmost of disloyalty. Zhōu-gōng said: ‘Heaven’s Son must be without joking words; words then are recorded, laborers recite it, scholars appraise it.’ Speaking yet not joking, so all the more in enacting it? Therefore Shìzhī’s words could not but be investigated, Zhōu-gōng’s warnings cannot but be law.”

肅以疏曰:「大魏承百王之極,生民無幾,干戈未戢,誠宜息民而惠之以安靜遐邇之時也。夫務畜積而息疲民,在於省徭役而勤稼穡。今宮室未就,功業未訖,運漕調發,轉相供奉。是以丁夫疲於力作,農者離其南畝,種穀者寡,食穀者眾,舊穀既沒,新穀莫繼。斯則有國之大患,而非備豫之長策也。今見作者三四萬人,九龍可以安聖體,其內足以列六宮,顯陽之殿,又向將畢,惟泰極已前,功夫尚大,方向盛寒,疾疢或作。誠願陛下發德音,下明詔,深愍役夫之疲勞,厚矜兆民之不贍,取常食廩之士,非急要者之用,選其丁壯,擇留萬人,使一期而更之,咸知息代有日,則莫不悅以即事,勞而不怨矣。計一歲有三百六十萬夫,亦不為少。當一歲成者,聽且三年。分遣其餘,使皆即農,無窮之計也。倉有溢粟,民有餘力:以此興功,何功不立?以此行化,何化不成?夫信之於民,國家大寶也。仲尼曰:『自古皆有死,民非信不立。』夫區區之晉國,微微之重耳,欲用其民,先示以信,是故原雖將降,顧信而歸,用能一戰而霸,于今見稱。前車駕當幸洛陽,發民為營,有司命以營成而罷。既成,又利其功力,不以時遣。有司徒營其目前之利,不顧經國之體。臣愚以為自今以後,儻復使民,宜明其令,使必如期。若有事以次,寧復更發,無或失信。凡陛下臨時之所行刑,皆有罪之吏,宜死之人也。然眾庶不知,謂為倉卒。故願陛下下之於吏而暴其罪。鈞其死也,無使汙于宮掖而為遠近所疑。且人命至重,難生易殺,氣絕而不續者也,是以聖賢重之。孟軻稱殺一無辜以取天下,仁者不為也。漢時有犯蹕驚乘輿馬者,廷尉張釋之奏使罰金,文帝怪其輕,而釋之曰:『方其時,上使誅之則已。今下廷尉。廷尉,天下之平也,一傾之,天下用法皆為輕重,民安所措其手足?』臣以為大失其義,非忠臣所宜陳也。廷尉者,天子之吏也,猶不可以失平,而天子之身,反可以惑謬乎?斯重於為己,而輕於為君,不忠之甚也。周公曰:『天子無戲言;言則史書之,工誦之,士稱之。』言猶不戲,而況行之乎?故釋之之言不可不察,周公之戒不可不法也。」

He also explained: “The various birds and beasts and things without use, yet having the expenditure of cutting grain people, all can be abolished.”

又陳「諸鳥獸無用之物,而有芻穀人徒之費,皆可蠲除。」


The Emperor once asked: “In Hàn Huán-dì‘s time, Bǎimá Magistrate Lǐ Yún sent up letter that said: ‘Emperor 帝 is to examine 諦. This Emperor wishes to not examine.’ Why did he not die?”

帝嘗問曰:「漢桓帝時,白馬令李雲上書言:『帝者,諦也。是帝欲不諦。』當何得不死?」

Sù replied: “Only his words had integrity of opposing obedience. His fundamental meaning, all was wishing to devote whole heart, attending to storing and mending the state. Moreover the Emperor’s authority, surpasses thunder, killing one common fellow, is no different from crickets and ants. Generously forgiving it, can thus show tolerance of cutting words, spreading virtue across the world Under Heaven. Therefore I your servant believe killing him was not necessarily correct.”

肅對曰:「但為言失逆順之節。原其本意,皆欲盡心,念存補國。且帝者之威,過於雷霆,殺一匹夫,無異螻蟻。寬而宥之,可以示容受切言,廣德宇於天下。故臣以為殺之未必為是也。」

The Emperor also asked: “Sīmǎ Qiān because of receiving punishment, inside harbored hidden cuts, in writing the Shǐjì wrongly disparaged Xiào-Wǔ [Liú Chè], causing people to gnash teeth [in anger].”

帝又問:「司馬遷以受刑之故,內懷隱切,著史記非貶孝武,令人切齒。」

He answered: “Sīmǎ Qiān’s recording of events, did not falsely beautify, and did not hide evils. Liú Xiàng and Yáng Xióng admired his good narration, had abilities of good historians, and said it was a true record. Hàn Wǔ-dì heard of this narration of the Shǐjì, obtained Xiào-Jǐng [Liú Qǐ]’s and his own Basic Annals and read them, and therefore was greatly furious, and cut and threw it. To the present these two Annals are noted but without writing. Later encountering the Lǐ Líng affair, therefore he arrested [Sīmǎ] Qiān to the silkworm room [for castration]. This then means the hidden cuts were with Xiào-Wǔ, and not with the historian [Sīmǎ] Qiān.”

對曰:「司馬遷記事,不虛美,不隱惡。劉向、揚雄服其善敘事,有良史之才,謂之實錄。漢武帝聞其述史記,取孝景及己本紀覽之,於是大怒,削而投之。於今此兩紀有錄無書。後遭李陵事,遂下遷蠶室。此為隱切在孝武,而不在於史遷也。」


Zhèngshǐ Inaugural Year [240], he was sent out as Guǎngpíng Administrator. Excellency matters summoned him back, appointing him Consultant Cadet. Shortly afterward, he became Attendant Internal, promoted to Minister of Ceremonies. At the time General-in-Chief Cáo Shuǎng concentrated power, appointing and employing Hé Yàn, Dèng Yáng and others. Sù with Excellency Commandant Jiǎng Jì, Minister of Agriculture Huán Fàn discussed the time’s government, and Sù with stern expression said: “This group is simply Hóng Gōng and Shí Xiǎn’s sort, what else is there to say?” [Cáo] Shuǎng heard this, and warned Hé Yàn and the rest saying: “You should together be cautious! The Excellencies and Ministers are already comparing you sirs to the previous ages’ evil men.” In connection to an Ancestral Temple matter he was dismissed. Later he became Minisiter of Merits.

正始元年,出為廣平太守。公事徵還,拜議郎。頃之,為侍中,遷太常。時大將軍曹爽專權,任用何晏、鄧颺等。肅與太尉蔣濟、司農桓範論及時政,肅正色曰:「此輩即弘恭、石顯之屬,復稱說邪!」爽聞之,戒何晏等曰:「當共慎之!公卿已比諸君前世惡人矣。」坐宗廟事免。後為光祿勳。

At the time there were two fish a chǐ [~23 cm] long, gathered at the Military Store’s room, and managers believe it an auspicious sign. Sù said: “Fish live in the depths but are high on a room, it is a thing of armored scales losing its place. Will the frontier officers have danger change of losing armor?” Afterward there indeed was the Dōngguān defeat. He was transferred to Hénán Intendant.

時有二魚長尺,集于武庫之屋,有司以為吉祥。肅曰:「魚生於淵而亢於屋,介鱗之物失其所也。邊將其殆有棄甲之變乎?」其後果有東關之敗。徙為河南尹。

Jiāpíng Sixth Year [254], Wielding Staff simultaneously as Minisiter of Ceremonies, he presented Imperial Chariot, to welcome the Duke of Gāoguì village at Yuánchéng. That year, a white mist passed through the sky, and General-in-Chief Sīmǎ [Shī] Jǐng-wáng asked Sù the cause. Sù replied: “This is Chī Yóu’s banner, will the southeast have chaos? If you cultivate yourself to secure the common people, then the realm Under Heaven’s pleased and secure will return to virtue, and those seeking chaos will first be destroyed.”

嘉平六年,持節兼太常,奉法駕,迎高貴鄉公于元城。是歲,白氣經天,大將軍司馬景王問肅其故,肅答曰:「此蚩尤之旗也,東南其有亂乎?君若脩己以安百姓,則天下樂安者歸德,唱亂者先亡矣。」

Next year spring, Defending East General Guànqiū Jiǎn and Yáng Province Inspector Wén Qīn rebelled, and [Sīmǎ Shī] Jǐng-wáng said to Sù: “Huò Guāng was moved by Xiàhóu Shèng’s words, first heavily valuing Classicist scholars, and had good result. To secure the state and calm the ruler, what method should be used?”

明年春,鎮東將軍毌丘儉、揚州刺史文欽反,景王謂肅曰:「霍光感夏侯勝之言,始重儒學之士,良有以也。安國寧主,其術焉在?」

Sù said: “In the past Guān Yǔ led Jīng Province’s armies, forcing surrender of Yú Jīn at Hànbīn, and therefore had ambition to head north to contest the realm Under Heaven. Later Sūn Quán attacked and captured the families and dependents of his officers and soldiers, and [Guān] Yǔ’s armies in one morning collapsed. Now the Huái’s south’s officers and soldiers’ fathers and mothers and wives and children all are at inner provinces, merely quickly go to resist and guard, to have them unable to advance, it will certainly be the situation of Guān Yǔ’s collapse.”

肅曰:「昔關羽率荊州之眾,降于禁於漢濱,遂有北向爭天下之志。後孫權襲取其將士家屬,羽士眾一旦瓦解。今淮南將士父母妻子皆在內州,但急往禦衛,使不得前,必有關羽土崩之勢矣。」

[Sīmǎ Shī] Jǐng-wáng followed this, and therefore defeated [Guànqiū] Jiǎn and [Wén] Qīn.

景王從之,遂破儉、欽。

Later he was promoted to Internal Manger of the Army, added office as Cavalier Regular Attendant, increased in fief by 300, adding to the previous to 2200 households. Gānlù Inaugural Year [256] he died, and the disciples wearing mourning garments and headband were in the hundreds. He was posthumously appointed General of the Guard, posthumous name Jǐng-hóu “Resolute Marquis.” His son Yún succeeded, Yún died, had no sons, state abolished. Jǐngyuán Fourth Year [263], fief was given on Sù’s son Xún as Lánlíng Marquis. During Xiánxī [264-265], they established the Five Ranks, and for Sù’s proven merits for the previous Court, changed fief of Xún to Zhěng Viscount. (1)

後遷中領軍,加散騎常侍,增邑三百,并前二千二百戶。甘露元年薨,門生縗絰者以百數。追贈衛將軍,諡曰景侯。子惲嗣。惲薨,無子,國絕。景元四年,封肅子恂為蘭陵侯。咸熙中,開建五等,以肅著勳前朝,改封恂為氶子。〔一〕

  • (1) Shìyǔ states: [Wáng] Xún appellation Liángfū, had erudition, and at Court was loyal and upright. He successively was Hénán Intendant, Attendant Internal, wherever he was he was praised. Thus his heart held to the public, and he had the integrity of not acting for himself. Gé Magistrate Yuán Yì gifted him a fine horse, but knowing of his greed for wealth, did not accept. [Yuán] Yì indeed due to embezzling funds was destroyed. He established two schools, esteeming and understanding the Five Classics, all by Xún established. He died at over forty years, and was posthumously Chariots and Cavalry General.
  • Sù’s daughter was matched to Sīmǎ [Zhāo] Wén-wáng, she was Wén-Míng Huánghòu, and bore Jìn Wǔ-dì [Sīmǎ Yán] and Qí Xiàn-wáng [Sīmǎ] Yōu.
  • Jìn Zhūgōng Zàn states: Xún’s brothers were eight men. Their notable ones were [Wáng] Qián appellation Gōngzǔ, who for achievement and ability met with praise, ranking reaching Secretariat, and his younger brother [Wáng] Kǎi, appellation Jūnfū, when young had talent and strength but his conduct was without restraint, with Minister of the Guard Shí Chóng was friendly, and both for heroism and extravagance were noted in the world, and in the end he was Rear General. [Wáng] Qián’s son [Wáng] Kāng and [Wáng] Lóng, also served as notable officials, and were by later generations heavily valued.

〔一〕 世語曰:恂字(子良大)〔良夫〕,有通識,在朝忠正。歷河南尹、侍中,所居有稱。乃心存公,有匪躬之節。鬲令袁毅餽以駿馬,知其貪財,不受。毅竟以黷貨而敗。建立二學,崇明五經,皆恂所建。卒時年四十餘,贈車騎將軍。肅女適司馬文王,即文明皇后,生晉武帝、齊獻王攸。晉諸公贊曰:恂兄弟八人。其達者,虔字恭祖,以功幹見稱,位至尚書。弟愷,字君夫,少有才力而無行檢,與衛尉石崇友善,俱以豪侈競於世,終於後將軍。虔子康、隆,仕亦宦達,為後世所重。


Previously, Sù was good with Jiǎ’s and Mǎ’s scholarship, but did not enjoy Zhèng’s, selected and gathered similarities and differences, and for the Shàngshū, Shī, Lúnyǔ, Sānlǐ, and Zuǒshì made explanations, and compiled and settled his father Lǎng’s composed Yìzhuàn, and all were arranged in the scholar offices. His discussions and edits on Court regulations, suburb sacrifices, Ancestral Temples, mourning organization, and severity, altogether were over a hundred piān. At the time Lè’ān’s Sūn Shūrán, (1) received study from Zhèng Xuán’s gate, and people appraised him as the Eastern Provinces’ Great Classicist. He was summoned to be Confidential Documents Supervisor, but did not accept. Sù compiled Shèngzhènglùn to ridicule the weaknesses of [Zhèng] Xuán, [Sūn] Shūrán edited and explained it, and composed for the Zhōuyì, Chūnqiū Lì, Máo Shī, Lǐjì, Chūnqiū Sānzhuàn, Guóyú, Ěryǎ various commentaries, and also commented documents of over ten piān.

初,肅善賈、馬之學,而不好鄭氏,采會同異,為尚書、詩、論語、三禮、左氏解,及撰定父朗所作易傳,皆列於學官。其所論駮朝廷典制、郊祀、宗廟、喪紀、輕重,凡百餘篇。時樂安孫叔然,〔一〕受學鄭玄之門,人稱東州大儒。徵為祕書監,不就。肅集聖證論以譏短玄,叔然駮而釋之,及作周易、春秋例,毛詩、禮記、春秋三傳、國語、爾雅諸注,又注書十餘篇。

  • (1) Your Servant Sōngzhī comments: [Sūn] Shūrán with Jìn Wǔ-dì [Sīmǎ Yán] had the same name [Yán], and therefore is called by his appellation.

〔一〕 臣松之案叔然與晉武帝同名,故稱其字。

From Wèi’s beginning the scholar Dùnhuáng’s Zhōushēng Liè, (2) in Míng-dì‘s time Minister of Agriculture Hóngnóng’s Dǒng Yù and others, also successively commented various classics, all transmitted through the generations. (3)

自魏初徵士燉煌周生烈,〔二〕明帝時大司農弘農董遇等,亦歷注經傳,頗傳於世。〔三〕

  • (2) Your Servant Sōngzhī comments: This man is surnamed Zhōushēng, named Liè. Hé Yàn’s Lúnyǔ Jíjiě includes Liè’s Yìlì. For his other writings, see Jìn Wǔ-dì‘s Zhōngjīngbù.

〔二〕 臣松之案此人姓周生,名烈。何晏論語集解有烈義例,餘所著述,見晉武帝中經簿。

  • (3) [Biographies of Dǒng Yù and other great scholars of the time; not translated here.]

〔三〕 魏略曰:遇字季直,性質訥而好學。興平中,關中擾亂,與兄季中依將軍段煨。采稆負販,而常挾持經書,投閒習讀。其兄笑之而遇不改。及建安初,王綱小設,郡舉孝廉,稍遷黃門侍郎。是時,漢帝委政太祖,遇旦夕侍講,為天子所愛信。至二十二年,許中百官矯制,遇雖不與謀,猶被錄詣鄴,轉為宂散。常從太祖西征,道由孟津,過弘農王冢。太祖疑欲謁,顧問左右,左右莫對,遇乃越第進曰:「春秋之義,國君即位未踰年而卒,未成為君。弘農王即阼既淺,又為暴臣所制,降在藩國,不應謁。」太祖乃過。黃初中,出為郡守。明帝時,入為侍中、大司農。數年,病亡。初,遇善治老子,為老子作訓注。又善左氏傳,更為作朱墨別異。人有從學者,遇不肯教,而云「必當先讀百遍」。言「讀書百遍而義自見」。從學者云:「苦渴無日。」遇言「當以三餘」。或問三餘之意,遇言「冬者歲之餘,夜者日之餘,陰雨者時之餘也」。由是諸生少從遇學,無傳其朱墨者。世語曰:遇子綏,位至祕書監,亦有才學。齊王冏功臣董艾,即綏之子也。魏略以遇及賈洪、邯鄲淳、薛夏、隗禧、蘇林、樂詳等七人為儒宗,其序曰:「從初平之元,至建安之末,天下分崩,人懷苟且,綱紀既衰,儒道尤甚。至黃初元年之後,新主乃復,始掃除太學之灰炭,補舊石碑之缺壞,備博士之員錄,依漢甲乙以考課。申告州郡,有欲學者,皆遣詣太學。太學始開,有弟子數百人。至太和、青龍中,中外多事,人懷避就。雖性非解學,多求詣太學。太學諸生有千數,而諸博士率皆麄疏,無以教弟子。弟子本亦避役,竟無能習學,冬來春去,歲歲如是。又雖有精者,而臺閣舉格太高,加不念統其大義,而問字指墨法點注之間,百人同試,度者未十。是以志學之士,遂復陵遲,而末求浮虛者各競逐也。正始中,有詔議圜丘,普延學士。是時郎官及司徒領吏二萬餘人,雖復分布,見在京師者尚且萬人,而應書與議者略無幾人。又是時朝堂公卿以下四百餘人,其能操筆者未有十人,多皆相從飽食而退。嗟夫!學業沈隕,乃至於此。是以私心常區區貴乎數公者,各處荒亂之際,而能守志彌敦者也。」賈洪字叔業,京兆新豐人也。好學有才,而特精於春秋左傳。建安初,仕郡,舉計掾,應州辟。時州中自參軍事以下百餘人,唯洪與馮翊嚴苞(交)〔文〕通才學最高。洪歷守三縣令,所在輒開除廄舍,親授諸生。後馬超反,超劫洪,將詣華陰,使作露布。洪不獲已,為作之。司徒鍾繇在東,識其文,曰:「此賈洪作也。」及超破走,太祖召洪署軍謀掾。猶以其前為超作露布文,故不即敘。晚乃出為陰泉長。延康中,轉為白馬王相。善能談戲。王彪亦雅好文學,常師宗之,過於三卿。數歲病亡,亡時年五十餘,時人為之恨仕不至二千石。而嚴苞亦歷守二縣,黃初中,以高才入為祕書丞,數奏文賦,文帝異之。出為西平太守,卒官。薛夏字宣聲,天水人也。博學有才。天水舊有姜、閻、任、趙四姓,常推於郡中,而夏為單家,不為降屈。四姓欲共治之,夏乃游逸,東詣京師。太祖宿聞其名,甚禮遇之。後四姓又使囚遙引夏,關移潁川,收捕繫獄。時太祖已在冀州,聞夏為本郡所質,撫掌曰:「夏無罪也。漢陽兒輩直欲殺之耳!」乃告潁川使理出之,召署軍謀掾。文帝又嘉其才,黃初中為祕書丞,帝每與夏推論書傳,未嘗不終日也。每呼之不名,而謂之薛君。夏居甚貧,帝又顧其衣薄,解所御服袍賜之。其後征東將軍曹休來朝,時帝方與夏有所咨論,而外啟休到,帝引入。坐定,帝顧夏言之於休曰:「此君,祕書丞天水薛宣聲也,宜共談。」其見遇如此。尋欲用之,會文帝崩。至太和中,嘗以公事移蘭臺。蘭臺自以臺也,而祕書署耳,謂夏為不得移也,推使當有坐者。夏報之曰:「蘭臺為外臺,祕書為內閣,臺、閣,一也,何不相移之有?」蘭臺屈無以折。自是之後,遂以為常。後數歲病亡,敕其子無還天水。隗禧字子牙,京兆人也。世單家。少好學。初平中,三輔亂,禧南客荊州,不以荒擾,擔負經書,每以採稆餘日,則誦習之。太祖定荊州,召署軍謀掾。黃初中,為譙王郎中。王宿聞其儒者,常虛心從學。禧亦敬恭以授王,由是大得賜遺。以病還,拜郎中。年八十餘,以老處家,就之學者甚多。禧既明經,又善星官,常仰瞻天文,歎息謂魚豢曰:「天下兵戈尚猶未息,如之何?」豢又常從問左氏傳,禧答曰:「欲知幽微莫若易,人倫之紀莫若禮,多識山川草木之名莫若詩,左氏直相斫書耳,不足精意也。」豢因從問詩,禧說齊、韓、魯、毛四家義,不復執文,有如諷誦。又撰作諸經解數十萬言,未及繕寫而得聾,後數歲病亡也。其邯鄲淳事在王粲傳,蘇林事在劉邵、高堂隆傳,樂詳事在杜畿傳。魚豢曰:學之資於人也,其猶藍之染於素乎!故雖仲尼,猶曰「吾非生而知之者」,況凡品哉!且世人所以不貴學者,必見夫有「誦詩三百而不能專對於四方」故也。余以為是則下科耳,不當顧中庸以上,材質適等,而加之以文乎!今此數賢者,略余之所識也。檢其事能,誠不多也。但以守學不輟,乃上為帝王所嘉,下為國家名儒,非由學乎?由是觀之,學其胡可以已哉!

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