(41.3) Xiàng Lǎng 向朗 [Jùdá 巨達]

Xiàng Lǎng appellation Jùdá, was a Xiāngyáng Yíchéng man. (1) Jīng Province Liú Biǎo appointed him Línjǔ Chief. [Liú] Biǎo died, and he joined Xiānzhǔ [Liú Bèi]. Xiānzhǔ settled the Jiāng’s south, sending Lǎng as Commander of Zǐguī, Yídào, Wū, Yílíng four counties’ military and civil affairs. When Shǔ was pacified, Lǎng was appointed Bāxī Administrator, shortly afterward transferred to appointment at Zāngkē, also moved to Fánglíng.

向朗字巨達,襄陽宜城人也。〔一〕荊州牧劉表以為臨沮長。表卒,歸先主。先主定江南,使朗督秭歸、夷道、巫(山)、夷陵四縣軍民事。蜀既平,以朗為巴西太守,頃之轉任牂牁,又徙房陵。

  • (1) Xiāngyáng Jì states: Lǎng when young took as teacher Sīmǎ Décāo, and with Xú Yuánzhí, Hán Dégāo, and Páng Shìyuán all were close and friendly.

〔一〕 襄陽記曰:朗少師事司馬德操,與徐元直、韓德高、龐士元皆親善。

When Hòuzhǔ [Liú Shàn] ascended the throne, he became Infantry Colonel, succeeding Wáng Lián in office as Chancellor’s Chief Clerk. Chancellor [Zhūgě] Liàng campaigned south, and Lǎng remained to govern rear affairs. Fifth Year, he accompanied [Zhūgě] Liàng to Hànzhōng.

後主踐阼,為步兵校尉,代王連領丞相長史。丞相亮南征,朗留統後事。五年,隨亮漢中。

Lǎng previously with Mǎ Sù was friendly, [Mǎ] Sù fled away, Lǎng knew the situation but did not report it, [Zhūgě] Liàng resented him, and dismissed him from office and sent him back to Chéngdū. After several years, he became Minister of Merits, and after [Zhūgě] Liàng died he was transferred to Left General, and in recollection and discussion of former achievements, he was given fief as Xiǎnmíng precinct Marquis, with rank as Specially Advanced.

朗素與馬謖善,謖逃亡,朗知情不舉,亮恨之,免官還成都。數年,為光祿勳,亮卒後徒左將軍,追論舊功,封顯明亭侯,位特進。

Previously, Lǎng when young although he skimmed through literature, however he did not study the fundamentals, and for his ability as official met with praise. From when he was dismissed from Chief Clerk, he traveled without affairs for almost thirty years, (2) and again concentrated heart on records, diligent and not slacking. At over eighty years, he yet hand checked documents, amending and settling errors, gathering together sheets and scrolls, and at the time had the most. He opened doors to receive guests, instructing and receiving later generations, but only discussing ancient principles, not dealing with the times’ affairs, and for this met with praise. Above from those in office, below to children and capped, all heavily respected him. Yánxī Tenth Year [248] he died. (3) His son Tiáo succeeded, and during Jǐngyào became Censorate Central Deputy. (4)

初,朗少時雖涉獵文學,然不治素檢,以吏能見稱。自去長史,優游無事垂三十年,〔二〕乃更潛心典籍,孜孜不倦。年踰八十,猶手自校書,刊定謬誤,積聚篇卷,於時最多。開門接賓,誘納後進,但講論古義,不干時事,以是見稱。上自執政,下及童冠,皆敬重焉。延熙十年卒。〔三〕子條嗣,景耀中為御史中丞。〔四〕

  • (2) Your Servant Sōngzhī comments: Lǎng in connection to Mǎ Sù was dismissed from Chief Clerk, then this was during Jiànxīng Sixth Year [228]. Lǎng reaching Yánxī Tenth Year [248] died, altogether this is only twenty years and that is all, this saying of thirty, the writing is in error.

〔二〕 臣松之案:朗坐馬謖免長史,則建興六年中也。朗至延熙十年卒,整二十年耳,此云「三十」,字之誤也。

  • (3) Xiāngyáng Jì states: Lǎng’s legacy warning words to his son said: “The Zhuàn says armies overcoming is in harmony and not in numbers, this says when Heaven and Earth are in harmony then all things are created, when ruler and servant are in harmony then the state is pacified, when the ninth degree of clan is in harmony then in moving there is obtaining what is sought, in calm there is obtaining security, and therefore sages hold to harmony, by life and by death. I am only Chǔ state’s petty fellow and that is all, but mourned [for parents], and were by two elder brothers raised up, so that my character and conduct did not follow salary and profit and so degenerate. Now I am only poor and that is all; poverty is not for men to worry about, only harmony is precious. You must exhort this!”

〔三〕 襄陽記曰:朗遺言戒子曰:「傳稱師克在和不在眾,此言天地和則萬物生,君臣和則國家平,九族和則動得所求,靜得所安,是以聖人守和,以存以亡也。吾,楚國之小子耳,而早喪所天,為二兄所誘養,使其性行不隨祿利以墮。今但貧耳;貧非人患,惟和為貴,汝其勉之!」

  • (4) Xiāngyáng Jì states: [Xiàng] Tiáo appellation Wénbào, also for wide study was often noted, and entered Jìn as Jiāngyáng Administrator, South Central Army Major.

〔四〕 襄陽記曰:條字文豹,亦博學多識,入晉為江陽太守、南中軍司馬。


Lǎng’s elder brother’s son Chǒng, in Xiānzhǔ’s time was Ivory Gate General. At the Zǐguī defeat, Chǒng’s camp specially survived. Jiànxīng Inaugural Year [223] he was given fief as a capital precinct Marquis, later becoming Central Division Commander, managing the Night Guard troops. When Zhūgě Liàng was about to go north, he memorialized with Hòuzhǔ saying: “General Xiàng Chǒng, his nature and conduct is virtuous and fair, understands fluently military affairs, was tested and employed in the past, and the Late Emperor praised him as capable, and therefore the masses discussed and nominated Chǒng as Commander. I humbly believe the matters in the camp, all should be consulted with him, and certainly it will be able to cause the march and lines to be harmonious, good and bad obtaining their dues.” He was promoted to Central Manager of the Army. Yánxī Third Year [240], he campaigned against Hànjiā’s Mányí peoples, and came to harm. Chǒng’s younger brother Chōng, successively was Shooting Sound Colonel and Secretariat. (1)

朗兄子寵,先主時為牙門將。秭歸之敗,寵營特完。建興元年封都亭侯,後為中部督,典宿衛兵。諸葛亮當北行,表與後主曰:「將軍向寵,性行淑均,曉暢軍事,試用於昔,先帝稱之曰能,是以眾論舉寵為督。愚以為營中之事,悉以咨之,必能使行陳和睦,優劣得所也。」遷中領軍。延熙三年,征漢嘉蠻夷,遇害。寵弟充,歷射聲校尉尚書。〔一〕

  • (1) Xiāngyáng Jì states: Wèi’s Xiánxī Inaugural Year [264] Sixth Moon, Defending West General Wèi Guàn reached Chéngdū, obtained jade ring and seal one of each, engraving resembling the words “Chéng Xìn” or “Achieving Faith.” Wèi people announced and showed it to the officials, storing it in the Chancellor of State’s Office. [Xiàng] Chōng heard this and said: “I heard Qiáo Zhōu’s words, that the Former Emperor was named Bèi, this meaning to prepare, and the Later Ruler was named Shàn, this meaning to give, like saying that Liú was already prepared, and would give to another. Now the Central Supporter of the Army is named [Sīmǎ] Yán, and [Shǔ] Hàn’s last year was Yánxīng “Yán Rises”, auspicious sign sent out from Chéngdū, and stored in the Chancellor of State’s Office, this is probably Heaven’s Will.” That year, Chōng was appointed Zǐtóng Administrator, and next year Twelfth Moon Jìn Wǔ-dì [Sīmǎ Yán] took the honored throne, and Yánxīng “Yán Rising” therefore was demonstrated.
  • Sūn Shèng states: In the past Gōngsūn [Shù] himself rose in Chéngdū, naming [his state] as the Chéng dynasty. The two jade’s engravings, probably were by [Gōngsūn] Shù made.

〔一〕 襄陽記曰:魏咸熙元年六月,鎮西將軍衛瓘至於成都,得璧玉印各一枚,文似「成信」字,魏人宣示百官,藏于相國府。充聞之曰:「吾聞譙周之言,先帝諱備,其訓具也,後主諱禪,其訓授也,如言劉已具矣,當授與人也。今中撫軍名炎,而漢年極於炎興,瑞出成都,而藏之於相國府,此殆天意也。」是歲,拜充為梓潼太守,明年十二月而晉武帝即尊位,炎興於是乎徵焉。孫盛曰:昔公孫自以起成都,號曰成氏,二玉之文,殆述所作乎!

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