(5.2) Empress Zhēn 文昭甄皇后

Father Yì 甄逸, Yì’s son Yǎn 甄, Yǎn’s son Xiàng 甄像, Xiàng’s son Chàng 甄暢.

Wén-Zhāo “Civil’s Radiant” Empress Zhēn was a Zhōngshān Wújí woman, Emperor Míng’s [Cáo Ruì’s] mother, Hàn Grand Protector Zhēn Hán’s descendant, for generations [the family members were] officials at 2000 dàn [rank]. Her father [Zhēn] Yì was a Shàngcài Magistrate. The Empress at three years old lost her father. (1)


  • (1) Wèishū states: [Zhēn] Yì married from Chángshān’s Zhāng clan [as a principle wife], begetting three sons and five daughters: Eldest son Yù, early died; next Yǎn, nominated Filial and Incorrupt candidate, was a General-in-Chief’s Official, Qūliáng Chief; next Yáo, nominated Filial and Incorrupt candidate; eldest daughter Jiāng, next Tuō, next Dào, next Róng, next was the Empress. The Empress in Hàn’s Guānghé Fifth Year Twelfth Moon Dīngyǒu [183 Jan 26] was born. Every time she slept she slept soundly, inside the family it was like seeing someone had with jade clothes covered her, and they always were together bewildered by it. [Zhēn] Yì died, she cried and mourned, and inside and outside increased their wonder at her. Later physiognomist Liú Liáng appraised the Empress and the various children, [Liú] Liáng pointed at the Empress and said: “This girl’s nobility cannot be spoken of.” The Empress from youth to grown, did not enjoy playing. Aged eight years, outside there was a standing on horseback performer, the family members and older sisters all went up the pavilion to watch it, the Empress alone did not go. Her older sisters were bewildered and asked her, the Empress replied saying: “How is this what a woman should watch?” Aged nine years, she liked books, seeing a character then at once remembering it, and repeatedly used her various elder brothers’ pen and ink stone, her elder brothers said to the Empress: “You should practice women’s labor. Using books for study, will you be a female academic scholar?” The Empress replied saying: “One hears that of the ancient worthy women, there has never been those that did not study the previous ages’ successes and failures, to for oneself warn. Not knowing books, how can one understand it?”

〔一〕 魏書曰:逸娶常山張氏,生三男五女:長男豫,早終;次儼,舉孝廉,大將軍掾、曲梁長;次堯,舉孝廉;長女姜,次脫,次道,次榮,次即后。后以漢光和五年十二月丁酉生。每寢寐,家中髣彿見如有人持玉衣覆其上者,常共怪之。逸薨,加號慕,內外益奇之。後相者劉良相后及諸子,良指后曰:「此女貴乃不可言。」后自少至長,不好戲弄。年八歲,外有立騎馬戲者,家人諸姊皆上閣觀之,后獨不行。諸姊怪問之,后答言:「此豈女人之所觀邪?」年九歲,喜書,視字輒識,數用諸兄筆硯,兄謂后言:「汝當習女工。用書為學,當作女博士邪?」后答言:「聞古者賢女,未有不學前世成敗,以為己誡。不知書,何由見之?」

Later the realm Under Heaven was in warfare and chaos, and also there was hunger and famine, the common people all sold gold and silver and pearls and jade and treasures, at the time the Empress’s family greatly had stores of grain, and considerably with it bought them. The Empress aged ten years, informed her mother saying: “Now the age is in chaos and yet we greatly buy treasures: ‘a common fellow without crime, [if he] hides jade it is crime.’ Also those around are all hungry and exhausted, it is not as good as using the grain to stir up and provide for relatives and neighbors, to expand favor and grace.” The whole family said it was good, and at once followed the Empress’s advice. (2)


  • (2) Wèilüè states: The Empress at fourteen years, lost her middle elder brother Yǎn, her grief and sorrow went beyond regulation, she served her widowed sister-in-law with modesty and respect, served together in her labors, and raised Yǎn’s son, her devotion and love [to her nephew] extremely sincere. The Empress’s mother by nature was strict, treated the various in-law women with constancy, the Empress repeatedly remonstrated her mother: “Elder brother by misfortune early died, sister-in-law is young but holds to integrity [does not remarry], look afters the remaining one son, by great righteousness speaking of it, if treating her should be like an in-law, yet loving her should be like a daughter.” Her mother was moved by the Empress’s words and shed tears, and had the Empress with the sister-in-law together live, sleeping and awake and sitting and rising always together accompanying, favor and love increasing and close.

  〔二〕 魏略曰:后年十四,喪中兄儼,悲哀過制,事寡嫂謙敬,事處其勞,拊養儼子,慈愛甚篤。后母性嚴,待諸婦有常,后數諫母:「兄不幸早終,嫂年少守節,顧留一子,以大義言之,待之當如婦,愛之宜如女。」母感后言流涕,便令后與嫂共止,寢息坐起常相隨,恩愛益密。

During Jiàn’ān [196-220], Yuán Shào with his middle son [Yuán] Xī matched her [as a concubine]. [Yuán] Xī was sent out to Yōuzhōu, the Empress remained to care for her husband’s mother. When Jìzhōu was pacified, Emperor Wén [Cáo Pī] wed the Empress [as a concubine] in Yè, she had favor, and bore Emperor Míng [Cáo Ruì] and the princess of Dōngxiāng. (1) Yánkāng Inaugural Year [220] Standard Moon, Emperor Wén succeeded the King’s Throne, Sixth Moon went on southern campaign, the Empress remained at Yè.


  • (1) Wèilüè states: [Yuán] Xī was at Yōuzhōu, the Empress remained to attend to her husband’s mother. When Yè city was defeated, [Yuán] Shào’s wife and the Empress were together seated atop Huáng Hall. Emperor Wén entered [Yuán] Shào’s residence, met [Yuán] Shào’s wife and the Empress, the Empress was afraid, and bowed her head on top of her husband’s mother’s thighs, [Yuán] Shào’s wife with her two hands prostrated herself. Emperor Wén said: “Lady Liú why are you like this? Have your daughter-in-law raise her head.” Her husband’s mother then lifted the Empress to have her look up, Emperor Wén saw her, observed her appearance was not ordinary, and praised and sighed at it. Tàizǔ [Cáo Cāo] understood his intentions, and therefore for him welcomed marriage.
  • Shìyǔ states: Tǎizǔ captured Yè, Emperor Wén first entered Yuán Shàng’s office, there was a woman with loose hair and dirtied face, weeping and standing at [Yuán] Shào’s wife Liú’s rear, Emperor Wén asked her, and Liú replied: “It is [Yuán] Xī’s wife,” turning back to tie up her hair, and with a cloth wiping her face, her beauty and appearance beyond compare. After leaving, Liú said to the Empress: “No worry of death!” Therefore she was accepted [as a concubine], and had favor.
  • Wèishū states:
    • The Empress’s favor became more grand but she became more deferential, if the Rear Palace [harem] had someone favored she would encourage them, those without favor she would comfort and instruct them, every time she would take advantage of leisure or feast, to always advise the Emperor [Cáo Pī], saying: “In the past Huáng-dì’s descendants flourished, overall was because his concubines were very many, and thus he obtained these blessings and that is all. Therefore may you widely seek virtuous women, to benefit your posterity.” The Emperor in his heart praised this. Afterward the Emperor wished to send away lady Rén, the Empress pleaded to the Emperor saying: “The Rén in their hometown is a famed clan, in virtue and beauty I your concubine cannot match, why send her away?” The Emperor said: “Rén’s nature is impetuous and rash and not tactful or obedient, from beginning to end [the instances of her] angering me is not [just] once, therefore I send her away and that is all.” The Empress shed tears and firmly pleaded saying: “That I your concubine received veneration and encountered kindness, everyone knows, and they will certainly say that Rén’s being sent out, was because of I your concubine. Above I fear ridicule of appearing selfish, below receiving guilt for monopolizing favor, may you again reconsider!” The Emperor did not listen, and therefore sent [lady Rén] out.
    • Sixteenth Year [211] Seventh Moon, Tàizǔ campaigned within the passes, Empress Wǔ-Xuān [lady Biàn] accompanied, remained at Mèngjīn, the Emperor [Cáo Pī] resided and defended Yè. At the time Emperess Wǔ-Xuān’s body had small disturbance, the Empress was not able to visit her, was worried and afraid, day and night weeping; attendants hurriedly went to inquire and reported [everything was alright], the Empress still did not believe it, saying: “The madame at home, every time when ill, then suffered for a time, now just as we inquire over the illness, how could it be [over] so fast? This is wishing to reassure my thoughts and that is all!” Her worry became all the more extreme. Later she obtained Empress Wǔ-Xuān reply letter, saying the illness had already been, the Empress therefore was pleased.
    • Seventeenth Year [212] Standard Moon, the main army returned to Yè, the Empress received Empress Wǔ-Xuān, looking out to the [carriage] curtained seat she was pained and happy, moving [emotionally] the attendants. Empress Wǔ-Xuān saw that the Empress was like this, and also wept, and said to her: “Daughter-in-law you said my former illness was like in previous times’ in severity? My [illness’s length of] time was very small and that is all, a little over ten days it ended, do you not see my [healthy] appearance?” Sighing she said: “This truly is a filial woman.”
    • Twenty-first Year [216], Tàizǔ went on eastern campaign, Empress Wǔ-Xuān, Emperor Wén with Emperor Míng and the princess of Dōngxiāng all accompanied, at the time the Empress due to illness remained at Yè. Twenty-second year [217] Ninth Moon, the main army returned, Empress Wǔ-Xuān’s attendants saw that the Empress’s appearance was healthy, and bewildered asked her: “You the Empress [anachronistic use] with your two children were separated for a long time, feelings for children cannot be lacking, but yet you the Empress’s appearance is flourishing, why is this?” The Empress laughed and answered them: “[Cáo] Ruì and the rest personally accompanied the madame, I should have what worries?”
    • The Empress’s worthiness and wisdom and by ritual maintaining herself was like this.

〔一〕 魏略曰:熙出在幽州,后留侍姑。及鄴城破,紹妻及后共坐皇堂上。文帝入紹舍,見紹妻及后,后怖,以頭伏姑膝上,紹妻兩手自搏。文帝謂曰:「劉夫人云何如此?令新婦舉頭!」姑乃捧后令仰,文帝就視,見其顏色非凡,稱歎之。太祖聞其意,遂為迎取。世語曰:太祖下鄴,文帝先入袁尚府,有婦人被髮垢面,垂涕立紹妻劉後,文帝問之,劉答「是熙妻」,顧攬髮髻,以巾拭面,姿貌絕倫。既過,劉謂后「不憂死矣」!遂見納,有寵。魏書曰:后寵愈隆而彌自挹損,後宮有寵者勸勉之,其無寵者慰誨之,每因閑宴,常勸帝,言「昔黃帝子孫蕃育,蓋由妾媵眾多,乃獲斯祚耳。所願廣求淑媛,以豐繼嗣。」帝心嘉焉。其後帝欲遣任氏,后請於帝曰:「任既鄉黨名族,德、色,妾等不及也,如何遣之?」帝曰:「任性狷急不婉順,前後忿吾非一,是以遣之耳。」后流涕固請曰:「妾受敬遇之恩,眾人所知,必謂任之出,是妾之由。上懼有見私之譏,下受專寵之罪,願重留意!」帝不聽,遂出之。十六年七月,太祖征關中,武宣皇后從,留孟津,帝居守鄴。時武宣皇后體小不安,后不得定省,憂怖,晝夜泣涕;左右驟以差問告,后猶不信,曰:「夫人在家,故疾每動,輒歷時,今疾便差,何速也?此欲慰我意耳!」憂愈甚。後得武宣皇后還書,說疾已平復,后乃懽悅。十七年正月,大軍還鄴,后朝武宣皇后,望幄座悲喜,感動左右。武宣皇后見后如此,亦泣,且謂之曰:「新婦謂吾前病如昔時困邪?吾時小小耳,十餘日即差,不當視我顏色乎!」嗟歎曰:「此真孝婦也。」二十一年,太祖東征,武宣皇后、文帝及明帝、東鄉公主皆從,時后以病留鄴。二十二年九月,大軍還,武宣皇后左右侍御見后顏色豐盈,怪問之曰:「后與二子別久,下流之情,不可為念,而后顏色更盛,何也?」后笑答之曰:「(諱)〔叡〕等自隨夫人,我當何憂!」后之賢明以禮自持如此。

Huángchū Inaugural Year Tenth Moon, the Emperor ascended the throne. After ascending the throne, the Duke of Shānyáng [Liú Xié] presented two daughters as Imperial concubines to Wèi, Empress Guō and Noble Ladies Lǐ and Yīn all were favored and intimate, the Empress became more frustrated, and had resentful words. The Emperor was greatly angry, Second Year [221] Sixth Moon, sent envoy to bestow death [order her suicide], buried at Yè. (2)


  • (2) Wèishū states: Managers memorialized to establish a Chángqiū Palace [enthrone an Empress], the Emperor with Imperial Sealed letter invited the Empress, for her to go to where he was, the Empress sent up memorial saying: “I your concubine have heard that in the flourishing of previous ages, that they were able to maintain state for a long time, passing down blessings to later posterity, was never not due to the empresses and consorts. Therefore one must carefully select these people, to flourish inner teachings. As it is the beginning of the ascension, it is truly appropriate to raise and advance the worthy and virtuous, to manage the Six Palaces. I your concubine examine myself as ignorant and coarse, and cannot be assigned to the magnificent sacrificial affairs, and moreover am lying ill, and dare hold to [this] small ambition.” Imperial Sealed letter thrice arrived and the Empress thrice declined, her words extremely sincere. At the time it was an exceedingly hot summer, and the Emperor wished to wait for the cool of autumn to then again invite the Empress. It happened that the Empress’s illness became severe. Summer Sixth Moon Dīngmǎo [221 Aug 4], she passed away at Yè. The Emperor grieved and sighed, giving posthumous Empress’s seal and cord.
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī believes by the Chūnqiū‘s principles, inner great wrongs are taboo, small wrongs are not written. Emperor Wén not enthroning lady Zhēn, and moreover killing her, the matter has clear evidence. If Wèi scribes believed it a great wrong, then it should have been hidden and not spoken of, if it was said to be a small wrong, then it should not have falsely made this report, with lofty ornamental false writing so that it came to this, is different from what is heard from ancient scribes. Considering this and speaking, their praise of Biàn and Zhēn various Empresses’ goodness in word and conduct, all is difficult to honestly discuss. Mister Chén [Shòu]’s deletions and omissions, truly had their reasons.

〔二〕 魏書曰:有司奏建長秋宮,帝璽書迎后,詣行在所,后上表曰:「妾聞先代之興,所以饗國久長,垂祚後嗣,無不由后妃焉。故必審選其人,以興內教。令踐阼之初,誠宜登進賢淑,統理六宮。妾自省愚陋,不任粢盛之事,加以寢疾,敢守微志。」璽書三至而后三讓,言甚懇切。時盛暑,帝欲須秋涼乃更迎后。會后疾遂篤,夏六月丁卯,崩于鄴。帝哀痛咨嗟,策贈皇后璽綬。臣松之以為春秋之義,內大惡諱,小惡不書。文帝之不立甄氏,及加殺害,事有明審。魏史若以為大惡邪,則宜隱而不言,若謂為小惡邪,則不應假為之辭,而崇飾虛文乃至於是,異乎所聞於舊史。推此而言,其稱卞、甄諸后言行之善,皆難以實論。陳氏刪落,良有以也。

Emperor Míng succeeded the throne, managers memorialized to request giving posthumous title, and he sent Excellency of Works Wáng Lǎng Wielding Staff to present talleys and Grand Sacrifice to inform the shrine at the tomb, and also separately installed a temple. (1)


  • (1) Wèishū records the Three Excellencies’ Memorial: “Overall the way of filial respect, is sincerity to one’s parents, thus it is how the Four Seas are cultivated, how Heaven and Earth are clearly perceived, it is what is called when living then devote to their care, when gone then illuminate their spirits, reciting and narrating to their utmost beauty, proclaiming and raising to glorify their names. Now Your Majesty by sagely virtue, carry on and continue the vast enterprise, utmost filial piety rising and rising, connecting to the divine enlightenment, when encountering sorrow and mourning, always laboring to modestly defer. When the Former Emperor [Cáo Pī] was moved to his sacred mountain tomb, great ritual was prepared, but as for the former empress [Zhēn], there is not yet prominent posthumous name. In prostration considering that the former empress respectful deference was outstanding in subtlety, utmost conduct prominent in not speaking, cultivation flowing through the state, virtue comparable to the two Nán, therefore she was able to receive divine spirits’ auspicious omens, becoming great Wèi’s first consort. Though in early years she passed away, after ten thousand years, she will forever spread harmony and brilliance, of the achievements of empresses and consorts none are able to match and surpass. According to posthumous name methods: ‘Sagely reputation circulating and reaching is called Zhāo. Virtue and enlightenment with achievement is called Zhāo.’ Zhāo is the utmost of light and illumination, flourishing for long time and yet not dimming. It is appropriate for you the Ascended to honor with posthumous title as Wén-Zhāo Huánghòu [‘Civil’s Radiant Empress’].”
  • That Moon, the Three Excellencies again memorialized: “Since ancient times the Zhōu men’s Shǐzǔ [‘First Founder’] was Hòujì [‘lord of millet’], and also specially established temple to sacrifice to [Hòujì’s mother] Jiāng Yuán. Now Empress Wén-Zhāo to ten thousand inheritances, sagely virtue of utmost cultivation, how can it be measured? Having the honor of the Imperial family’s first consort, yet was subdued and deferential and respectful, firmly declining flourishing rank, her divine spirit shifting and transformed, and yet is without resting temple to enjoy sacrifices, this is not the way to repay prominent virtue and brighten filial respect. Inspecting ancient regulations, it is appropriate to follow Zhōu ritual, to for the late mother to separately establish temple.
  • Both memorials were permitted.

〔一〕 魏書載三公奏曰:「蓋孝敬之道,篤乎其親,乃四海所以承化,天地所以明察,是謂生則致其養,歿則光其靈,誦述以盡其美,宣揚以顯其名者也。今陛下以聖懿之德,紹承洪業,至孝烝烝,通於神明,遭罹殷憂,每勞謙讓。先帝遷神山陵,大禮既備,至於先后,未有顯諡。伏惟先后恭讓著於幽微,至行顯於不言,化流邦國,德侔二南,故能膺神靈嘉祥,為大魏世妃。雖夙年登遐,萬載之後,永播融烈,后妃之功莫得而尚也。案諡法:『聖聞周達曰昭。德明有功曰昭。』昭者,光明之至,盛久而不昧者也。宜上尊諡曰文昭皇后。」是月,三公又奏曰:「自古周人始祖后稷,又特立廟以祀姜嫄。今文昭皇后之於萬嗣,聖德至化,豈有量哉!夫以皇家世(祀)〔妃〕之尊,而克讓允恭,固推盛位,神靈遷化,而無寢廟以承享(禮)〔祀〕,非所以報顯德,昭孝敬也。稽之古制,宜依周禮,先妣別立寢廟。」並奏可之。

Tàihé Inaugural Year [227] Third Moon, he with Wèichāng’s Ānchéng village’s households of a thousand, gave posthumous fief on Yì, posthumous name Jìng-hóu “Respected Marquis,” his successor grandson Xiàng inherited the noble rank. Fourth Moon, first built Ancestral Temples, while digging earth discovered a jade ruler’s seal, square one cùn nine fēn [~4.4 cm], its inscription said: “Heaven’s Son misses and thinks of gentle kin.” Emperor Míng from this changed countenance, with Grand Sacrifice reported to the Temple. Also he once dreamed of seeing the Empress, and therefore investigated his maternal uncle’s clan’s close and distant relations high and low, ordering and employing each on individual basis, bestowments accumulating to the tens of thousands; he appointed Xiàng as Tiger Elite Internal Cadet General. That Moon, the Empress’s mother died, the Emperor wore linen clothes to oversee mourning, the hundred officials in accompaniment.


Fourth Year [230] Eleventh Moon, as the Empress’s old tomb was humble and low, he sent Xiàng as concurrent Excellency Commandant [this must be an copyist error, probably for Minister of Ceremonies], Wielding Staff to visit Yè, to brightly announce to the Lord of Soil; Twelfth Moon, changed burial to Cháoyáng [“Morning Sun”] Tomb. [Zhēn] Xiàng returned, and was promoted to Cavalier Regular Attendant.


Qīnglóng Second Year [234] Spring, bestowed posthumous title on the Empress’s elder brother Yǎn as Ānchéng village’s Mù-hóu “Solemn Marquis.” Summer, Wú rebels plundered Yáng Province, appointed Xiàng as Overcoming Waves General, Wielding Staff to supervise the various officers on eastern campaign, returned, and was again made Shooting Sound Colonel. Third Year [235] he died, posthumously ranked General of the Guard, changed fief to Wèichāng county, posthumous name Zhēn-hóu “Pure Marquis,” his son Chàng succeeded. Also fief on Chàng’s younger brothers Wēn, Wěi, Yàn all as ranked Marquis. Fourth Year [236], changed Yì’s and Yǎn’s base fief all to be Marquis of Wèichāng, posthumous names as before. Fief on Yǎn’s principal wife Liú as Lady of Dōngxiāng, also posthumous fief on Yì’s principal wife Zhāng as Lady of Ānxǐ.


Jǐngchū Inaugural Year [237] Spring, managers discussed setting the Seven Temples. Winter, they again memorialized: “Overall in the rise of Emperors and Kings, there is the ruler receiving the Mandate, and also there is sagely consort according with the divine spirits, afterward attaining prosperity in the age, to complete the royal enterprise. In the past Gāoxīnshì divined his four consorts’ sons would all have the realm Under Heaven, and Dì Zhì, Táo Táng, Shāng, and Zhōu successively rose. The Zhōu people above reached Hòu Jì, to accompany August Heaven, recollecting the royal beginnings, origins in Jiāng Yuán, and specially established Palace Temple, for generation to generation to enjoy sacrifices, what the Zhōu Lǐ calls: ‘Play the Yízé, sing the Zhōnglǚ, dance the Dàhuò, for the benefit of the former mother’ was this. Poets eulogized her: ‘The origins birthing the people, this was Jiāng Yuán,” speaking of the origins of the royal influence, of the birth of the people. Also states: “Hidden Temple has silence, solid solid timbered timbered, brilliant brilliant Jiāng Yuán, her virtue not flawed.” What the Shī and Lǐ states of the Jī clan’s rising, its glory was like this. Great Wèi’s phase cycles, continues from Yǒuyú, however in esteeming the vast Emperor’s Way, the Three Reigns are more prosperous, the Temple Hall’s count, truly is with Zhōu the same. Now Wǔ-Xuān Huánghòu and Wén-Dé Huánghòu each accompany the inexhaustible blessings, as for Wén-Zhāo Huánghòu receiving Heaven’s spiritual signs, giving birth to the enlightened sage, achievement in relieving the living people, virtue filling the universe, opening the various later successions, therefore how the way’s influence rose. Resting Temple special sacrifices, also would be Jiāng Yuán’s Hidden Temple, but there is not yet made no regulation of not dismantling, one fears that the principles of discussion of achievements and repaying of virtue, for all ages will have some deficiencies, and is not how to shine filial piety to show later generations. For Wén-Zhāo Temple it is appropriate to from generation to generation enjoy sacrifices and perform music, to with the Ancestral Temples be the same, with standard of forever not dismantling, to spread aura of sagely good.”


Therefore the Seven Temples was discussed and engraved on metal seals, stored in metal coffers.


The Emperor thought of his maternal uncle’s clans without end. Chàng was still young, but at Jǐngchū’s end, Chàng became Shooting Sound Colonel, added Cavalier Regular Attendant, and also specially for him raised a great mansion, Imperial Carriage personally overlooking it. Also in his Rear Garden for Xiàng’s mother was raised a tower and temple, naming his borough as Wèiyáng borough, in memorial for his mother. Jiāpíng Third Year [251] Standard Moon, Chàng died, posthumously titled General of Chariots and Cavalry, posthumous name Gōng-hóu “Respectful Marquis.” His son Shào succeeded.


Tàihé Sixth Year, Emperor Míng’s beloved daughter Shū died, posthumous fief and posthumous name on Shū as Píngyuán Yì Gōngzhǔ “Exemplary Princess of Píngyuán,” and for her established a temple. He took the Empress’s deceased cousin’s grandson [Zhēn] Huáng to with her be together buried, posthumous fief on Huáng as a Ranked Marquis, with the lady Guō’s younger cousin [Guō] Dé as their descendant, carrying on the Zhēn clan surname, fief on Dé as Marquis of Píngyuán, succeeding the princess’s noble rank. (1)


  • (1) Sūn Shèng states: In Ritual, wives are without fief rank standards, so all the more for children, so how could there be establishment of great fief? Dé was from a different clan, assisting succession of a different family, not accomplished and not kin, yet succeeded his mother’s notble rank, the violation of feelings and turning back on standards, was this extreme. Chén Qún though in opposition spoke, Yáng Fú cited matters for comparison, however both were not able to utmostly explain the Ritual of the Former Kings, enlighten the principles of fief establishment and succesison inheritance; words of utmost loyalty, yet have deficiences! The Shī says: “Impressive impressie Master Yǐn, the people toward you gaze.” The highest officials, they can be omitted!
  • Jìn Zhūgōng Zàn states: Dé appellation Yànsūn. Sīmǎ [Shī] Jǐng-wáng assisted teh government, and had his daughter wed as wife to Dé. The wife early died, and [Sīmǎ Zhāo] Wén-wáng again with his daughter continued the household, this was Jīngzhào elder princess. Jǐng and Wén two Kings wished to connect themselves to Empress Guō, and therefore repeatedly arranged marriages. Dé though was without talent or learning, yet he was respectful and reverent and humble and obedient. Zhēn Wēn appellation Zhòngshū, with Guō Jiàn and Dé and the rest were all of the Empress’s clan, for serving appropriately met with favor. At Xiánxī’s beginning, enfeoffed Jiàn as Línwèi county Duke, Dé as Guǎng’ān county Duke, fief both of 1800 households. Wēn was originally a state Marquis, advanced to Assisting the State General-in-Chief, added Attendant Internal, designate Shooting Sound Colonel, Dé was Defending the Army General-in-Chief. Tàishǐ Inaugural Year, Jìn received the abdication, added Jiàn, Dé, and Wēn three men rank as Specially Advanced. Dé as a man was chaste and pure, and moreover was Shìzǔ [Sīmǎ Yán]’s elder sister’s husband, and therefore he was noble at the time. Dé in declining years office was changed to Minister of the Imperial Clan, promoted Attendant Internal. During Tàikāng, Marshal-in-Chief King of Qí [Sīmǎ] Yōu about to be sent out as a vassal, Dé with Left Guard General Wáng Jì together remonstrated and pleaded, and at the time people praised them. Shìzǔ [Sīmǎ Yán] because of this observed Dé, and from this set out Dé as Minister Herald, added Attendant Internal, Merit Grandee, and due to illness died, posthumously titled Central Army General-in-Chief, Open Office and Attendant Internal as before, posthumous name Gōng-gōng “Respectful Duke,” his son Xǐ succeeded. Xǐ was refined and had magnanimity, successively was Internal Documents Cadet, Right Guard General, Attendant Internal, rank reached Assisting the State General-in-Chief, added Cavalier Regular Attendant. Xǐ with the state was an in-law, and encountered King of Zhào [Sīmǎ] Lún and King of Qí [Sīmǎ] Jǐong’s matters, was able to predict opportunities, but as his talents were limited, so also was able to withdraw and escape them.

〔一〕 孫盛曰:於禮,婦人既無封爵之典,況于孩末,而可建以大邑乎?德自異族,援繼非類,匪功匪親,而襲母爵,違情背典,於此為甚。陳群雖抗言,楊阜引事比並,然皆不能極陳先王之禮,明封建繼嗣之義,忠至之辭,猶有闕乎!詩云:「赫赫師尹,民具爾瞻。」宰輔之職,其可略哉!晉諸公贊曰:德字彥孫。司馬景王輔政,以女妻德。妻早亡,文王復以女繼室,即京兆長公主。景、文二王欲自結于郭后,是以頻繁為婚。德雖無才學,而恭謹謙順。甄溫字仲舒,與郭建及德等皆后族,以事宜見寵。咸熙初,封郭建為臨渭縣公,德廣安縣公,邑皆千八百戶。溫本國侯,進為輔國大將軍,加侍中,領射聲校尉,德鎮軍大將軍。泰始元年,晉受禪,加建、德、溫三人位特進。德為人貞素,加以世祖姊夫,是以遂貴當世。德暮年官更轉為宗正,遷侍中。太康中,大司馬齊王攸當之藩,德與左衛將軍王濟共諫請,時人嘉之。世祖以此望德,由此出德為大鴻臚,加侍中、光祿大夫,尋疾薨,贈中軍大將軍,開府侍中如故,諡恭公,子喜嗣。喜精粹有器美,歷中書郎、右衛將軍、侍中,位至輔國大將軍,加散騎常侍。喜與國姻親,而經趙王倫、齊王冏事故,能不豫際會,良由其才短,然亦以退靜免之。

During Qīnglóng, also gave fief on the Empress’s elder cousin’s son [Zhēn] Yì and Xiàng’s younger brothers of three men, all as Ranked Marquis. Yì repeatedly sent up memorial explaining the current government, office reaching Yuè Cavalry Colonel. During Jiāpíng, restored fief on Chàng’s sons of two men as Ranked Marquis. The Empress’s elder brother Yǎn’s granddaughter was the King of Qí’s [Cáo Fāng] Empress, the Empress’s father was already gone, fief was given on the Empress’s mother as Guǎnglè village Lady.


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