(25.3) Gāotáng Lóng 高堂隆 [Shēngpíng 升平]

Zhàn Qián 棧潛 [Yànhuáng 彥皇]


Gāotáng Lóng appellation Shēngpíng, was a Tàishān Píngyáng man, Lǔ’s Gāotáng Shēng’s descendant. When young be became a scholar, Tàishān Administrator Xuē Tì ordered him to be a supervisor investigator. The prefecture’s commander of the army with [Xuē] Tì fought and argued, and he used Tì’s personal name and cursed him. Lóng with hand on sword scolded the commander of the army saying: “In the past when Lǔ [Duke] Dìng was insulted, Zhòngní ran up the steps [to defend his lord], [the King of] Zhào [was humiliated by being forced to] play zither for [the King of] Qín, [Lìn] Xiàngrú advanced a clay pot [to the King of Qín to hit play in accompaniment, returning the insult]. Seeing a servant using personal name of his master, by righteousness it must be punished.” The commander of the army lost color, and [Xuē] Tì in alarm rose and stopped him. Later he left office, and took refuge in Jǐnán.

高堂隆字升平,泰山平陽人,魯高堂生後也。少為諸生,泰山太守薛悌命為督郵。郡督軍與悌爭論,名悌而呵之。隆按劍叱督軍曰:「昔魯定見侮,仲尼歷階;趙彈秦箏,相如進缶。臨臣名君,義之所討也。」督軍失色,悌驚起止之。後去吏,避地濟南。


Jiàn’ān Eighteenth Year [213], Tàizǔ [Cáo Cāo] summoned him as Chancellor’s Army Consulting Official, later he became Marquis of Lìchéng [Cáo] Huī’s Literary Scholar, transferred to his Chancellor. [Cáo] Huī at Tàizǔ’s passing, did not grieve, and instead traveled and hunted. Lóng with righteousness and uprightness remonstrated, deeply having the integrity of giving guidance.

建安十八年,太祖召為丞相軍議掾,後為歷城侯徽文學,轉為相。徽遭太祖喪,不哀,反游獵馳騁;隆以義正諫,甚得輔導之節。

During Huángchū, he became Tángyáng Chief, and was selected to be the King of Píngyuán’s Tutor. The King succeeded the honored throne, and was Emperor Míng [Cáo Ruì]. Lóng became Giving Affairs Central, Academic Scholar, Attached Horse Commandant. When the Emperor first ascended, of the various ministers some believed it was appropriate to have a musical celebration. Lóng said: “Táng and Yú had grieving of restraint and secrecy, [Hàn] Gāozōng [Liú Héng] had consideration of not speaking, and therefore reached virtue harmonious and splendid, enlightening the four seas,” believing it not appropriate to have celebration. The Emperor venerated and accepted this.

黃初中,為堂陽長,以選為平原王傅。王即尊位,是為明帝。以隆為給事中、博士、駙馬都尉。帝初踐阼,群臣或以為宜響會,隆曰:「唐、虞有遏密之哀,高宗有不言之思,是以至德雍熙,光于四海。」以為不宜為會,帝敬納之。

He was transferred to Administrator of Chénliú. Cow-herding commoner Yǒu Mù, aged over seventy years, had utmost conduct, and [Gāotáng Lóng] nominated him as a Calculation Department Official; the Emperor praised him [Yǒu Mù], and specially appointed him Cadet Central to honor him. Summoned Lóng as Cavalier Regular Attendant, bestowed rank as Marquis Within the Passes. (1)

遷陳留太守。犢民酉牧,年七十餘,有至行,舉為計曹掾;帝嘉之,特除郎中以顯焉。徵隆為散騎常侍,賜爵關內侯。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèilüè states: The Grand Scribe sent up [memorial that] Hàn’s Calendar did not match natural timing, and therefore should again advance calculation and investigation of lunar phases, to make the Tàihé Calendar. The Emperor because Lóng’s learning was excellent and deep, and in astronomy was also elite, therefore had Imperial Order sending Lóng with Secretariat Documents Cadet Yáng Wěi and the Grand Scribe Attendant Order Luò Lù together calculate and investigate. [Yáng] Wěi and [Luò] Lù were Grand Scribes, Lóng cited old calendars and they again impeached and memorialized against each other, arguing for several years, [Yáng] Wěi claimed that  [Luò] Lù had the eclipses but the moon ends were not thorough, Lóng could not obtain the eclipses but the moon ends were thorough, and Imperial Order followed the Grand Scribe. What Lóng argued though was not successful, yet far and near yet knew his elite ability.

〔一〕 魏略曰:太史上漢曆不及天時,因更推步弦望朔晦,為太和曆。帝以隆學問優深,於天文又精,乃詔使隆與尚書郎楊偉、太史待詔駱祿參共推校。偉、祿是太史,隆故據舊曆更相劾奏,紛紜數歲,偉稱祿得日蝕而月晦不盡,隆不得日蝕而月晦盡,詔從太史。隆所爭雖不得,而遠近猶知其精微也。


During Qīnglóng, there was great building of palace halls and residences, to the west fetching Cháng’ān’s large bells. Lóng sent up memorial: “In the past Zhōu King Jǐng did not honor and enact [Kings] Wén and Wǔ’s enlightened virtue, neglected [Zhōu] Duke Dàn’s sacred regulations, both casting large coins, and also making large bells, Shàn Duke Mù remonstrated but he did not listen, Língzhōu Jiū opposed and he did not follow, and therefore he was bewildered without return, and Zhōu’s virtue by this declined, and good historians recorded it, to be a perpetual reflection. However the present’s petty men, enjoy speaking of Qín and Hàn’s extravagance to overwhelm your sacred heart, seeking after those fallen state’s inappropriate vessels, conscripted labor is spent and wasted, thus harming virtuous government, and it is not the way to prosper the harmony of Ritual and Music, or protect the form of the divine enlightenment.”

青龍中,大治殿舍,西取長安大鐘。隆上疏曰;「昔周景王不儀刑文、武之明德,忽公旦之聖制,既鑄大錢,又作大鐘,單穆公諫而弗聽,泠州鳩對而弗從,遂迷不反,周德以衰,良史記焉,以為永鑒。然今之小人,好說秦、漢之奢靡以盪聖心,求取亡國不度之器,勞役費損,以傷德政,非所以興禮樂之和,保神明之休也。」

That day, the Emperor visited Shàngfāng, Lóng with Biàn Lán accompanied. The Emperor with Lóng’s memorial gave to [Biàn] Lán, having him debate Lóng saying: “Prosperity and decline is in government, music has what to do with it? If cultivation is not enlightened, how is it a bell’s crime?”

是日,帝幸上方,隆與卞蘭從。帝以隆表授蘭,使難隆曰:「興衰在政,樂何為也?化之不明,豈鐘之罪?」

Lóng said: “This Ritual and Music, is governance’s great foundation. Therefore at Xiāo Sháo’s ninth completion, the phoenixes came in attendance, thundering drums sixth change, heavenly spirits thus descended, government thereby was peaceful, punishments thereby were stopped, and this was harmony’s utmost. A new sound set out and echoed, and Shāng Xīn by this perished. Large bells were cast, Zhōu [King] Jǐng by this declined. Survival and destruction’s crucial point, is always by this formed, how can it with falling and rising have no relation? The ruler’s actions must be written, this is the ancient’s principle. To make but not follow, how can it show to later times? The sagely King cheerfully heard their faults, and therefore there was the principle of warning and admonishment; loyal subjects wish to exhaust their integrity, and therefore have righteousness forgetting self.” The Emperor praised this as good.

隆曰:「夫禮樂者,為治之大本也。故簫韶九成,鳳皇來儀,雷鼓六變,天神以降,政是以平,刑是以錯,和之至也。新聲發響,商辛以隕,大鐘既鑄,周景以弊,存亡之機,恆由斯作,安在廢興之不階也?君舉必書,古之道也,作而不法,何以示後?聖王樂聞其闕,故有箴規之道;忠臣願竭其節,故有匪躬之義也。」帝稱善。


He was promoted to Attendant Internal, also designate Grand Scribe Director. Chónghuá Palace Hall burned down, Imperial Order asked Lóng: “This is what calamity? By ritual, what prayer to avoid calamity is appropriate?”

遷侍中,猶領太史令。崇華殿災,詔問隆:「此何咎?於禮,寧有祈禳之義乎?」

Lóng replied: “The appearances of catastrophic change, all are to illuminate and teach remonstrant. Only to lead ritual and cultivate virtue, is able to overcome it. The Yìzhuàn states: ‘Above not frugal, below not economical, disastrous fire burns their residences.’ It also states: ‘Ruler makes high his tower, heaven’s fire becomes disaster.’ Thisis the ruler of men carelessly decorating palaces and residences, not knowing the common people’s exhaustion, and therefore heaven answers it by drought, and fire from high palace halls arise. Heaven Above sends down reflections, to therefore reprimand and inform Your Majesty; Your Majesty should expand and esteem human principle, to reply to Heaven’s intentions. In the past Tàiwù had mulberry and grain grow in Court, Wǔdīng had pheasants perch on tripods, both heard disaster and were frightened, devoted self to cultivate virtue, and after three years, the distant foreigners came to court with tribute, and therefore they were titled Zhōngzōng and Gāozōng. This then is the prevoius dynasties’ enlightened reflection. Now according to old divination, the appearances of disasters of fire, are all remonstrants on towers pavilions palaces and residences. However now the reason that palaces and residences are expanded, is truly that the palace women are plentiful and many. It is appropriate to select and keep the virtuous and restrained, like Zhōu’s regulations, and dismiss the remaining. This then is the reason Zǔjǐ remonstrated Gāozōng, the reason Gāozōng enjoyed long-lasting title.”

隆對曰:「夫災變之發,皆所以明教誡也,惟率禮脩德,可以勝之。易傳曰:『上不儉,下不節,孽火燒其室。』又曰:『君高其臺,天火為災。』此人君苟飾宮室,不知百姓空竭,故天應之以旱,火從高殿起也。上天降鑒,故譴告陛下;陛下宜增崇人道,以答天意。昔太戊有桑穀生於朝,武丁有雊雉登於鼎,皆聞災恐懼,側身脩德,三年之後,遠夷朝貢,故號曰中宗、高宗。此則前代之明鑒也。今案舊占,災火之發,皆以臺榭宮室為誡。然今宮室之所以充廣者,實由宮人猥多之故。宜簡擇留其淑懿,如周之制,罷省其餘。此則祖己之所以訓高宗,高宗之所以享遠號也。」

Imperial Order asked: “I heard in Hàn Wǔ-dì’s time, Bóliáng burned down, yet there was great raising of palaces to oppose it, this reasoning was what?”

詔問隆:「吾聞漢武帝時,柏梁災,而大起宮殿以厭之,其義云何?」

Lóng replied: “I your servant have heard when the western capital’s Bóliáng burned down, Yuè shamans explained plans, for Jiànzhāng’s construction, to supress fire omens; therefore it was the foreign Yuè shamans’ doing, not a sage’s enlightened remonstrant. Wǔxíngzhì states: ‘Bóliáng burning down, from it afterward there was Jiāng Chōng’s witchcraft against Wèi Heir-Apparent incident.’ Like the zhì says, the Yuè shaman’s Jiànzhāng was without suppression. Kǒng-zǐ said: ‘Disasters are categories answering conduct, essences and spirits mutually affecting, to warn the ruler of men.’ Therefore the sagely ruler observes disaster and reproaches self, withdraws and cultivates virtue, to eliminate and restore it. Now it is appropriate to dismiss and release the people and conscripts. Palace and residence regulations, should follow reduced system, inside sufficient to deal with wind and rain, outside sufficient to explain ritual and ceremony. Clean and sweep where the disaster occurred, do not dare at that place establish and build, fortunate herb and auspicious grain certainly will grow in this land, to reply to Your Majesty’s reverent and respectful virtue. How can one weary the people’s strength, and exhaust the people’s wealth? It truly is not how to convey auspicious omen and embrace distant people.”

隆對曰:「臣聞西京柏梁既災,越巫陳方,建章是經,以厭火祥;乃夷越之巫所為,非聖賢之明訓也。五行志曰:『柏梁災,其後有江充巫蠱(也)衛太子事。』如志之言,越巫建章無所厭也。孔子曰:『災者脩類應行,精祲相感,以戒人君。』是以聖主睹災責躬,退而脩德,以消復之。今宜罷散民役。宮室之制,務從約節,內足以待風雨,外足以講禮儀。清埽所災之處,不敢於此有所立作,萐莆、嘉禾必生此地,以報陛下虔恭之德。豈可疲民之力,竭民之財!實非所以致符瑞而懷遠人也。」

The Emperor therefore restored Chónghuá Palace Hall, at the time the prefectures and states had nine dragons sighted, and therefore they changed name to Jiǔlóng ‘Nine Dragons’ Palace Hall.

帝遂復崇華殿,時郡國有九龍見,故改曰九龍殿。


Língxiāo watchtower began construction, there was magpie nest at its top, the Emperor about this asked Lóng, who replied: “The Shī says: ‘Magpies have nest, turtledoves reside it.’ Now raising palace residences, raising Língxiāo watchtower, yet magpies nesting it, this is the omen of palace residences not yet completed and self not able to reside. Heaven’s intention is like saying, the palace residences not yet complete, and will have a different surname control and govern it, this then is Heaven Above’s admonishment. Heaven’s principle is without kinship, it is only with good men, and cannot be not deeply guarded, cannot be not deeply considered. At Xià and Shāng’s final seasons, both continued form, but did not respect and carry on Heaven Above’s enlightened mandate, only slanderers were followed, overthrowing virtue and following desires, and therefore they perished suddenly. Tàiwù and Wǔdīng observed disaster and were fearful, respectfully accepted Heaven’s warnings, and therefore their flourishing was sudden. Now if resting and ceasing the hundred conscripts, restricting to sufficient use, expanding and esteeming virtuous government, acting in accordance with an Emperor’s standards, remove everywhere what Heaven detests, raise how all people benefit, the Three Kings could be like Four, the Five Emperors could be like Six, how can it only be Yīn’s [Zhōng and Gāo] zōng that turn disaster into fortune and nothing more? I your servant serve as belly and heart, and if can bring many joys to your Sagely Self, secure and preserve the State Altars, I your servant though destroy self and ruin clan, would be like in living years. How can I fear disaster of disobedience, and cause Your Majesty to not hear utmost words?” Therefore the Emperor changed appearance and moved color.

陵霄闕始構,有鵲巢其上,帝以問隆,對曰:「詩云『維鵲有巢,維鳩居之』。今興宮室,起陵霄闕,而鵲巢之,此宮室未成身不得居之象也。天意若曰,宮室未成,將有他姓制御之,斯乃上天之戒也。夫天道無親,惟與善人,不可不深防,不可不深慮。夏、商之季,皆繼體也,不欽承上天之明命,惟讒諂是從,廢德適欲,故其亡也忽焉。太戊、武丁,睹災竦懼,祗承天戒,故其興也勃焉。今若休罷百役,儉以足用,增崇德政,動遵帝則,除普天之所患,興兆民之所利,三王可四,五帝可六,豈惟殷宗轉禍為福而已哉!臣備腹心,苟可以繁祉聖躬,安存社稷,臣雖灰身破族,猶生之年也。豈憚忤逆之災,而令陛下不聞至言乎?」於是帝改容動色。


That year, there was comet in in Dàchén [sky region]. Lóng sent up memorial: “When Emperors and Kings moved capital and established city, all first settled the seat of Heaven and Earth State Altars, reverent and respectful in serving it. When about to build Palaces and Residences, then the Ancestral Temples were first, storage and warehouses were next, residence rooms were last. Now the Round Hill, Square Pool, the South and North Suburbs, Enlightened Hall, State Altars, and Spirit Tablets are not yet settled, the System of Ancestral Temples also are not yet by Ritual, but you esteem ornamentation of residence rooms, and the people lose their industry. Outside men all say the use of palace women, with the cost of raising arms for the army and state, in their exhaustiveness are equal. The people cannot bear the orders, and all have resentment and anger. The Shū states: ‘Heaven’s Intelligence comes from our people’s intelligence, Heaven understanding fear comes from our people understanding power.’ Carriage men compose odes, then go toward the five fortunes, the people angrily sigh, then there is power of the six extremes, saying that heaven’s rewards and punishments, follow the people’s words, and obey the people’s hearts. Therefore in overlooking government affairs securing the people is first, then afterward study the ancient transformations, regulate the high and low, from ancient times to now, it has never been not correct. The selection of rafters and inferior palaces, was how Táng, Yú, and Dà Yǔ sent down August aura; jade towers and jeweled rooms, was how Xià Guǐ, Shāng Xīn offended clear Heaven. Now the Palaces and Residences, truly violate ritual regulations, and to further establish Jiǔlóng, the flowery decoration exceeds the previous. Heavenly Comet burns luminous, first rising at Fángxīn [‘room heart’ sky region], crossing Dìzuò [‘Emperor’s seat’ star] and through Zǐwēi [star], this then is August Heaven’s Son loving Your Majesty, and therefore sending down sign of teaching and remonstrant. Beginning and end are all with the honored seat, flourishing in diligence serious and heavy, wishing to certainly awaken Your Majesty; this then is a compassionate father’s earnest instruction, and you should esteem a filial son’s respectful ritual, to take the lead in leading subordinates, to make clear to later posterity, it is not suitable to be negligent, and so double Heaven’s anger.”

是歲,有星孛于大辰。隆上疏曰:「凡帝王徙都立邑,皆先定天地社稷之位,敬恭以奉之。將營宮室,則宗廟為先,廄庫為次,居室為後。今圜丘、方澤、南北郊、明堂、社稷,神位未定,宗廟之制又未如禮,而崇飾居室,士民失業。外人咸云宮人之用,與興戎軍國之費,所盡略齊。民不堪命,皆有怨怒。書曰『天聰明自我民聰明,天明畏自我民明威』,輿人作頌,則嚮以五福,民怒吁嗟,則威以六極,言天之賞罰,隨民言,順民心也。是以臨政務在安民為先,然後稽古之化,格于上下,自古及今,未嘗不然也。夫采椽卑宮,唐、虞、大禹之所以垂皇風也;玉臺瓊室,夏癸、商辛之所以犯昊天也。今之宮室,實違禮度,乃更建立九龍,華飾過前。天彗章灼,始起於房心,犯帝坐而干紫微,此乃皇天子愛陛下,是以發教戒之象,始卒皆於尊位,殷勤鄭重,欲必覺寤陛下;斯乃慈父懇切之訓,宜崇孝子祗聳之禮,以率先先下,以昭示後昆,不宜有忽,以重天怒。」


At the time the army and state had many affairs, and use of law was very heavy. Lóng sent up memorial that said: “The developing of legacy and passing down of governance, must depend on sagely enlightenment, to support the age and rectify government, also must wait for good assistance, to use ability for numerous achievement to gather and rank things abundant and regulated. The shifting of customs and changing of conventions, announcing enlightenment and principle transformation, to cause the four sides to be together in custom, turn head to face inside, virtue and teaching bright and splendid, the nine regions admiring righteousness, is assuredly not what common officials are capable of. Now managers attend to investigating punishment writings, not taking as foundation great principle, and therefore punishments are used but there is no correction, customs suffer but there is no kindness. It is appropriate to esteem ritual and music, order narrations in the Enlightened Hall, cultivate the Three Harmonies, Great Shooting, and caring for the elderly, build and establish Suburb Temples, honor classicist scholars, raise up reclusive hermits, memorialize standard and regulations, change the Standard Calendar, shift dress color, declare kind fraternity, value thriftiness and simplicity, and afterward prepare the ritual of Fēngshàn, giving credit to Heaven and Earth, to cause the sound of elegant odes to fill the Six Directions, and fine prosperous transformation to drift to later posterity. This overall is the beauty of utmost government, the noble enterprise without end. Then within the nine regions, can by deference be governed, and yet what worry would there be? To not upright its roots and rescue its ends, is like tangling threads, it is not reasonable government. You can order the various Excellencies and Ministers and scholars to connect with classicists, to form and prepare these matters, to create a standard form.”

時軍國多事,用法深重。隆上疏曰:「夫拓跡垂統,必俟聖明,輔世匡治,亦須良佐,用能庶績其凝而品物康乂也。夫移風易俗,宣明道化,使四表同風,回首面內,德教光熙,九服慕義,固非俗吏之所能也。今有司務糾刑書,不本大道,是以刑用而不措,俗弊而不敦。宜崇禮樂,班敘明堂,修三雍、大射、養老,營建郊廟,尊儒士,舉逸民,表章制度,改正朔,易服色,布愷悌,尚儉素,然後備禮封禪,歸功天地,使雅頌之聲盈于六合,緝熙之化混于後嗣。斯蓋至治之美事,不朽之貴業也。然九域之內,可揖讓而治,尚何憂哉!不正其本而救其末,譬猶棼絲,非政理也。可命群公卿士通儒,造具其事,以為典式。」

Lóng also believed: “Changing the Standard Calendar, shifting dress color, distinguishing honored titles, and using different tools, was how since ancient times rulers divinely enlightened their governance, transformed the peoples’ ears and eyes, and therefore the three spring months were called king, to enlighten the three governances.” Therefore he elaborated on old regulations, memorialized and changed them. The Emperor followed his comments, changing Qīnglóng Fifth Year Spring Third Moon to be Jǐngchū Inaugural Year First of Summer Fourth Moon, dress color esteemed yellow, sacrifices used white, following the Earth Standard.

隆又以為改正朔,易服色,殊徽號,異器械,自古帝王所以神明其政,變民耳目,故三春稱王,明三統也。於是敷演舊章,奏而改焉。帝從其議,改青龍五年春三月為景初元年孟夏四月,服色尚黃,犧牲用白,從地正也。


Promoted to Minister of Merits. The Emperor increased the expanding of palace halls, engraving ornaments watchtowers and pavilions, chiseling Tàiháng’s quartz, selecting Gǔchéng’s aragonite, raising Jǐngyáng mountain in Fānglín garden, establishing Zháoyáng hall at Tàijí’s north, casting and making Yellow Dragon and Phoenix strange and grand beasts, decorating Jīnyōng and Língyún towers and Língxiāo watchtower. The hundred tasks in complication rose, the builders were in the tens of thousands, the Excellencies and Minsiters down reaching to students, none did not devote strength, and the Emperor then personally himself dug soil to lead them. But Liáodōng did not submit, Dào Huánghòu [“Mourned” Empress lady Máo] died, Heaven had excessive rain, Jìzhōu’s waters burst through, flooding and drowning people and things. Lóng sent up memorial decisively remonstrating:

遷光祿勳。帝愈增崇宮殿,彫飾觀閣,鑿太行之石英,采穀城之文石,起景陽山於芳林之園,建昭陽殿於太極之北,鑄作黃龍鳳皇奇偉之獸,飾金墉、陵雲臺、陵霄闕。百役繁興,作者萬數,公卿以下至于學生,莫不展力,帝乃躬自掘土以率之。而遼東不朝。悼皇后崩。天作淫雨,冀州水出,漂沒民物。隆上疏切諫曰:

It is said: “Heaven and Earth’s great virtue is called life, the Sagely Man’s great treasure is the throne; What protects the throne? Benevolence. What gathers the people? Wealth.” That being the case the people then are the state’s defense; grain and silk then are the people’s lives. Grain and silk without nature are not produced, and without men’s strength are not completed. Therefore the Emperor plows to encourage agriculture, the Empress cultivates silk to complete clothing, and so clearly serve God Above, and announce reverent recompense is granted. In the past at Yī Táng, the world encountered misfortune of imbalances, flood waters rushed the heavens, sending Gǔn to manage it, the service used was not completed, and therefore they raised Wénmìng, following mountains and carving wood, from beginning to end passing years of twenty two. In the extremity of disaster, nothing surpasses that. In the raising of strength and labor, nothing was longer than this. Yáo and Shùn ruler and minister, to the south faced and nothing more. Yǔ went about the Nine Provinces, commoners and elites and ordinary officials, each have their degree and difference, gentleman and petty man, have their dress and badge. Now there is no urgency like that time, but you send the Excellencies and Ministers and grandees together with servants and followers to together supply service and conscripted labor, the four [directions of] Yí hearing of this, is not a praiseworthy reputation, bamboo and silk passing this down, is not a good name. Therefore one with the state and with family, nearby seeks from self, distantly seeks from things, protects and cares and nurtures, and therefore it is said: “Friendly fraternal noble man, the people’s father and mother.” Now high and low are conscripted to labor, sick and exhausted, those plowing and sowing are few, the hungry and starving are all around, without enough to end the year; it is appropriate to increase pity and sympathy, to relieve their destitution.

蓋「天地之大德曰生,聖人之大寶曰位;何以守位?曰仁;何以聚人?曰財」。然則士民者,乃國家之鎮也;穀帛者,乃士民之命也。穀帛非造化不育,非人力不成。是以帝耕以勸農,后桑以成服,所以昭事上帝,告虔報施也。昔在伊唐,世值陽九厄運之會,洪水滔天,使鯀治之,績用不成,乃舉文命,隨山刊木,前後歷年二十二載。災眚之甚,莫過於彼,力役之興,莫久於此,堯、舜君臣,南面而已。禹敷九州,庶士庸勳,各有等差,君子小人,物有服章。今無若時之急,而使公卿大夫並與廝徒共供事役,聞之四夷,非嘉聲也,垂之竹帛,非令名也。是以有國有家者,近取諸身,遠取諸物,嫗煦養育,故稱「愷悌君子,民之父母」。今上下勞役,疾病凶荒,耕稼者寡,饑饉荐臻,無以卒歲;宜加愍卹,以救其困。

I your servant observe what past documents and registers record, that between Heaven and Man, there has never not been mutual answering. Therefore the ancient former wise Kings, feared the enlightened Mandate of Heaven Above, adhered to the opposition and following of Yīn and Yáng, vigilant and industrious, for fear that they would violate, and afterward government principle was employed and flourished, virtue with the spirits coincided, and if disaster or strangeness occurred, they feared and corrected government, and there has never been such as those that did not long continue and pass down rule. Then reaching the final end, an ignorant lord and neglectful ruler, did not esteem the commands and course of the former kings, did not accept the straightforward words of upright elites, to instead follow their mood and will, at ease and ignoring warnings of changes, and there has never been not leading to disaster and trouble, reaching to downfall.

臣觀在昔書籍所載,天人之際,未有不應也。是以古先哲王,畏上天之明命,循陰陽之逆順,矜矜業業,惟恐有違。然後治道用興,德與神符,災異既發,懼而脩政,未有不延期流祚者也。爰及末葉,闇君荒主,不崇先王之令軌,不納正士之直言,以遂其情志,恬忽變戒,未有不尋踐禍難,至於顛覆者也。

Heaven’s Way is already revealed, I ask to by Men’s Way discuss it. The Six Senses and Five Characters, are the same among men. Desire and purity, each has their own. In every action, there is conflict in the heart. If desire is strong and purity is weak, then indulgence is excessive without restraint; if spirit is not regulated, then release overflows without end. Where passion is, is enjoying what is beautiful, but if beauty and good are to be gathered, without men’s labor it is not completed, without grain and silk it is not established. If passion is without bound, then men cannot bear its labor, and things cannot satisfy its demands. If labor and demand are both of utmost, then there will be rising of disaster and chaos. Therefore if one does not restrain passion, there is no way to appease it. Zhòngní said: “A man without consideration of the distant, is certain to have problems nearby.” By this observing it, the systems of ritual and righteousness, is not merely to regulate distribution, but to remove harm and to prosper.

天道既著,請以人道論之。夫六情五性,同在於人,嗜欲廉貞,各居其一。及其動也,交爭于心。欲彊質弱,則縱濫不禁;精誠不制,則放溢無極。夫情之所在,非好則美,而美好之集,非人力不成,非穀帛不立。情苟無極,則人不堪其勞,物不充其求。勞求並至,將起禍亂。故不割情,無以相供。仲尼云:「人無遠慮,必有近憂。」由此觀之,禮義之制,非苟拘分,將以遠害而興治也。

Now Wú and Shǔ the two rebels, are not merely small lands of petty caitiffs and bandits of gathered cities, but rely on rugged terrain and rivers, and wield multitudes, usurping title to declare themselves Emperor, wishing to with the central states contend for supremacy. Now if there are people who come to report, that [Sūn] Quán and [Liú] Shàn both cultivate virtuous government, restore path to purity and frugality, lighten and relax taxation, do not manage trifles and playthings, in action consult aged worthies, and serve and observe ritual regulation, and if Your Majesty heard this, how could you not but be fearful and resentful of this, believing it difficult to in the end suppress and eliminate them, and for the state be worried? If instead the reporter said, those two rebels are both without principle, esteeming extravagance without limit, conscripting their elites and people, doubling their taxation, subordinates cannot bear their commands, and wails and sighs daily increase, and if Your Majesty heard this, how could you not but be agitated and angered at their oppressing of our guiltless people, and wish to quickly apply punishment on them, and next, how could you not but be fortunate of their weariness and weakness and take them without trouble? If it were like this, then you can with easy heart decide, and calculating the service of righteousness also would not be far away.

今吳、蜀二賊,非徒白地小虜、聚邑之寇,乃據險乘流,跨有士眾,僭號稱帝,欲與中國爭衡。今若有人來告,權、(備)〔禪〕並脩德政,復履清儉,輕省租賦,不治玩好,動咨耆賢,事遵禮度。陛下聞之,豈不惕然惡其如此,以為難卒討滅,而為國憂乎?若使告者曰,彼二賊並為無道,崇侈無度,役其士民,重其徵賦,下不堪命,吁嗟日甚。陛下聞之,豈不勃然忿其困我無辜之民,而欲速加之誅,其次,豈不幸彼疲弊而取之不難乎?苟如此,則可易心而度,事義之數亦不遠矣。

Moreover Qín Shǐhuáng did not build the foundations of principle and virtue, but built Āfáng Palace, did not worry of changes within the screens, but managed the conscription labor for the Long Fortress. When these rulers and ministers for this calculated, they also wished to establish an enterprise for ten thousand ages, to have their posterity long possess the realm Under Heaven, how could they think that on one morning a common fellow would loudly cry, and all Under Heaven would be overturned? Therefore I your servant believe that if the lords of previous ages knew that their conduct would certainly lead to destruction, then they would not have acted thus. Therefore the rulers of destroyed states themselves say they will not be destroyed, but afterward reach destruction; lords of worthy sages themselves say they will be destroyed, but afterward they do not reach destruction. In the past Hàn Wén-dì was called a worthy ruler, personally acting with frugality, giving kindness to subordinates and caring for the people, but Jiǎ Yì opposed this, believing the world Under Heaven was turned upside down, what was worth crying bitterly for was one, what was worth flowing tears was two, what was worth long sighs was three. All the more now the realm Under Heaven is destitute, the people without stores of grain, the state without livestock to last the year, outside there are strong enemies, the Six Armies violent on the borders, inside there are raising of construction projects, the provinces and prefectures disturbed, if there is alarm of bandits, then I your servant fear the soldiers working on construction will not be able to devote their lives against the caitiffs.

且秦始皇不築道德之基,而築阿房之宮,不憂蕭牆之變,而脩長城之役。當其君臣為此計也,亦欲立萬世之業,使子孫長有天下,豈意一朝匹夫大呼,而天下傾覆哉?故臣以為使先代之君知其所行必將至於敗,則弗為之矣。是以亡國之主自謂不亡,然後至於亡;賢聖之君自謂將亡,然後至於不亡。昔漢文帝稱為賢主,躬行約儉,惠下養民,而賈誼方之,以為天下倒縣,可為痛哭者一,可為流涕者二,可為長歎息者三。況今天下彫弊,民無儋石之儲,國無終年之畜,外有彊敵,六軍暴邊,內興土功,州郡騷動,若有寇警,則臣懼版築之士不能投命虜庭矣。

Also, if officers and officials’ salaries, are slightly lowered, compared to the past, by one fifth, and those various retirees are also cut off from granary bestowments, and those unsuitable expenses are all made to be half, this would for the government income be double the old, and the expenses to be a third of the past. But sustaining current use, is all the more insufficient, and beef small taxes, are from beginning to end continuous. On the other hand considering things, overall these various expenses, certainly have their places. Moreover salary and bestowment of grain and silk, is how the ruler of men kindly cares for officials and people and for them manages livelihood, and if now it is abolished, it is to steal their lives. To already obtain it but again lose it, this is to create resentment in the offices. By the Zhōu Lǐ, Great Office handles the nine taxes wealth, to give nine models of use, income has its source, expenses have their place, not interfering with each other and each use has enough. After each has enough, then the remainder is given as tribute, offered to the King for pleasure and enjoyment. Also the superior’s use of wealth, must be investigated by the manager of accounts. Now those who with Your Majesty together sit at court to govern the realm Under Heaven, are not the Three Excellencies and Nine Ministers, but are the terrace pavilion inner subjects, all belly and heart officials, and this should not be taboo, but if they see abundance reduced and do not dare report it, disobey order and flee away, for fear of not being successful, then these are tools, and not unyielding assistants. In the past Lǐ Sī educated Qín Èrshì saying: “To be a ruler of men and not abandon restraint, is to be called by the realm Under Heaven be shackled.” Èrshì used this, and Qín state thus was overturned, and [Lǐ] Sī also had his clan exterminated. Therefore the historian [Sīmǎ] Qiān commented on this not upright remonstrant, to for the world be a warning.

又,將吏奉祿,稍見折減,方之於昔,五分居一;諸受休者又絕廩賜,不應輸者今皆出半:此為官入兼多於舊,其所出與參少於昔。而度支經用,更每不足,牛肉小賦,前後相繼。反而推之,凡此諸費,必有所在。且夫祿賜穀帛,人主所以惠養吏民而為之司命者也,若今有廢,是奪其命矣。既得之而又失之,此生怨之府也。周禮,(天)〔大〕府掌九(伐)〔賦〕之(則)〔財〕,以給九式之用,入有其分,出有其所,不相干乘而用各足。各足之後,乃以式貢之餘,供王玩好。又上用財,必考于司會。會音膾。今陛下所與共坐廊廟治天下者,非三司九列,則臺閣近臣,皆腹心造膝,宜在無諱。若見豐省而不敢以告,從命奔走,惟恐不勝,是則具臣,非鯁輔也。昔李斯教秦二世曰:「為人主而不恣瞿,命之曰天下桎梏。」二世用之,秦國以覆,斯亦滅族。是以史遷議其不正諫,而為世誡。


The letter was presented, the Emperor read it, and said to the Internal Documents Supervisor and Director: “Observing Lóng’s this memorial, causes me to be afraid!”

書奏,帝覽焉,謂中書監、令曰:「觀隆此奏,使朕懼哉!」


Lóng was critically ill, and by oral dictation sent up memorial:

隆疾篤,口占上疏曰:

Zēng-zǐ had illness, Mèng Jìngzǐ asked after him. Zēng-zǐ said: “A bird about to die, its call is said; a man about to die, his words are good.” I your servant am lying with illness, which increases and does not decrease, and always fear suddenly passing, with my loyalty not yet displayed. I your servant’s red sincerity, how can it only be like Zēng-zǐ? May Your Majesty slightly bend down to examine and read this! Scatter and change the mistakes and errors of past matters, vigorously raise the deep foundations of future matters, to cause spirits and men to turn toward and answer, the different regions to admire righteousness, the four divinities to produce treasures, the jade stars glorious in essence, then the Three Kings can be surpassed, the Five Emperors can be exceeded, and not only follow and continue form and preserve culture and nothing more.

曾子有疾,孟敬子問之。曾子曰:「鳥之將死,其鳴也哀;人之將死,其言也善。」臣寢疾病,有增無損,常懼奄忽,忠款不昭。臣之丹誠,豈惟曾子,願陛下少垂省覽!渙然改往事之過謬,勃然興來事之淵塞,使神人嚮應,殊方慕義,四靈效珍,玉衡曜精,則三王可邁,五帝可越,非徒繼體守文而已也。

I your servant always resent when the era’s ruler does not think of continuing the government of Yáo, Shùn, Tāng, and Wǔ, but instead follow after the paths of Jié, Zhòu, Yōu, and Lì, none of those are mocked by later ages as confused rulers of destroyed states, and do not ascend to follow the course of Yú, Xià, Yīn, and Zhōu. Oh sorrow! If it is thus, to seek the fundamentals, is like climbing a tree to seek fish, or boil water to create ice, that it cannot be obtained, is obvious. Observing how the Three Ages possessed the realm Under Heaven, sages and worthies completed one another, and over the course of several hundred years, of every chǐ of land none were not their possession, of every man none were not their subject, all states were completely tranquil, the nine regions together joined; the gold of the deer terrace, the grain of the giant bridges, were [so much that they were] without uses, they followed the old ways in facing south, what was this conduct? However Guǐ and Xīn’s sort, relied on their military strength, their knowledge sufficient to refuse remonstrants, their talents sufficient to decorate their wrongs, flatterers were esteemed, terraces and towers were built high, excessive pleasures were enjoyed, entertainers performed, they made extravagant and wasteful music, calming Púshàng’s sounds. Heaven Above did not protect them, its concern thus turned away, their temples and state became ruins, they descended into destruction, Zhòu’s head was hung on white flag, Jié was left in the wilderness; Heaven’s Son’s honor, Tāng and Wǔ gained it. Yet [Zhòu and Jié] had been exceptional men, who were the successors of enlightened Kings. Moreover in the time of the Six States, the realm Under Heaven thundered and burned, Qín then absorbed it, did not cultivate the sagely way, and thus constructed the Palace of Āfáng, built the defense of the Long Fortress, boasting and dazzling the central states, authority such that the hundred barbarians submitted, Under Heaven was shaken and respectful, on the roads only exchanging looks, and they called themselves the root and branch for a hundred leaves, to forever pass down vast glory, how could they be aware at the second generation they would be exterminated, the State Altars collapsed and destroyed? Recently Hàn Xiào-Wǔ continued from the fortunes of Wén and Jǐng, to outside strike the Yí and Dí, to inside raise palaces and halls, and within over ten years, the realm Under Heaven was disturbed. Then he trusted in Yuè witches, blaming Heaven to take out his anger, raising the Palace of Jiànzhāng, with a thousand gates and ten thousand doors, in the end reaching Jiāng Chōng witchcraft rebellion, so that the palaces and residences were estranged, father and son destroyed one another, the poison of the calamity, the disaster flowed through the ages.

臣常疾世主莫不思紹堯、舜、湯、武之治,而蹈踵桀、紂、幽、厲之跡,莫不蚩笑季世惑亂亡國之主,而不登踐虞、夏、殷、周之軌。悲夫!以若所為,求若所致,猶緣木求魚,煎水作冰,其不可得,明矣。尋觀三代之有天下也,聖賢相承,歷載數百,尺土莫非其有,一民莫非其臣,萬國咸寧,九有有截;鹿臺之金,巨橋之粟,無所用之,仍舊南面,夫何為哉!然癸、辛之徒,恃其旅力,知足以拒諫,才足以飾非,諂諛是尚,臺觀是崇,淫樂是好,倡優是說,作靡靡之樂,安濮上之音。上天不蠲,眷然回顧,宗國為墟,(不)〔下〕夷于隸,紂縣白旗,桀放鳴條;天子之尊,湯、武有之,豈伊異人,皆明王之冑也。且當六國之時,天下殷熾,秦既兼之,不脩聖道,乃構阿房之宮,築長城之守,矜夸中國,威服百蠻,天下震竦,道路以目;自謂本枝百葉,永垂洪暉,豈寤二世而滅,社稷崩圮哉?近漢孝武乘文、景之福,外攘夷狄,內興宮殿,十餘年閒,天下囂然。乃信越巫,懟天遷怒,起建章之宮,千門萬戶,卒致江充妖蠱之變,至於宮室乖離,父子相殘,殃咎之毒,禍流數世。

I your servant observe that during Huángchū, Heaven had omens of its warnings, unusual sorts of birds, grew up in Yàncháo, mouth and talon and breast red, this was the Wèi House’s great unusual omen, that it is appropriate to guard against eagle wielding [military] ministers within the inner screens. You can select from the various kings, to have them rule their states and manage troops, to go arrange positions, to protect and support the Imperial region, to assist and brighten the Emperor’s house. In the past in Zhōu’s transfer east, Jìn and Zhèng were depended on, in Hàn’s chaos of the Lǚ [consort] clan, they truly depend on [the Marquis of] Zhūxū, these are the enlightened reflections of previous ages. The August Heaven is without favoritism, only virtue does it support. If the people sing of benevolent government, then it increases the length of reign, if subordinates have complaints and sighs, then it gives to and awards the able. By this observing things, the realm Under Heaven that is under Heaven, is not only Your Majesty’s realm Under Heaven. I your servant have hundreds of illnesses, my strength is minuscule, I can only on carriage go out, and return home, and if then I vanish, a ghost yet with awareness, from below the grasses I will repay you.

臣觀黃初之際,天兆其戒,異類之鳥,育長燕巢,口爪胸赤,此魏室之大異也,宜防鷹揚之臣於蕭牆之內。可選諸王,使君國典兵,往往棋跱,鎮撫皇畿,翼亮帝室。昔周之東遷,晉、鄭是依,漢呂之亂,實賴朱虛,斯蓋前代之明鑒。夫皇天無親,惟德是輔。民詠德政,則延期過歷,下有怨歎,掇錄授能。由此觀之,天下之天下,非獨陛下之天下也。臣百疾所鍾,氣力稍微,輒自輿出,歸還里舍,若遂沈淪,魂而有知,結草以報。


Imperial Order said: “Your incorruptibility follows from Bóyí, your uprightness surpasses Shǐ Yú, your heart unyielding and pure, speaking boldly without self concern, how can you for a small illness not yet healed, retire yourself home? In the past Bǐng Jí by secret virtue, his illness was removed and his life extended; Gòng Yǔ by holding to integrity, his illness was severe but was relieved and healed. Devote your strength to care for yourself.”

詔曰:「生廉追伯夷,直過史魚,執心堅白,謇謇匪躬,如何微疾未除,退身里舍?昔邴吉以陰德,疾除而延壽;貢禹以守節,疾篤而濟愈。生其彊飯專精以自持。」

Lóng died, his will ordered a meager burial, restrained to regular clothes. (1)

隆卒,遺令薄葬,斂以時服。〔一〕

  • (1) Xí Zuòchǐ states: Gāotáng Lóng can be called a loyal servant. The ruler was extravagant and he every time remonstrated against his evils, when about to die he did not forget to worry for the State Altars, his upright words moved his ignorant master, his enlightened warnings were proven after his death, his bold honest speech sufficient to encourage all, his virtuous sound lost but completely manifest, could he not be called loyal and moreover wise? The Shī says: “Listen and use my plan, and there will be no great regrets.” It also states: “If none listen, the great mandate is overturned.” This was speaking of Gāotáng Lóng.

〔一〕 習鑿齒曰:高堂隆可謂忠臣矣。君侈每思諫其惡,將死不忘憂社稷,正辭動於昏主,明戒驗於身後,謇諤足以勵物,德音沒而彌彰,可不謂忠且智乎!詩云:「聽用我謀,庶無大悔。」又曰:「曾是莫聽,大命以傾。」其高堂隆之謂也。


Previously, during Tàihé, Central Protector of the Army Jiǎng Jì sent up memorial stating: “It is appropriate to observe the ancient Fēngshàn [sacrifices].” Imperial Order said: “Hearing [Jiǎng] Jì’s these words, causes my sweat to perspire and flow.” The matter was shelved for several years, later there was discussion on it, and they had Lóng compose its ritual ceremony. The Emperor heard Lóng had died, and sighed and said: “Heaven does not wish to complete my affairs, for scholar Gāotáng to abandon me and die.” His son Chēn succeeded noble rank.

初,太和中,中護軍蔣濟上疏曰「宜遵古封禪」。詔曰:「聞濟斯言,使吾汗出流足。」事寢歷歲,後遂議脩之,使隆撰其禮儀。帝聞隆沒,歎息曰:「天不欲成吾事,高堂生舍我亡也。」子琛嗣爵。


At first, during Jǐngchū, the Emperor because Sū Lín and Qín Jìng and others were all old, was afraid they would not be able to pass down their work. Therefore Imperial Order said: “In the past the foremost sage died, but his remaining words were taught, and preserved in the Six Arts. In the writings of the Six Arts, ritual is also urgent, and cannot be this delayed and abandoned. Customs at the tip turning back on the root, is due to it being a long time since the origin. Therefore Mǐn-zǐ ridiculed Yuán Bó for not studying, Xún Qīng was hateful of Qín burying classicists. If classicist scholarship is abolished, then how can public morals then rise? At present there are great classicist scholars, each and every high in years, in the ways of teachings, who will be their successors? In the past Fú Shēngjiāng was old, Hàn Wén-dì for a successor used Cháo Cuò, the Gǔliáng had little research, Xuān-dì continued it with ten cadets. Thus gather cadet officials of high ability to explain the classics and comment of thirty men, to follow the Minister of Merits Lóng, Cavalier Regular Attendant [Sū] Lín, Academic Scholar [Qín] Jìng, divided to receive the Four Classics and Three , the master to prepare for them methods of examination. Xiàhóu Shèng had the saying: ‘Scholars worry of not understanding the classics and arts, if the classics and arts are understood, their gaining purple [ribbons of office] is [easy] like bending down to pluck a grass and that is all.’ Now if among scholars there are those able to investigate the principles of the classics, then give rank and salary to honor and favor them, in no time they will come, how can you but make an effort!” After several years, Lóng and the rest all died, and the scholarship therefore was abandoned.

始,景初中,帝以蘇林、秦靜等並老,恐無能傳業者。乃詔曰:「昔先聖既沒,而其遺言餘教,著於六藝。六藝之文,禮又為急,弗可斯須離者也。末俗背本,所由來久。故閔子譏原伯之不學,荀卿醜秦世之坑儒,儒學既廢,則風化曷由興哉?方今宿生巨儒,並各年高,教訓之道,孰為其繼?昔伏生將老,漢文帝嗣以晁錯;穀梁寡疇,宣帝承以十郎。其科郎吏高才解經義者三十人,從光祿勳隆、散騎常侍林、博士靜,分受四經三禮,主者具為設課試之法。夏侯勝有言:『士病不明經術,經術苟明,其取青紫如俯拾地芥耳。』今學者有能究極經道,則爵祿榮寵,不期而至。可不勉哉!」數年,隆等皆卒,學者遂廢。


Previously, Rénchéng’s Zhàn Qián, in Tàizǔ’s time was Lì county magistrate, (1) and once commanded and defended Yè city. At the time Emperor Wén was Heir-Apparent, indulged and music and hunting, in the morning going out and at night returning. Qiān remonstrated: “Kings and Dukes construct rugged terrain to solidfy their states, the capital city inner guard, use warnings against the unexpected. The Dàyǎ says: ‘The successor son maintains the city, so that the city does not fall.’ It also states: ‘Yet it does not consider the far, and so I use great remonstrant.’ If you go to travel the fields, in the morning setting out and at twilight returning, for one day’s amusement of chasing animals, and so forget the troubles without end, I humbly am puzzled by this.” The Heir-Apparent was not pleased, but from then afterward his going out to travel was less frequent.

初,任城棧潛,太祖世歷縣令,〔一〕嘗督守鄴城。時文帝為太子,耽樂田獵,晨出夜還。潛諫曰:「王公設險以固其國,都城禁衛,用戒不虞。大雅云:『宗子維城,無俾城壞。』又曰:『猶之未遠,是用大諫。』若逸于遊田,晨出昏歸,以一日從禽之娛,而忘無垠之釁,愚竊惑之。」太子不悅,然自後游出差簡。

During Huángchū, Wén-dì was about to establish Noble Concubine Guō as Empress, Qián sent up memorial remonstrating, the story is in the Biographies of Empresses and Consorts [SGZ 5].

黃初中,文帝將立郭貴嬪為皇后,潛上疏諫,語在后妃傳。

In Míng-dì’s time, multitudes of conscription labor tasks all rose, relatives were all separated, Qián sent up memorial that said: “Heaven begat the people and cultivated for them the ruler, in order to envelop all life, prosper and care for the countless populace, and therefore to regulate the Four Seas is not for Heaven’s Son, and dividing up land with borders is not for the vassal lords. In the beginning from the Three Augusts, reaching to Táng and Yú, all with extensive relief applied to the realm Under Heaven, rich virtue to accord, and the multitudes depended on it. From the Three Kings there was decline, passing down to Hàn, the length of governance became increasingly short, tragic chaos increasingly often, and from that time afterward, yet it has not been corrected. Tàizǔ was an eminent sage and divine warrior, cutting down and removing the brutal and violent, restored the ruler’s authority, and thus began the Emperor’s enterprise. Wén-dì received Heaven’s Mandate, to open and restore the Imperial foundations, reigning for seven years, all affairs not yet finished. Your Majesty is of sagely virtue, continuing on the vast program, and should esteem calm, to with the people rest. But the corners are not yet pacified, campaign soldiers distantly garrison, there are matters beyond the seas, displaying banners across ten thousand lǐ, the Six Armies mobilized, on water and land transporting supplies, the common people give up industry, a day’s expenses is a thousand gold. Greatly raising halls and residences, the laborers are in the tens of thousands, the delivered pine trees, stripping mountains and exhausting valleys, unique stones and jades, float on the Hé and Huái, all within the capital borders, has become your personal garden, and what should be supplied for grain harvesting, is used for your garden plants and selected animals. The flourishing of woods and thicket dirt, abundance of deer and rabbit gatherings, injures and harms agricultural work, the lands are filed with thorns, disasters and plagues spread about, people and things are greatly dispersed, above losing harmonious aura, auspicious grain not planted. I your servant have heard that Wén-wáng in building Fēng, began slowly and did not rush, the common people willingly came, and within days it was completed. Língzhǎo and Língyòu were with the people shared. Now the palaces and watchtowers esteem extravagance, the engravings are of utmost intricacy, forgetting Yǒuyú’s management of time, thinking only of Yǐn Xīn’s exquisite households, the restricted region is a thousand lǐ, sufficient for traveling about, beautiful like Āfáng, the conscription labor overwhelms, and I your servant fear the people’s strength is exhausted, and subordnates cannot bear the commands. In the past Qín occupied Xiáohán to control the six directions, themselves believing their virtue as high as the Three Augusts, their achievements as expansive as the Five Emperors, wishing to have their titles reach ten thousand, but in the second generation they were overturned, willing to become a commoner [but unable to], because when the branch and trunk shake, the roots indeed are first pulled out. The sagely kings that governed the world, were enlightened with eminent virtue, employed the accomplished and were intimate with intimates; if the eminent were in office, then achievement and enterprise can flourish, if the close kin are employed, then security and danger they together concern with; deep roots and hard foundations, together with trunk and wings, though undergoing rise and fall, inside and outside there is assistance. In the past Chéng-wáng was young, not yet able to administer the government, Zhōu, Lǚ, Shào, and Bì, together were to the left and right; now there is no Wèi-hóu and Kāng-shū to supervise, and in dividing responsibilities, there also is no Dàn or Shì. The East Palace [of the Heir-Apparent] is not yet established, the realm Under Heaven without a successor. May Your Majesty keep heart on the border passes, forever protect without end, and then within the seas will be fortunate.”

明帝時,眾役並興,戚屬疏斥,潛上疏曰:「天生蒸民而樹之君,所以覆燾群生,熙育兆庶,故方制四海匪為天子,裂土分疆匪為諸侯也。始自三皇,爰暨唐、虞,咸以博濟加于天下,醇德以洽,黎元賴之。三王既微,降逮于漢,治日益少,喪亂弘多,自時厥後,亦罔克乂。太祖濬哲神武,芟除暴亂,克復王綱,以開帝業。文帝受天門命,廓恢皇基,踐阼七載,每事未遑。陛下聖德,纂承洪緒,宜崇晏晏,與民休息。而方隅匪寧,征夫遠戍,有事海外,縣旌萬里,六軍騷動,水陸轉運,百姓舍業,日費千金。大興殿舍,功作萬計,徂來之松,刊山窮谷,怪石珷玞,浮于河、淮,都圻之內,盡為甸服,當供稿秸銍粟之調,而為苑囿擇禽之府,盛林莽之穢,豐鹿兔之藪;傷害農功,地繁茨棘,災疫流行,民物大潰,上減和氣,嘉禾不植。臣聞文王作豐,經始勿亟,百姓子來,不日而成。靈沼、靈囿,與民共之。今宮觀崇侈,彫鏤極妙,忘有虞之總期,思殷辛之瓊室,禁地千里,舉足投網,麗擬阿房,役百乾谿,臣恐民力彫盡,下不堪命也。昔秦據殽函以制六合,自以德高三皇,功兼五帝,欲號諡至萬葉,而二世顛覆,願為黔首,由枝幹既(杌)〔扤〕,本實先拔也。蓋聖王之御世也,克明俊德,庸勳親親;俊乂在官,則功業可隆,親親顯用,則安危同憂;深根固本,並為幹翼,雖歷盛衰,內外有輔。昔成王幼沖,未能蒞政,周、呂、召、畢,並在左右;今既無衛侯、康叔之監,分陝所任,又非旦、奭。東宮未建,天下無副。願陛下留心關塞,永保無極,則海內幸甚。」

Later he became Yān Subaltern, declined due to illness and did not accept, and died.

後為燕中尉,辭疾不就,卒。

  • (1) Qián appellation Yànhuáng, see Yìng Qú’s Shūlín.

〔一〕 潛字彥皇,見應璩書林。

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