Zhāng Lǔ appellation Gōngqí was a Pèi state Fēng man. His grandfather Líng, was guest in Shǔ, and studied the Dào in Húmíng mountain, and composed a Dào book to confuse the common people, and those that followed and received his teachings donated five dǒu of rice, and therefore the world called them the Rice Rebels. Líng died, and his son Héng continued his Dào. Héng died, and Lǔ again continued it.
Yì Province Governor Liú Yān appointed Lǔ as Commander Righteous Major, with Separate Division Major Zhāng Xiū commanding troops to strike Hànzhōng Administrator Sū Gù, Lǔ then attacked [Zhāng] Xiū and killed him, seizing his army. [Liú] Yān died, his son [Liú] Zhāng succeeded position, and as Lǔ was not obedient, completely killed Lǔ’s mother’s household. Lǔ therefore occupied Hànzhōng and with ghostly Dào taught the people, declaring himself “Teacher Lord.” Those that came to learn his Dào, at first were all named “Ghost Soldier,” those receiving foundational Dào and then trusted, called “Libationer.” Each commanded division armies, those with many were “Governing Head Chief Libationer.” All were taught to be honest and faithful and not cheat and deceive, if with illness than confess their faults, overall with the Huángjīn [“Yellow Scarves”] resembling one another. The various Libationers all made “Righteous Lodges,” like the present’s relay stations. They also set up Righteous rice and meat, offered at the Righteous Lodges, travelers estimated how much they needed and obtained enough; if they were excessive, the demonic Dào would then make them ill. Those that violated law, were thrice pardoned, and afterward executed. He did not install Chief Clerks, all used Libationers to govern, the people and foreign tribes found it convenient. His power occupied Bā and Hàn[zhōng] for nearly thirty years. (1) At Hàn’s end, its strength could not campaign [against Zhāng Lǔ], and therefore gave favor to Lǔ as Defending the People Internal Cadet General, designate Hànníng Administrator, but he delivered tribute and nothing more. Among the commoners someone in the ground obtained a jade seal, and the subordinates wished to honor Lǔ as King of Hànníng. Lǔ’s Merit Officer Bāxī’s Yán Pǔ remonstrated Lǔ saying: “The Hàn stream’s people, its households are more than a hundred thousand, its wealth rich and its soil fertile, and on four sides is rugged terrain; if above you rectify Heaven’s Son, then you will you will be like Huán and Wén, or else match Dòu Róng, and not lose riches and honor. Now to carry on regulation and appoint officials, your strength is sufficient to cut off, and it is not worth the trouble of ruling as a King. May you for now not declare [yourself as King], to not advance disaster.” Lǔ followed this. Due to Hán Suì and Mǎ Chāo’s chaos, the people west of the passes through Zǐwǔ valley fled to take refuge were several tens of thousand families.
- (1) Diǎnlüè states:
- During Xīpíng [172-177], witch rebels greatly rose, and the three adjuncts had Luò Yào. During Guānghé [178-183], the east had Zhāng Jué, Hànzhōng had Zhāng Xiū. Luò Yào taught the people the Miǎnnì Fǎ “Method of Concealment”, [Zhāng] Jué had the Tàipíng Dào “Way of Grand Peace”, [Zhāng] Xiū had the Wǔdǒumǐ Dào “Way of Five dǒu of Rice.”
- The Tàipíng Dào, the masters grasped nine integrity staff as talisman to pray, teaching sick men to knock head [on ground] and think on their faults, and then had them drink blessed water, and of the sick some daily improved and healed, and then said these men had faith in the Dào, and the rest that did not heal, then were said to not have faith in the Dào. [Zhāng] Xiū’s methods overall with [Zhāng] Jué were the same, but added granting a tranquil house, having the sick reside inside and think on their faults. Also he employed men as Treachery Control Libationer, Libationers that were masters of the Lǎo-zǐ of five thousand words, and sent to the capital to study, were called as Treachery Control. He appointed ghost officials, to manage praying for the sick. The method of praying, was to write the sick person’s surname and personal name, and say their criminal thoughts. They made three copies, one sent up to Heaven, placed on mountain top, one buried to earth, one submerged in water, calling it three offices hand written letter. They had the sick person’s families give five dǒu of rice as a standard, and therefore were called as Five dǒu Rice Teacher. In fact there was no benefit in treating illness, and only was utterly absurd, however lesser men were muddled and deceived, and competed together to serve them. Later [Zhāng] Jué was executed, and [Zhāng] Xiū also died.
- When [Zhāng] Lǔ was at Hànzhōng, because its people had faith in following [Zhāng] Xiū’s enterprise, therefore expanded and ornamented it. He taught them to make Righteous Lodges, with rice and meat set inside for resting travelers; he also taught them to self conceal, those with small faults, were to use this way and go hundred steps, and then the guilt would be removed; he also relied on moon [season dependent] orders, in spring and summer prohibiting killing; he also prohibited alcohol. Refugees that came to his land, did not dare not believe.
- Your Servant Sōngzhī says Zhāng Xiū should be Zhāng Héng, if it is not the Diǎnlüè‘s mistake, then it is a copyist error.
Jiàn’ān Twentieth Year , Tàizǔ then from Sǎn pass set out against Wǔdū to campaign against him, reaching Yángpíng pass. Lǔ wished to lead Hànzhōng to surrender, his younger brother Wèi did not agree, and led an army of several tens of thousand men to resist at the pass and firmly defend. Tàizǔ attacked and defeated him, and therefore entered Shǔ. (1)
- (1) Wèi Míngchén Zòu records Dǒng Zhāo’s memorial stating: “Wǔ Huángdì followed the words of the Liángzhōu Attending Officials and Wǔdū’s surrendered men, that said Zhāng Lǔ was easy to attack, and Yángpíng city down to south and north mountains were far from each other, and could not defended, and he believed it correct. When he went to see, it was not as he heard, and therefore he sighed and said: ‘Other people’s estimations, are rarely like one expects.’ He attacked Yángpíng mountain top’s various garrisons, they were not timely taken, and of the soldiers the wounded and lost were many. Wǔ Huángdì’s thoughts were dejected, and he then wished to pull back the army from the mountain and return, and sent former General-in-Chief Xiàhóu Dūn and General Xǔ Chǔ to call the mountain top soldiers to return. It happened that the front army had not yet returned, in the night became lost, and mistakenly entered the rebel camp, and the rebels then retreated and scattered. Attendant Internals Xīn Pí and Liú Yè and others were to the soldier’s rear, and reported to [Xiàhóu] Dūn and [Xǔ] Chǔ, saying: ‘The government troops have already occupied and taken the rebel’s important garrisons, the rebels are already scattering and fleeing.’ Yet they did not believe it. [Xiàhóu] Dūn advanced to personally see, and then returned and reported to Wǔ Huángdì, advanced troops to settle them, and by fortune overcame and captured. This recent matter, the officials and soldiers know.”
- Also Yáng Jì’s memorial states: “Wǔ Huángdì first campaigned against Zhāng Lǔ, with an army of a hundred thousand, personally overseeing and going, directing the strategies, and therefore gained people and wheat for army provisions. Zhāng Wèi’s defense, overall was not worth speaking of. The land was rugged and defense was easy, and though there were elite troops and tiger officers, the strength could not overcome. Opposing troops for three days, he wished to draw out the army and return, and said: “Using an army for thirty years, one morning grappling with someone, what of it?” This plan was settled, Heaven blessed Great Wèi, Lǔ’s defenses on their own collapsed, and therefore they were settled.”
- Shìyǔ states: Lǔ sent Lǔ sent Five Office Official to surrender, his younger brother Wèi across the mountains built Yángpíng city walls to resist, and the King’s army could not advance. Lǔ fled to Bāzhōng. The army’s provisions were exhausted, and Tàizǔ was about to return. West Department Official Dōngjùn’s Guō Chén said: “Cannot. Lǔ has already surrendered, we have detained the messenger and he has not yet returned, though [Zhāng] Wèi does not agree, his followers can be attacked. Isolated army deeply penetrating, if advancing is certain to overcome, if retreating is certain to not escape.” Tàizǔ was doubtful of this. In the night wild moose of several thousand charged and broke [Zhāng] Wèi’s camp, and the army was greatly alarmed. In the night Gāo Zuò and others mistakenly with [Zhāng] Wèi’s army encountered, [Gāo] Zuò and the rest called and drummed to gather the army. [Zhāng] Wèi was afraid, believing his main army was ambushed, and therefore surrendered.
Lǔ heard Yángpíng had already fallen, and was about to bow head and surrender, [Yán] Pǔ again: “Now to be forced to go, the reward will certainly be light; it is not as good as depending on Dùhuò to go to Piáohú to together resist, and afterward submit, the reward will certainly be many.” Therefore he fled to Nánshān and entered Bāzhōng.
His attendants wished to completely burn the treasures and storehouses, Lǔ said: “Originally I submit to the mandate and state, but my intentions could not be attained. Now our fleing, is to avoid the front line, and not to have evil intentions. The treasures and storehouses, are the state’s possession.” Therefore he sealed and stored it and left. Tàizǔ entered Nánzhèng, and deeply praised this. Also as Lǔ originally had good intentions, he sent men to comfort and reassure him. Lǔ completely led his house to go out, and Tàizǔ returned to appoint Lǔ as Defending South General, treated him with rites due a guest, fief as Marquis of Lángzhōng, fief of ten thousand households. Fief was given on Lǔ’s five sons and on Yán Pǔ and others all as ranked Marquis. (2) For his son [Cáo Yǔ] Péngzǔ he obtained Lǔ’s daughter [for marriage alliance].
- (2) Your Servant Sōngzhī believes though Zhāng Lǔ had good heart, still he was defeated and only afterward surrendered, now to be favored with ten thousand households, five sons all as ranked Marquis, is excessive.
- Xí Zuòchǐ states: Lǔ wished to declare himself King, but Yán Pǔ remonstrated and stopped him, now fief was given on [Yán] Pǔ as ranked Marquis. Rewards and punishments, are how to discourage evil and encourage good, if it can enlighten path and teaching with things, there are none far and near hidden in depth. Now Yán Pǔ remonstrated Lǔ to not be a King, and Tàizǔ in recollection gave fief on him, of future men who would not think of obedience? Stop the origin source and the ending flow itself stopped, this is what it is called. If then one does not understand this and value scorching and destructive achievement, with abundant rank and generous rewards only on to the death battle soldiers, then the people will profit from chaos, and custom will compete in killing and fighting, using weapons and relying on strength, shields and spears never stored. Tàizǔ in this fief, can be said to know the foundations of rewards and punishments, and even Tāng and Wǔ dealt with it, there would be nothing to add.
- Wèilüè states: During Huángchū [220-226], increased [Yán] Pǔ rank and fief, inside ritual request. Later after over ten years he of illness died.
- Jìnzhū says: Xīróng Major Yán Zuǎn was Pǔ’s grandson.
Lǔ died, posthumous name Yuán-hóu “Source Marquis.” His son Fù succeeded. (3)
- (3) Wèilüè states: Liú Xióngmíng was a Lántián man. When young he made gathering drugs and shooting and hunting his business, always residing below Fùchē mountain, every morning and night, going out through clouds, memorizing route to not be lost, and at the time people therefore said he could become cloud and mist. During Guō [Sì] and Lǐ [Jué]’s chaos, of men many joined him. During Jiàn’ān, he attached to the province and prefecture, and the province and prefecture memorialized and recommended him as a lesser office. Mǎ Chāo and others rebelled, he would agree to follow, and [Mǎ] Chāo defeated him. Later he visited Tàizǔ, and Tàizǔ grasped his hand and said to him: “When I just entered the passes, I dream of obtaining a divine man, is it you?” Therefore he generously treated him, memorializing him as a General, sending him to welcome his followers. His followers did not wish to surrender, and therefore forced him to rebel, and various exiles all went to join him, and he had an army of several thousand men, occupying Wǔ pass road’s mouth. Tàizǔ sent Xiàhóu Yuān to suppress and defeat him, [Liú] Xióngmíng fled south to Hànzhōng. When Hànzhōng fell, he had nowhere to go, and therefore again went to surrender. Tàizǔ grabbed his beard and said: “Old rebel, [I’ve] really got you!” He restored his office, transferred to Bóhǎi. At the time there also was Chéng Yín, Hóu Xuǎn, Lǐ Kān, all Hédōng men. During Xīngpíng [193-195] chaos, each had armies of over a thousand families. Jiàn’ān Sixteenth Year , they all with Mǎ Chāo joined. [Mǎ] Chāo was defeated and fled, and [Lǐ] Kān on the battle lines died. [Chéng] Yín and [Hóu] Xuǎn went south into Hànzhōng, Hànzhōng fell, they went to Tàizǔ to surrender, and both were restored office and rank.