(8.7) Zhāng Lǔ 張魯 [Gōngqí 公祺]

Zhāng Lǔ appellation Gōngqí was a Pèi state Fēng man. His grandfather Líng, was guest in Shǔ, and studied the Dào in Húmíng mountain, and composed a Dào book to confuse the common people, and those that followed and received his teachings donated five dǒu of rice, and therefore the world called them the Rice Rebels. Líng died, and his son Héng continued his Dào. Héng died, and Lǔ again continued it.

張魯字公祺,沛國豐人也。祖父陵,客蜀,學道鵠鳴山中,造作道書以惑百姓,從受道者出五斗米,故世號米賊。陵死,子衡行其道。衡死,魯復行之。

Yì Province Governor Liú Yān appointed Lǔ as Commander Righteous Major, with Separate Division Major Zhāng Xiū commanding troops to strike Hànzhōng Administrator Sū Gù, Lǔ then attacked [Zhāng] Xiū and killed him, seizing his army. [Liú] Yān died, his son [Liú] Zhāng succeeded position, and as Lǔ was not obedient, completely killed Lǔ’s mother’s household. Lǔ therefore occupied Hànzhōng and with ghostly Dào taught the people, declaring himself “Teacher Lord.” Those that came to learn his Dào, at first were all named “Ghost Soldier,” those receiving foundational Dào and then trusted, called “Libationer.” Each commanded division armies, those with many were “Governing Head Chief Libationer.” All were taught to be honest and faithful and not cheat and deceive, if with illness than confess their faults, overall with the Huángjīn [“Yellow Scarves”] resembling one another. The various Libationers all made “Righteous Lodges,” like the present’s relay stations. They also set up Righteous rice and meat, offered at the Righteous Lodges, travelers estimated how much they needed and obtained enough; if they were excessive, the demonic Dào would then make them ill. Those that violated law, were thrice pardoned, and afterward executed. He did not install Chief Clerks, all used Libationers to govern, the people and foreign tribes found it convenient. His power occupied Bā and Hàn[zhōng] for nearly thirty years. (1) At Hàn’s end, its strength could not campaign [against Zhāng Lǔ], and therefore gave favor to Lǔ as Defending the People Internal Cadet General, designate Hànníng Administrator, but he delivered tribute and nothing more. Among the commoners someone in the ground obtained a jade seal, and the subordinates wished to honor Lǔ as King of Hànníng. Lǔ’s Merit Officer Bāxī’s Yán Pǔ remonstrated Lǔ saying: “The Hàn stream’s people, its households are more than a hundred thousand, its wealth rich and its soil fertile, and on four sides is rugged terrain; if above you rectify Heaven’s Son, then you will you will be like Huán and Wén, or else match Dòu Róng, and not lose riches and honor. Now to carry on regulation and appoint officials, your strength is sufficient to cut off, and it is not worth the trouble of ruling as a King. May you for now not declare [yourself as King], to not advance disaster.” Lǔ followed this. Due to Hán Suì and Mǎ Chāo’s chaos, the people west of the passes through Zǐwǔ valley fled to take refuge were several tens of thousand families.

益州牧劉焉以魯為督義司馬,與別部司馬張脩將兵擊漢中太守蘇固,魯遂襲脩殺之,奪其眾。焉死,子璋代立,以魯不順,盡殺魯母家室。魯遂據漢中,以鬼道教民,自號「師君」。其來學道者,初皆名「鬼卒」。受本道已信,號「祭酒」。各領部眾,多者為治頭大祭酒。皆教以誠信不欺詐,有病自首其過,大都與黃巾相似。諸祭酒皆作義舍,如今之亭傳。又置義米肉,縣於義舍,行路者量腹取足;若過多,鬼道輒病之。犯法者,三原,然後乃行刑。不置長吏,皆以祭酒為治,民夷便樂之。雄據巴、漢垂三十年。〔一〕漢末,力不能征,遂就寵魯為鎮民中郎將,領漢寧太守,通貢獻而已。民有地中得玉印者,群下欲尊魯為漢寧王。魯功曹巴西閻圃諫魯曰:「漢川之民,戶出十萬,財富土沃,四面險固;上匡天子,則為桓、文,次及竇融,不失富貴。今承制署置,勢足斬斷,不煩於王。願且不稱,勿為禍先。」魯從之。韓遂、馬超之亂,關西民從子午谷奔之者數萬家。

  • (1) Diǎnlüè states:
    • During Xīpíng [172-177], witch rebels greatly rose, and the three adjuncts had Luò Yào. During Guānghé [178-183], the east had Zhāng Jué, Hànzhōng had Zhāng Xiū. Luò Yào taught the people the Miǎnnì Fǎ “Method of Concealment”, [Zhāng] Jué had the Tàipíng Dào “Way of Grand Peace”, [Zhāng] Xiū had the Wǔdǒumǐ Dào “Way of Five dǒu of Rice.”
    • The Tàipíng Dào, the masters grasped nine integrity staff as talisman to pray, teaching sick men to knock head [on ground] and think on their faults, and then had them drink blessed water, and of the sick some daily improved and healed, and then said these men had faith in the Dào, and the rest that did not heal, then were said to not have faith in the Dào. [Zhāng] Xiū’s methods overall with [Zhāng] Jué were the same, but added granting a tranquil house, having the sick reside inside and think on their faults. Also he employed men as Treachery Control Libationer, Libationers that were masters of the Lǎo-zǐ of five thousand words, and sent to the capital to study, were called as Treachery Control. He appointed ghost officials, to manage praying for the sick. The method of praying, was to write the sick person’s surname and personal name, and say their criminal thoughts. They made three copies, one sent up to Heaven, placed on mountain top, one buried to earth, one submerged in water, calling it three offices hand written letter. They had the sick person’s families give five dǒu of rice as a standard, and therefore were called as Five dǒu Rice Teacher. In fact there was no benefit in treating illness, and only was utterly absurd, however lesser men were muddled and deceived, and competed together to serve them. Later [Zhāng] Jué was executed, and [Zhāng] Xiū also died.
    • When [Zhāng] Lǔ was at Hànzhōng, because its people had faith in following [Zhāng] Xiū’s enterprise, therefore expanded and ornamented it. He taught them to make Righteous Lodges, with rice and meat set inside for resting travelers; he also taught them to self conceal, those with small faults, were to use this way and go hundred steps, and then the guilt would be removed; he also relied on moon [season dependent] orders, in spring and summer prohibiting killing; he also prohibited alcohol. Refugees that came to his land, did not dare not believe.
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī says Zhāng Xiū should be Zhāng Héng, if it is not the Diǎnlüè‘s mistake, then it is a copyist error.

〔一〕 典略曰:熹平中,妖賊大起,三輔有駱曜。光和中,東方有張角,漢中有張脩。駱曜教民緬匿法,角為太平道,脩為五斗米道。太平道者,師持九節杖為符祝,教病人叩頭思過,因以符水飲之,得病或日淺而愈者,則云此人信道,其或不愈,則為不信道。脩法略與角同,加施靜室,使病者處其中思過。又使人為姦令祭酒,祭酒主以老子五千文,使都習,號為姦令。為鬼吏,主為病者請禱。請禱之法,書病人姓名,說服罪之意。作三通,其一上之天,著山上,其一埋之地,其一沉之水,謂之三官手書。使病者家出米五斗以為常,故號曰五斗米師。實無益于治病,但為淫妄,然小人昏愚,競共事之。後角被誅,脩亦亡。及魯在漢中,因其民信行脩業,遂增飾之。教使作義舍,以米肉置其中以止行人;又教使自隱,有小過者,當治道百步,則罪除;又依月令,春夏禁殺;又禁酒。流移寄在其地者,不敢不奉。臣松之謂張脩應是張衡,非典略之失,則傳寫之誤。


Jiàn’ān Twentieth Year [215], Tàizǔ then from Sǎn pass set out against Wǔdū to campaign against him, reaching Yángpíng pass. Lǔ wished to lead Hànzhōng to surrender, his younger brother Wèi did not agree, and led an army of several tens of thousand men to resist at the pass and firmly defend. Tàizǔ attacked and defeated him, and therefore entered Shǔ. (1)

建安二十年,太祖乃自散關出武都征之,至陽平關。魯欲舉漢中降,其弟衛不肯,率眾數萬人拒關堅守。太祖攻破之,遂入蜀。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèi Míngchén Zòu records Dǒng Zhāo’s memorial stating: “Wǔ Huángdì followed the words of the Liángzhōu Attending Officials and Wǔdū’s surrendered men, that said Zhāng Lǔ was easy to attack, and Yángpíng city down to south and north mountains were far from each other, and could not defended, and he believed it correct. When he went to see, it was not as he heard, and therefore he sighed and said: ‘Other people’s estimations, are rarely like one expects.’ He attacked Yángpíng mountain top’s various garrisons, they were not timely taken, and of the soldiers the wounded and lost were many. Wǔ Huángdì’s thoughts were dejected, and he then wished to pull back the army from the mountain and return, and sent former General-in-Chief Xiàhóu Dūn and General Xǔ Chǔ to call the mountain top soldiers to return. It happened that the front army had not yet returned, in the night became lost, and mistakenly entered the rebel camp, and the rebels then retreated and scattered. Attendant Internals Xīn Pí and Liú Yè and others were to the soldier’s rear, and reported to [Xiàhóu] Dūn and [Xǔ] Chǔ, saying: ‘The government troops have already occupied and taken the rebel’s important garrisons, the rebels are already scattering and fleeing.’ Yet they did not believe it. [Xiàhóu] Dūn advanced to personally see, and then returned and reported to Wǔ Huángdì, advanced troops to settle them, and by fortune overcame and captured. This recent matter, the officials and soldiers know.”
  • Also Yáng Jì’s memorial states: “Wǔ Huángdì first campaigned against Zhāng Lǔ, with an army of a hundred thousand, personally overseeing and going, directing the strategies, and therefore gained people and wheat for army provisions. Zhāng Wèi’s defense, overall was not worth speaking of. The land was rugged and defense was easy, and though there were elite troops and tiger officers, the strength could not overcome. Opposing troops for three days, he wished to draw out the army and return, and said: “Using an army for thirty years, one morning grappling with someone, what of it?” This plan was settled, Heaven blessed Great Wèi, Lǔ’s defenses on their own collapsed, and therefore they were settled.”
  • Shìyǔ states: Lǔ sent Lǔ sent Five Office Official to surrender, his younger brother Wèi across the mountains built Yángpíng city walls to resist, and the King’s army could not advance. Lǔ fled to Bāzhōng. The army’s provisions were exhausted, and Tàizǔ was about to return. West Department Official Dōngjùn’s Guō Chén said: “Cannot. Lǔ has already surrendered, we have detained the messenger and he has not yet returned, though [Zhāng] Wèi does not agree,  his followers can be attacked. Isolated army deeply penetrating, if advancing is certain to overcome, if retreating is certain to not escape.” Tàizǔ was doubtful of this. In the night wild moose of several thousand charged and broke [Zhāng] Wèi’s camp, and the army was greatly alarmed. In the night Gāo Zuò and others mistakenly with [Zhāng] Wèi’s army encountered, [Gāo] Zuò and the rest called and drummed to gather the army. [Zhāng] Wèi was afraid, believing his main army was ambushed, and therefore surrendered.

〔一〕 魏名臣奏載董昭表曰:「武皇帝承涼州從事及武都降人之辭,說張魯易攻,陽平城下南北山相遠,不可守也,信以為然。及往臨履,不如所聞,乃歎曰:『他人商度,少如人意。』攻陽平山上諸屯,既不時拔,士卒傷夷者多。武皇帝意沮,便欲拔軍截山而還,遣故大將軍夏侯惇、將軍許褚呼山上兵還。會前軍未還,夜迷惑,誤入賊營,賊便退散。侍中辛毗、劉曄等在兵後,語惇、褚,言『官兵已據得賊要屯,賊已散走』。猶不信之。惇前自見,乃還白武皇帝,進兵定之,幸而克獲。此近事,吏士所知。」又楊暨表曰:「武皇帝始征張魯,以十萬之眾,身親臨履,指授方略,因就民麥以為軍糧。張衛之守,蓋不足言。地險守易,雖有精兵虎將,勢不能施。對兵三日,欲抽軍還,言『作軍三十年,一朝持與人,如何』。此計已定,天祚大魏,魯守自壞,因以定之。」世語曰:魯遣五官掾降,弟衛橫山築陽平城以拒,王師不得進。魯走巴中。軍糧盡,太祖將還。西曹掾東郡郭諶曰:「不可。魯已降,留使既未反,衛雖不同,偏攜可攻。縣軍深入,以進必克,退必不免。」太祖疑之。夜有野麋數千突壞衛營,軍大驚。夜,高祚等誤與衛眾遇,祚等多鳴鼓角會眾。衛懼,以為大軍見掩,遂降。

Lǔ heard Yángpíng had already fallen, and was about to bow head and surrender, [Yán] Pǔ again: “Now to be forced to go, the reward will certainly be light; it is not as good as depending on Dùhuò to go to Piáohú to together resist, and afterward submit, the reward will certainly be many.” Therefore he fled to Nánshān and entered Bāzhōng.

魯聞陽平已陷,將稽顙〔歸降〕,圃又曰:「今以迫往,功必輕;不如依(杜灌)〔杜濩〕赴朴胡相拒,然後委質,功必多。」於是乃奔南山入巴中。

His attendants wished to completely burn the treasures and storehouses, Lǔ said: “Originally I submit to the mandate and state, but my intentions could not be attained. Now our fleing, is to avoid the front line, and not to have evil intentions. The treasures and storehouses, are the state’s possession.” Therefore he sealed and stored it and left. Tàizǔ entered Nánzhèng, and deeply praised this. Also as Lǔ originally had good intentions, he sent men to comfort and reassure him. Lǔ completely led his house to go out, and Tàizǔ returned to appoint Lǔ as Defending South General, treated him with rites due a guest, fief as Marquis of Lángzhōng, fief of ten thousand households. Fief was given on Lǔ’s five sons and on Yán Pǔ and others all as ranked Marquis. (2) For his son [Cáo Yǔ] Péngzǔ he obtained Lǔ’s daughter [for marriage alliance].

左右欲悉燒寶貨倉庫,魯曰:「本欲歸命國家,而意未達。今之走,避銳鋒,非有惡意。寶貨倉庫,國家之有。」遂封藏而去。太祖入南鄭,甚嘉之。又以魯本有善意,遣人慰喻。魯盡將家出,太祖逆拜魯鎮南將軍,待以客禮,封閬中侯,邑萬戶。封魯五子及閻圃等皆為列侯。〔二〕為子彭祖取魯女。

  • (2) Your Servant Sōngzhī believes though Zhāng Lǔ had good heart, still he was defeated and only afterward surrendered, now to be favored with ten thousand households, five sons all as ranked Marquis, is excessive.
  • Xí Zuòchǐ states: Lǔ wished to declare himself King, but Yán Pǔ remonstrated and stopped him, now fief was given on [Yán] Pǔ as ranked Marquis. Rewards and punishments, are how to discourage evil and encourage good, if it can enlighten path and teaching with things, there are none far and near hidden in depth. Now Yán Pǔ remonstrated Lǔ to not be a King, and Tàizǔ in recollection gave fief on him, of future men who would not think of obedience? Stop the origin source and the ending flow itself stopped, this is what it is called. If then one does not understand this and value scorching and destructive achievement, with abundant rank and generous rewards only on to the death battle soldiers, then the people will profit from chaos, and custom will compete in killing and fighting, using weapons and relying on strength, shields and spears never stored. Tàizǔ in this fief, can be said to know the foundations of rewards and punishments, and even Tāng and Wǔ dealt with it, there would be nothing to add.
  • Wèilüè states: During Huángchū [220-226], increased [Yán] Pǔ rank and fief, inside ritual request. Later after over ten years he of illness died.
  • Jìnzhū says: Xīróng Major Yán Zuǎn was Pǔ’s grandson.

〔二〕 臣松之以為張魯雖有善心,要為敗而後降,今乃寵以萬戶,五子皆封侯,過矣。習鑿齒曰:魯欲稱王,而閻圃諫止之,今封圃為列侯。夫賞罰者,所以懲惡勸善也,苟其可以明軌訓於物,無遠近幽深矣。今閻圃諫魯勿王,而太祖追封之,將來之人孰不思順!塞其本源而末流自止,其此之謂與!若乃不明於此而重燋爛之功,豐爵厚賞止於死戰之士,則民利於有亂,俗競於殺伐,阻兵仗力,干戈不戢矣。太祖之此封,可謂知賞罰之本,雖湯武居之,無以加也。魏略曰:黃初中,增圃爵邑,在禮請中。後十餘歲病死。晉書云:西戎司馬閻纘,圃孫也。

Lǔ died, posthumous name Yuán-hóu “Source Marquis.” His son Fù succeeded. (3)

魯薨,諡之曰原侯。子富嗣。〔三〕

  • (3) Wèilüè states: Liú Xióngmíng was a Lántián man. When young he made gathering drugs and shooting and hunting his business, always residing below Fùchē mountain, every morning and night, going out through clouds, memorizing route to not be lost, and at the time people therefore said he could become cloud and mist. During Guō [Sì] and Lǐ [Jué]’s chaos, of men many joined him. During Jiàn’ān, he attached to the province and prefecture, and the province and prefecture memorialized and recommended him as a lesser office. Mǎ Chāo and others rebelled, he would agree to follow, and [Mǎ] Chāo defeated him. Later he visited Tàizǔ, and Tàizǔ grasped his hand and said to him: “When I just entered the passes, I dream of obtaining a divine man, is it you?” Therefore he generously treated him, memorializing him as a General, sending him to welcome his followers. His followers did not wish to surrender, and therefore forced him to rebel, and various exiles all went to join him, and he had an army of several thousand men, occupying Wǔ pass road’s mouth. Tàizǔ sent Xiàhóu Yuān to suppress and defeat him, [Liú] Xióngmíng fled south to Hànzhōng. When Hànzhōng fell, he had nowhere to go, and therefore again went to surrender. Tàizǔ grabbed his beard and said: “Old rebel, [I’ve] really got you!” He restored his office, transferred to Bóhǎi. At the time there also was Chéng Yín, Hóu Xuǎn, Lǐ Kān, all Hédōng men. During Xīngpíng [193-195] chaos, each had armies of over a thousand families. Jiàn’ān Sixteenth Year [211], they all with Mǎ Chāo joined. [Mǎ] Chāo was defeated and fled, and [Lǐ] Kān on the battle lines died. [Chéng] Yín and [Hóu] Xuǎn went south into Hànzhōng, Hànzhōng fell, they went to Tàizǔ to surrender, and both were restored office and rank.

〔三〕 魏略曰:劉雄鳴者,藍田人也。少以采藥射獵為事,常居覆車山下,每晨夜,出行雲霧中,以識道不迷,而時人因謂之能為雲霧。郭、李之亂,人多就之。建安中,附屬州郡,州郡表薦為小將。馬超等反,不肯從,超破之。後詣太祖,太祖執其手謂之曰:「孤方入關,夢得一神人,即卿邪!」乃厚禮之,表拜為將軍,遣令迎其部黨。部黨不欲降,遂劫以反,諸亡命皆往依之,有眾數千人,據武關道口。太祖遣夏侯淵討破之,雄鳴南奔漢中。漢中破,窮無所之,乃復歸降。太祖捉其鬚曰:「老賊,真得汝矣!」復其官,徙勃海。時又有程銀、侯選、李堪,皆河東人也,興平之亂,各有眾千餘家。建安十六年,並與馬超合。超破走,堪臨陳死。銀、選南入漢中,漢中破,詣太祖降,皆復官爵。

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s