(38.1) Xǔ Jìng 許靖 [Wēnxiū 文休]

Xǔ Jìng appellation Wénxiū was a Rǔnán Píngyú man. When young he with his younger cousin [Xǔ] Shào both were well known, and both were skilled in appraising men’s good and bad, but their private relationship was not harmonious. Shào became the prefecture’s Merit Officer, blocked Jìng to be unable to obtain office, and he milled to support himself. Yǐngchuān’s Liú Yì became Rǔnán Administrator, and nominated Jìng as a calculation official, examined as filial and incorruptible, appointed Secretariat Documents Cadet, managing selections.

許靖字文休,汝南平輿人。少與從弟劭俱知名,並有人倫臧否之稱,而私情不協。劭為郡功曹,排擯靖不得齒敘,以馬磨自給。潁川劉翊為汝南太守,乃舉靖計吏,察孝廉,除尚書郎,典選舉。

Líng-dì passed away, Dǒng Zhuó controlled the government, appointed Hànyáng’s Zhōu Bì as Personnel Division Secretariat Documenter, with Jìng together planned and commented, advancing and withdrawing the realm Under Heaven’s elites, discarding the dirty, making known and selecting out the secluded. They advanced and employed Yǐngchuān’s Xún Shuǎng, Hán Róng, Chén Jǐ and others as Excellencies, Ministers, and prefecture administrators, appointed Secretariat Documenter Hán Fù as Jìzhōu Governor, Attendant Internal Liú Dài was Yǎnzhōu Inspector, Yǐngchuān’s Zhāng Zī as Nányáng Administrator, Chénliú’s Kǒng Zhòu as Yùzhōu Inspector, Dōngjùn’s Zhāng Miǎo as Chénliú Administrator, and sent Jìng as Bājùn Administrator, it was not successful, and he filled vacancy as Censorate Internal Deputy.

靈帝崩,董卓秉政,以漢陽周毖為吏部尚書,與靖共謀議,進退天下之士,沙汰穢濁,顯拔幽滯。進用潁川荀爽、韓融、陳紀等為公、卿、郡守,拜尚書韓馥為冀州牧,侍中劉岱為兗州刺史,潁川張咨為南陽太守,陳留孔伷為豫州刺史,東郡張邈為陳留太守,而遷靖巴郡太守,不就,補御史中丞。

[Hán] Fù and the rest arrived in office, each raised troops to return toward the capital, wishing to execute [Dǒng] Zhuó, [Dǒng] Zhuó was furious at [Zhōu] Bì and said: “You sirs said I should select out and employ good elites, I Zhuó followed your plan, not wishing to oppose the realm Under Heaven’s people’s hearts. But those you sirs employed, on the day of reaching office, return coming to plan against me. I Zhuó did what to turn back on you?” He shouted at [Zhōu] Bì to get out, and outside beheaded them.

馥等到官,各舉兵還向京都,欲以誅卓。卓怒毖曰:「諸君言當拔用善士,卓從君計,不欲違天下人心。而諸君所用人,至官之日,還來相圖。卓何用相負!」叱毖令出,於外斬之。

Jìng’s elder cousin Chén Chancellor [Xǔ] Chàng, also with [Kǒng] Zhòu joined together, Jìng feared execution, and fled to [Kǒng] Zhòu. (1) [Kǒng] Zhòu died, and he depended on Yángzhōu Inspector Chén Yī. [Chén] Yī died, and Wújùn Commandant Xǔ Gòng, Kuàijī Administrator Wáng Lǎng previously with Jìng had old friendship, and therefore went to protect him. Jìng collected and sympathized with family and neighbors, rousing and caring for, giving out benevolence and generosity.

靖從兄陳相瑒,又與伷合規,靖懼誅,奔伷。〔一〕伷卒,依揚州刺史陳禕。禕死,吳郡都尉許貢、會稽太守王朗素與靖有舊,故往保焉。靖收恤親里,經紀振贍,出於仁厚。

  • (1) Shǔjì says: Jìng later self memorialized: “Joining with rebels to seek survival, is what my nature cannot bear; to hold to office to endanger self, dying does not achieve righteousness. I humbly have read that the ancients facing difficulty were inconsistent, and were expedient to follow their principles.”

〔一〕 蜀記云:靖後自表曰:「黨賊求生,情所不忍;守官自危,死不成義。竊念古人當難詭常,權以濟其道。」


Sūn Cè went east crossing the Jiāng, and all fled to Jiāozhōu to avoid this trouble, Jìng himself sat on the shore, first sending his attached followers, and when his distant and close kin had all set out, then he followed after and went, and at the time of those who saw none did not sigh in admiration. When he reached Jiāozhǐ, Jiāozhǐ Administrator Shì Xiè generously applied respectful treatment.

孫策東渡江,皆走交州以避其難,靖身坐岸邊,先載附從,疏親悉發,乃從後去,當時見者莫不歎息。既至交阯,交阯太守士燮厚加敬待。

Chénguó’s Yuán Huī moved to and resided at Jiāozhōu, and [Yuán] Huī with Secretariat Director Xún Yù wrote letter that said: “Xǔ Wénxiū is an outstanding talent and great elite, his wisdom and strategy sufficient to calculate affairs. From since his taking refuge onward, with various elites together following, every time there is urgent trouble, always he puts others first and himself later, and with his ninth degree relations inside and out he shares in hunger and cold. His guidance and equal treatment, benevolence and compassion, is applied in all his matters, and cannot in one or two ways be explained.”

陳國袁徽以寄寓交州,徽與尚書令荀彧書曰:「許文休英才偉士,智略足以計事。自流宕已來,與群士相隨,每有患急,常先人後己,與九族中外同其飢寒。其紀綱同類,仁恕惻隱,皆有效事,不能復一二陳之耳。」

Jùlù’s Zhāng Xiáng (1) carrying ruler’s command was sent to Jiāo region, took opportunity to recruit Jìng, wishing to with him make an oath, Jìng refused and would not agree. Jìng with Excellency Cáo wrote letter that said:

鉅鹿張翔〔一〕銜王命使交部,乘勢募靖,欲與誓要,靖拒而不許。靖與曹公書曰:

“The world’s roads with weapons razed, calamity and chaos therefore gathers, I an old horse timidly steals life, myself fleeing to the Mán and Mò, already for ten years, fortune good and bad abandoned. In the past at Kuàijī, I obtained your sent letter, its words and intent close, and for a long time will not forget. Constrained by Yuán Shù defying command and injuring clan, shaking and moving various rebels, blocking all passes, though my heart is to the north, I wish to go but cannot. The upright army withdrawing, [Yuán] Shù’s troops advanced, Kuàijī was overturned, scenery losing residence, the three rivers and five lakes, all became a caitiff’s courtyard. Facing that time of destitution and danger, without anyone to tell, I then with Yuán Pèi, Dèng Zǐxiào and others floated onto the azure sea, south to Jiāozhōu. Passing through the states of the Dōngōu, Mǐn, Yuè, traveling ten thousand lǐ, not seeing Hàn’s lands, floating through winds and waves, exhausting provisions and eating grass, hunger and starvation arrived, the dead over half. Reaching to Nánhǎi, with the designate Administrator Ěr Xiàodé mutually meeting, I learned of your loyalty and righteousness fiercely roused, ordering and containing the warfare, to the west welcoming the Imperial Chariot, traveling about the central peaks. Carrying on this good news, I was both sorrowful and pleased, and at once with Yuán Pèi and Xú Yuánxián again together fixed dress, wishing to go north up to Jīngzhōu. It happened that Cāngwú various counties’ Yí and Yuè swarmed and rose, the province offices were overturned, the roads cut off, Yuánxián was harmed, old and young all killed. I Jìng went through islets and shores over five thousand lǐ, again encountered illness and plague, my father’s elder brother’s wife lost life, together with various followers, from the various wives and children, at the time they were completely lost. Again supporting one another, advancing to this prefecture, calculating those harmed by troops or lost to illness, out of ten the remaining are one to two. The living people’s hardships, their suffering is extreme, how can it all be explained! (2) Fearing to in the end collapse, to forever be a lost caitiff, the worry and distress is miserable, forgetting to rest and eat. Wishing to attach with presenting Court tribute messenger, and self obtain relief and passage, to return to die in imperial halls, but Jīngzhōu’s waters and lands are without crossings, Jiāo region’s relay stations are cut off. Wishing to go up to Yìzhōu, again there is harsh terrain, and therefore the appointed officials, all cannot enter. Previous order had Jiāozhǐ Administrator Shì Wēiyàn, deeply divide and entrust in our Yìzhōu brothers, also I Jìng also myself wrote letter, exhaustion earnest and sorrowful, but again am lonesome, without answer. Though looking up to view the lights, craning neck and standing on toe, how can I fly to there?”

世路戎夷,禍亂遂合,駑怯偷生,自竄蠻貊,成闊十年,吉凶禮廢。昔在會稽,得所貽書,辭旨款密,久要不忘。迫於袁術方命圮族,扇動群逆,津塗四塞,雖縣心北風,欲行靡由。正禮師退,術兵前進,會稽傾覆,景興失據,三江五湖,皆為虜庭。臨時困厄,無所控告。便與袁沛、鄧子孝等浮涉滄海,南至交州。經歷東甌、閩、越之國,行經萬里,不見漢地,漂薄風波,絕糧茹草,飢殍薦臻,死者大半。既濟南海,與領守兒孝德相見,知足下忠義奮發,整飭元戎,西迎大駕,巡省中嶽。承此休問,且悲且憙,即與袁沛及徐元賢復共嚴裝,欲北上荊州。會蒼梧諸縣夷、越蜂起,州府傾覆,道路阻絕,元賢被害,老弱並殺。靖尋循渚岸五千餘里,復遇疾癘,伯母隕命,并及群從,自諸妻子,一時略盡。復相扶侍,前到此郡,計為兵害及病亡者,十遺一二。生民之艱,辛苦之甚,豈可具陳哉!〔二〕懼卒顛仆,永為亡虜,憂瘁慘慘,忘寢與食。欲附奉朝貢使,自獲濟通,歸死闕庭,而荊州水陸無津,交部驛使斷絕。欲上益州,復有峻防,故官長吏,一不得入。前令交阯太守士威彥,深相分託於益州兄弟,又靖亦自與書,辛苦懇惻,而復寂寞,未有報應。雖仰瞻光靈,延頸企踵,何由假翼自致哉?

“Knowing the sagely ruler is enlightened, brightly bestowing on you appointment to command campaigns, and of the various rebels, most have been punished, those wishing to with strength fight are of one heart, the obedient are of the same standard. Also Zhāng Zǐyún in the past was at the capital, had ambition to rectify the ruling house, now though overlooking desolate regions, unable to attend to the court, he also for the country is a defense, and your outer assistance. (3) If Jīng and Chǔ are pacified, the ruler’s favor reaching south, you must quickly give command to Zǐyún, diligently see protection of dependents, to allow roads to from Jīngzhōu go out, and if not so, then again I will join with our Yìzhōu brothers, to be accepted and received. If Heaven is generous in its years, Man slow in its disasters, so I am able to return to die in my country, resolving burden of fleeing, to sink down to the Nine Springs, what regret would there be? If time has its hard and easy, matters have their sharpness and bluntness, human’s life is not constant, death does not arrive, then forever I hold guilt, entering the frontier lands.”

知聖主允明,顯授足下專征之任,凡諸逆節,多所誅討,想力競者一心,順從者同規矣。又張子雲昔在京師,志匡王室,今雖臨荒域,不得參與本朝,亦國家之藩鎮,足下之外援也。〔三〕若荊、楚平和,王澤南至,足下忽有聲命於子雲,勤見保屬,令得假途由荊州出,不然,當復相紹介於益州兄弟,使相納受。倘天假其年,人緩其禍,得歸死國家,解逋逃之負,泯軀九泉,將復何恨!若時有險易,事有利鈍,人命無常,隕沒不達者,則永銜罪責,入於裔土矣。

“In the past Yíngqiū [Lǚ Wàng] assisted Zhōu, staff and battle-ax commanding campaigns, Bólù [Huò Guāng] aided Hàn, Tiger Elite warning to clear the streets. (4) Today you rescue the endangered and hold up the overturned, for the state a pillar of stone, wielding Teacher [Lǚ] Wàng’s appointment, simultaneously Huò Guāng’s heaviness. Five Marquis Nine Earls, regulation and command in your hand, from antiquity to now, the honored of servants of men do not match to you. Those of high rank have deep worries, those of generous salary have heavy responsibilities, you reside appointment of high rank, on heavy responsibility ground, speech leaves our moth, at once it becomes reward or punishment, the thoughts that you store, then become disaster or fortune. Conduct obtains the way, then the State Altars have peace; conduct loses the way, then the Four Quarters are scattered in chaos. The country’s safety or danger, are with you sir; the common people’s lives, depend on your actions of service. From the heartlands to the foreigners, all take note and watch. You are appointed like this, how can you can you but distantly reflect on recorded registers on the origin of falling and rising, the critical points of honor and disgrace, abandon and forget old wrongs, harmonize with various managers, to examine and measure the five talents, to for offices select people? If obtaining these men, though hateful be certain to promote them, if not these men, though close do not award them. In this way pacify the State Altars, in this way relieve the lower people, matter established and achievement accomplished, then fastening sound in pipe and strings, engraving merits on metal and stone, may you exhort yourself! For the state value yourself, for the people care for yourself.”

昔營邱翼周,杖鉞專征,博陸佐漢,虎賁警蹕。〔四〕今日足下扶危持傾,為國柱石,秉師望之任,兼霍光之重。五侯九伯,制御在手,自古及今,人臣之尊未有及足下者也。夫爵高者憂深,祿厚者責重,足下據爵高之任,當責重之地,言出於口,即為賞罰,意之所存,便為禍福。行之得道,即社稷用寧;行之失道,即四方散亂。國家安危,在於足下;百姓之命,縣於執事。自華及夷,顒顒注望。足下任此,豈可不遠覽載籍廢興之由,榮辱之機,棄忘舊惡,寬和群司,審量五材,為官擇人?苟得其人,雖讎必舉;苟非其人,雖親不授。以寧社稷,以濟下民,事立功成,則繫音於管絃,勒勳於金石,願君勉之!為國自重,為民自愛。」

Xiáng resented that Jìng did not accept him, gathered all the letters that had been sent to Jìng, and threw them all into the water.

翔恨靖之不自納,搜索靖所寄書疏,盡投之于水。

  • (1) Wànjī lùn says: Xiáng appellation Yuánfèng.

〔一〕 萬機論云:翔字元鳳。

  • (2) Your Servant Sōngzhī believes Kǒng-zǐ said: “The worthy shun the world, the next shun lands,” overall to esteem those knowing and seeing safety and danger, leaving to obtain it. Xǔ Jìng traveled to become guest in Kuàijī, was only a village man, Sūn Cè’s coming, to Jìng was what concern? And to then float ten thousand lǐ of sea, enter lands of epidemic and plague, to cause the old and young to be in utter misery, the hundreds of sorrows and experiences, can be said to be self inflicted. A strategic minister like this, is difficult to call wise. How could he be like those at the time who resided in obedience, to in the end serve Wú and Yuè, with Zhāng Zhāo and Zhāng Hóng together protecting their fundamental fortunes?

〔二〕 臣松之以為孔子稱「賢者避世,其次避地」,蓋貴其識見安危,去就得所也。許靖羇客會稽,閭閻之士,孫策之來,於靖何為?而乃泛萬里之海,入疫癘之鄉,致使尊弱塗炭,百罹備經,可謂自貽矣。謀臣若斯,難以言智。孰若安時處順,端拱吳、越,與張昭、張紘之儔同保元吉者哉?

  • (3) Zǐyuán named Jīn, Nányáng man, became Jiāozhōu Inspector. See Wúzhì.

〔三〕 子雲名津,南陽人,為交州刺史。見吳志。

  • (4) Hànshū Huò Guāng zhuàn states: “Guāng was sent out to command Trained Cadet Feather Forest, on the road alerting to clear the streets.” It is unclear where Tiger Elite came from.

〔四〕 漢書霍光傳曰:「光出都肄郎羽林,道上稱警蹕。」未詳虎賁所出也。


Later Liú Zhāng then sent envoy to recruit Jìng, and Jìng came and entered Shǔ. [Liú] Zhāng appointed Jìng as Bājùn and Guǎnghàn Administrator. Nányáng’s Sòng Zhòngzǐ in Jīngzhōu with Shǔjùn Administrator Wáng Shāng wrote letter that said: “Wénxiū is elegant and ornate, serves the present age, and you sir should take him as a guide.” (1)

後劉璋遂使使招靖,靖來入蜀。璋以靖為巴郡、廣漢太守。南陽宋仲子於荊州與蜀郡太守王商書曰:「文休倜儻瑰瑋,有當世之具,足下當以為指南。」〔一〕

  • (1) Yìzhōu Qíjiù zhuàn states: [Wáng] Shāng appellation Wénbiǎo was a Guǎnghàn man, for literary scholarship was praised, his reputation known in his hometown. Liú Zhāng recruited him as Internal Manager Attending Official. At the time the ruler was cut off, the provincial governors were like the Seven States vassal lords, but [Liú] Zhāng was weak and suspicious, and could not join with and trust his great ministers. [Wáng] Shāng memorialized remonstrating [Liú] Zhāng, [Liú] Zhāng was appreciative. Previously, Hán Suì with Mǎ Téng made chaos in Guānzhōng, repeatedly with [Liú] Zhāng’s father Yān communicated in letters, so that [Mǎ] Téng’s son Chāo again with [Liú Zhāng exchanged news, and had intention to ally with Shǔ. [Wáng] Shāng said to [Liú] Zhāng: “[Mǎ] Chāo is valorous but not benevolent, and seeing gains does not think of righteousness, and cannot be like lips and teeth [allies]. Lǎo-zǐ states: ‘A state’s sharp weapon, cannot be shown to people.’ Now in Yì region, the elites are good and the people prosperous, where treasures are produced, and this then is what the crafty desire to overturn, and why [Mǎ] Chāo and the rest look west. If you draw them in and are close to them, then it is like raising a tiger, and ti will cause oneself later misfortune.” [Liú] Zhāng followed his words, and so refused [Mǎ Chāo]. Jīngzhōu Governor Liú Biǎo and classicist Sòng Zhōng both heard his reputation, and exchanged letters with [Wáng] Shāng conveying attentiveness. Xǔ Jìng was said to be [skilled at appraising a person’s] good and bad, reached Shǔ, met [Wáng] Shāng and praised him saying: “If [Wáng] Shāng was born in the heartlands, even Wáng Jǐngxīng would have nothing to add.” [Liú] Zhāng appointed [Wáng] Shāng as Shǔjùn Administrator. Chéngdū’s Qín Jiān had utmost filial conduct, [Wáng] Shāng memorialized his grave, posthumously titling filial and incorrupt candidate. Also he with Yán Jūnpíng, Lǐ Hóng established sacrificial shrine and made inscription, to make manifest a past worthy. He cultivated scholarship and spread agriculture, the common people were convenient by it. He was in the prefecture for ten years, died in office, and Xǔ Jìng succeeded him.

〔一〕 益州耆舊傳曰:商字文表,廣漢人,以才學稱,聲問著於州里。劉璋辟為治中從事。是時王塗隔絕,州之牧伯猶七國之諸侯也,而璋懦弱多疑,不能黨信大臣。商奏記諫璋,璋頗感悟。初,韓遂與馬騰作亂關中,數與璋父焉交通信,至騰子超復與璋相聞,有連蜀之意。商謂璋曰:「超勇而不仁,見得不思義,不可以為唇齒。老子曰:『國之利器,不可以示人。』今之益部,士美民豐,寶物所出,斯乃狡夫所欲傾覆,超等所以西望也。若引而近之,則由養虎,將自遺患矣。」璋從其言,乃拒絕之。荊州牧劉表及儒者宋忠咸聞其名,遺書與商敘致殷勤。許靖號為臧否,至蜀,見商而稱之曰:「設使商生於華夏,雖王景興無以加也。」璋以商為蜀郡太守。成都禽堅有至孝之行,商表其墓,追贈孝廉。又與嚴君平、李弘立祠作銘,以旌先賢。脩學廣農,百姓便之。在郡十載,卒於官,許靖代之。

Jiàn’ān Sixteenth Year [211], he was transferred to Shǔjùn. (2)

建安十六年,轉在蜀郡。〔二〕

  • (2) Shānyáng Gōng Zàijì states: Jiàn’ān Seventeenth Year [212], Hàn enthroned Imperial son [Liú] Xī as King of Jǐyīn, [Liú] Yì as King of Shānyáng, [Liú] Dūn as King of Dōnghǎi. Jìng heard this and said: “‘Wishing to hoard it, one must spread it; wishing to gain it, one must share it.’ This is what [Cáo Cāo] Mèngdé is saying!”

〔二〕 山陽公載記曰:建安十七年,漢立皇子熙為濟陰王,懿為山陽王,敦為東海王。靖聞之曰:「『將欲歙之,必固張之;將欲取之,必固與之』。其孟德之謂乎!」

Nineteenth Year [214], Xiānzhǔ [Liú Bèi] overcame Shǔ, and appointed Jìng as Left General’s Chief Clerk. Xiānzhǔ became King of Hànzhōng [219], Jìng was his Grand Tutor. When claiming honored title [221], seal on Jìng said: “I the subtle obtain and serve the vast enterprise, lord overlooking all states, from morning to night am anxious, afraid I am unable to pacify. The hundred clans are not close, the five grades not modest, you will be Excellency over the Masses, to venerate and spread the five teachings, in lenience. You must exhort yourself! Grasp virtue without negligence, to serve I the subtle’s intentions.”

十九年,先主克蜀,以靖為左將軍長史。先主為漢中王,靖為太傅。及即尊號,策靖曰:「朕獲奉洪業,君臨萬國,夙宵惶惶,懼不能綏。百姓不親,五品不遜,汝作司徒,其敬敷五教,在寬。君其勖哉!秉德無怠,稱朕意焉。」


Jìng though in years was over seventy, he loved and enjoyed people, invited and accepted later generations, pure conversation without tiring. Chancellor Zhūgě Liàng always to him bowed. Zhāngwǔ Second Year [222] he died. His son Qīn, before Jìng early died. Qīn’s son Yóu, during Jǐngyào [258-263] became Secretariat Documenter.

靖雖年逾七十,愛樂人物,誘納後進,清談不倦。丞相諸葛亮皆為之拜。章武二年卒。子欽,先靖夭沒。欽子游,景耀中為尚書。

Previously Jìng like to an elder brother served Yǐngchuān’s Chén Jǐ, and with Chénjùn’s Yuán Huàn, Píngyuán’s Huà Xīn, Dōnghǎi’s Wáng Lǎng and others were friendly. [Huà] Xīn, [Wáng] Lǎng, and [Chén] Jǐ’s son [Chén] Qún, at Wèi’s beginning were Excellencies and supporting great ministers, all with Jìng wrote letter, talking of old friendships, affection and camaraderie conveyed, the writings many and therefore not recorded. (1)

始靖兄事潁川陳紀,與陳郡袁渙、平原華歆、東海王朗等親善,歆、朗及紀子群,魏初為公輔大臣,咸與靖書,申陳舊好,情義款至,文多故不載。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèilüè: Wáng Lǎng with Wénxiū wrote letter that said: “Wénxiū sir: [to hear] news [you are] safe and sound, is very good very good. How could one imagine parting for over thirty years and not being able to meet again! The poets compare one day’s parting to years and moons, how all the more going on and on undergoing over two decades of years! Since with you parting, when sinking again floating, when cut off again connecting, it has been many times. And now and afterward, [I am] residing in a peaceful capital, attaching to a flying dragon of a sagely ruler; [our] generation of companions is completely gone, it is good fortune to be able to grow old and with you sir together be the remaining sort’s old gentlemen, but [we are] separated from one another by several thousand lǐ, added with crippling distances, when hearing news in the wind sounds, entrusting in old affections in thought, solitary solitary in difference places, with different eras without difference. Previously while accompanying the army to Jīng province, [I] met Dèng Zǐxiào and Huán Yuánjiāng, and roughly heard of your movements, saying that you were already at Yì province, grasping duty to oversee prefectures, virtuous nature standardized, old but not degenerated. At the time [I was] attending to Wǔ Huángdì [Cáo Cāo] at Jiānglíng above where Liú [Biǎo] Jǐngshēng heard affairs, together [we] talked of you all night, sincerely as hunger and thirst, truly without end. From when Heaven’s Son [Cáo Pī] was at the East Palace [was successor son], reaching to the ascension to the throne afterward, at every gathering of various worthies, discussing the realm under heaven’s fashionable and eminent still present, how can a single man completely transform to become outstanding, elites finely change to obtain the greatest, therefore then humbly by my decayed self, moving Heaven’s Son’s feeling and hearing; every time narrating of you sir, you are foremost, how then this taking note, then surpasses former ages? The Shū states: ‘men only seek the old,’ the Yì says: ‘same sounds mutually answer, same airs mutually seek.’ General Liú with Great Wèi, is simultaneously and both in these two meanings. Previous ages chance encounters, the same becoming separated, was not Wǔ Huángdì’s aim, the recent errs and tumbles, its goods and wrongs, also was not your intentions. Deeply pondering the meaning of the Shū and Yì, it is beneficial to join separated friends, and therefore [I] send a surrendered to deliver Wú’s tributed famed horses, sables, rugs, obtaining them be without suspicion. The road is newly opened, to narrate old feelings, to convey news and inquiries. A long separation’s feelings fostered, are not what a pen and ink are able to write and explain, and also [I] think you sir are of the same in this will and memory. At present, your own sons and daughters are altogether how many people? Their years are what? I successively lost one son and one daughter, now I have two sons: the elder son is named Sù, twenty-nine years, born at Kuàijī, the younger son is only over a year. Overlooking letter in grief and regret, there is thought of remoteness.”
  • It also said: “In the past I heard the words ‘receiving end at Wénzǔ’ in the Shàngshū. I also heard the writing ‘calendar calculations on myself, justly grasp its center’ in the Lúnyǔ. How did I myself [witness] it in my teeth of old age, right at the coincidence of Heaven’s Mandate received on a sagely ruler, personally seeing the grand words of the Three Yieldings and watching the gathering of the multitude of omens, observing the flourishing rituals of the ascending of the hall solemn and reverent, gazing on the dark smoke of the brilliant flames of the sacrificial fires; at the time I suddenly believed I was at the transfer from Táng to Yú, right at the Heavenly Court at Zǐwēi. I only sigh that I could not hold your hand, and together with you stand in the line of the twenty and two sirs, to listen to Táng’s “Qīn zāi” command. Though you are at the frontier lands, [I] think you also strain eyes and look back, turn ear and distantly listen, stretch neck and like a crane stand. In the past when Rǔnán’s Excellency Chén (Jì) was first appointed, he did not go along with former situations, and yielded [a position] Above the Minsiters to Lǐ Yuánlǐ. By this considering things, I should retire myself to push onto you my position. If I were able to push onto you to seize a reputation of yielding, and afterward relax girdle and entrust pledge, to roam and converse among [Chén] Píng and [Zhōu] Bó, to with you together explain the hardships of former times and fleeing the lands, music and liquor intoxicated and feasting, highly talking and greatly laughing, it would also be enough to leave behind worries and forget old age. I clutch pen to explain feelings, and so laugh.
  • It also said: “Last summer I had a letter but did not yet send it, and now I again write a letter, and join it with the previous. The Imperial Emperor [Cáo Pī] deeply mourns that General Liú [Bèi] has early passed, and also pities that his orphan [Liú Shàn] is not at ease, and cherishes you sir and [Zhūgě Liàng] Kǒngmíng and other scholars of your sort, deeply drowned into the Qiāng and Yí’s different sorts, ever with the central heartlands opposed and cut off, and without a time to join with the central states, gazing out toward your former homelands, and therefore he again sends compassionate remebrance and labors benevolent heart, again sends down enlightened Imperial Order to issue virtuous sound, extending commands on I Lǎng and the rest, to be sent again to write letters to you sir and the rest, that as you sirs are intelligent and enlightened, to consider the attentive sagely intention, and also sufficiently understand that the sea and Dài will forever be, and know how the hundred streams should flow. In the past Yī Yǐn left Xià and joined Yīn, Chén Píng opposed Chǔ and submitted to Hàn, yet had glorious virtue to Āhéng, outstanding achievements as foremost minister. If you sir are able to assist the orphan of men [Liú Shàn], settle the hesitations of men, leave the false title against order, serve the Great Wèi that accepted the Mandate, guest and host simultaneously would have unlimited glorious name, high and low immersed in undecaying constant brilliance, achievements with service merged, reputation with merits written; considering these achievements, it would be sufficient to surpass Yī [Yǐn] and Lǚ [Shàng]. Both carrying on the Imperial Order’s intentions, and moreover considering [our] old feelings, [my] feelings cannot be limited. If I had not spoken of your abilities, explained what you had seen, then there would have been no declaration of enlightened Imperial Order command, vast and shining great favor, narrating thoughts of former dreams. If Heaven enlightens the multitudes of hearts, and you guide Shǔ’s intentions, truly this intention of joining hands has a future date. If rugged roads are not yet cleared, your plans not followed, then [I] fear [our] communication may be blocked, and then how would we again face [one another]? The former and latter two letters, every time the speech reached this, [I] hoped to not have such cutting movement in my chest. You sir traveled about the rivers and lakes, reaching to the south sea, successively observing foreign customs, and can be said to have gone everywhere; thinking of your heart, it is bound to think of the central heartlands, and can be said to be deep. For yourself selecting residence, yet it wishes to be in the central lands; for your ruler selecting security, how can [you] not think of the capital, and yet [you] hold to suspicion on the desolate frontier? In detail consider my foolish words, and quickly send reply.”

〔一〕 魏略:王朗與文休書曰:「文休足下:消息平安,甚善甚善。豈意脫別三十餘年而無相見之緣乎!詩人比一日之別於歲月,豈況悠悠歷累紀之年者哉!自與子別,若沒而復浮,若絕而復連者數矣。而今而後,居升平之京師,攀附於飛龍之聖主;儕輩略盡,幸得老與足下並為遺種之叟,而相去數千里,加有邅蹇之隔,時聞消息於風聲,託舊情於思想,眇眇異處,與異世無以異也。往者隨軍到荊州,見鄧子孝、桓元將,粗聞足下動靜,云夫子既在益州,執職領郡,德素規矩,老而不墮。是時侍宿武皇帝於江陵劉景升聽事之上,共道足下於通夜,拳拳飢渴,誠無已也。自天子在東宮,及即位之後,每會群賢,論天下髦雋之見在者,豈獨人盡易為英,士鮮易取最,故乃猥以原壤之朽質,感夫子之情聽;每敘足下,以為謀首,豈其注意,乃復過於前世,書曰『人惟求舊』,易稱『同聲相應,同氣相求』,劉將軍之與大魏,兼而兩之,總此二義。前世邂逅,以同為睽,非武皇帝之旨;頃者蹉跌,其泰而否,亦非足下之意也。深思書、易之義,利結分於宿好,故遣降者送吳所獻致名馬、貂、罽,得因無嫌。道初開通,展敘舊情,以達聲問。久闊情慉,非夫筆墨所能寫陳,亦想足下同其志念。今者,親生男女凡有幾人?年並幾何?僕連失一男一女,今有二男:大兒名肅,年二十九,生於會稽;小兒裁歲餘。臨書愴悢,有懷緬然。」又曰:「過聞『受終於文祖』之言於尚書。又聞『歷數在躬,允執其中』之文於論語。豈自意得於老耄之齒,正值天命受於聖主之會,親見三讓之弘辭,觀眾瑞之總集,睹升堂穆穆之盛禮,瞻燔燎焜曜之青煙;于時忽自以為處唐、虞之運,際於紫微之天庭也。徒慨不得攜子之手,共列於(世)〔廿〕有二子之數,以聽有唐『欽哉』之命也。子雖在裔土,想亦極目而迴望,側耳而遐聽,延頸而鶴立也。昔汝南陳公初拜,不依故常,讓上卿於李元禮。以此推之,吾宜退身以避子位也。苟得避子以竊讓名,然後(綬)〔緩〕帶委質,游談於平、勃之間,與子共陳往時避地之艱辛,樂酒酣讌,高談大噱,亦足遺憂而忘老。捉筆陳情,隨以喜笑。」又曰:「前夏有書而未達,今重有書,而并致前問。皇帝既深悼劉將軍之早世,又愍其孤之不易,又惜使足下孔明等士人氣類之徒,遂沈溺於羌夷異種之間,永與華夏乖絕,而無朝聘中國之期緣,瞻睎故土桑梓之望也,故復運慈念而勞仁心,重下明詔以發德音,申敕朗等,使重為書與足下等。以足下聰明,揆殷勤之聖意,亦足悟海岱之所常在,知百川之所宜注矣。昔伊尹去夏而就殷,陳平違楚而歸漢,猶曜德於阿衡,著功於宰相。若足下能弼人之遺孤,定人之猶豫,去非常之偽號,事受命之大魏,客主兼不世之榮名,上下蒙不朽之常耀,功與事並,聲與勳著,考〔其〕績效,足以超越伊、呂矣。既承詔(直)〔旨〕,且服舊之情,情不能已。若不言足下之所能,陳足下之所見,則無以宣明詔命,弘光大之恩,敘宿昔夢想之思。若天啟眾心,子導蜀意,誠此意有攜手之期。若險路未夷,子謀不從,則懼聲問或否,復面何由!前後二書,言每及斯,希不切然有動於懷。足下周游江湖,以暨南海,歷觀夷俗,可謂遍矣;想子之心,結思華夏,可謂深矣。為身擇居,猶願中土;為主擇(居)安,豈可以不繫意於京師,而持疑於荒裔乎?詳思愚言,速示還報也。」

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