(15.4) Zhāng Jì 張既 [Déróng 德容]

son Qī 緝 [Jǐngzhòng 敬仲]

[last updated 2021 July 12]

Zhāng Jì appellation Déróng, was a Féngyì Gāolíng man. At sixteen, he became a prefecture minor official. (1) Later he gradually moved right in duties, nominated as filial and incorrupt, did not go. Tàizǔ became Excellency of Works, summoned him, he had not yet arrived, was nominated as abundant talent, sent out as Xīnfēng Magistrate, his government in the Three Adjuncts was number one.


  • (1) Wèilüè states: Jì was of a family poor for generations, as a man had appearance and ceremony. When young he worked in writing, became a prefectural below the gates minor official, and so his family became wealthy. He himself was anxious of poverty, remembered being without opportunity, and therefore always prepared knife pen and register memorials, waiting for if among the various great officials there those with shortages then at once he gave, and for this met with note.

〔一〕 魏略曰:既世單家,(富)為人有容儀。少小工書疏,為郡門下小吏,而家富。自惟門寒,念無以自達,乃常畜好刀筆及版奏,伺諸大吏有乏者輒給與,以是見識焉。

Yuán Shàng resisted Tàizǔ at Líyáng, sent his appointed Hédōng Administrator Guō Yuán and Bìng Province Inspector Gāo Gàn and the Xiōngnú Chányú to capture Píngyáng, issuing envoys west to with Guānzhōng’s various officers to join and follow. Colonel Director of Retainers Zhōng Yáo sent Jì to persuade Generals Mǎ Téng and others, Jì to them spoke of benefits and harms, [Mǎ] Téng and the rest followed this. [Mǎ] Téng sent his son [Mǎ] Chāo to command infantry of over ten thousand men, to with [Zhōng] Yáo meet and strike [Gāo] Gàn and [Guō] Yuán, greatly defeating them, beheading Yuán’s head. [Gāo] Gàn and the Chányú all surrendered. Afterward [Gāo] Gàn again raised Bìng province to rebel, Hénèi’s Zhāng Shèng’s forces of over ten thousand men were without affiliation, plundered between Xiáo and Shéng, Hédōng’s Wèi Gù and Hóngnóng’s Zhāng Yǎn each raised troops to answer him. Tàizǔ appointed Jì as Consultant Cadet, Advisor to Yáo’s military affairs, sent west to summon the various officers Mǎ Téng and the rest, all leading troops to gather and strike [Zhāng] Shèng and the rest, defeated them, beheading [Zhāng] Yǎn and [Wèi] Gù’s heads, [Gāo] Gàn fled to Jīng province. Enfeoffed Jì as Wǔshǐ precinct marquis.


Tàizǔ was about to campaign against Jīng province, but [Mǎ] Téng and the rest divided and occupied Guānzhōng. Tàizǔ again sent Jì to inform [Mǎ] Téng and the rest, ordered to dismiss their personal divisions and seek to return [east]. [Mǎ] Téng had already agreed to it but again hesitated, Jì feared there would be changes, and therefore informed the various counties to urgently prepare and wait, 2000 dàn [ranked officials] in the outskirts welcoming. [Mǎ] Téng could not but go east. Tàizǔ memorialized [Mǎ] Téng as Minister of the Guard, son [Mǎ] Chāo as a General, to control his armies. Later [Mǎ] Chāo rebelled, Jì followed Tàizǔ in defeating [Mǎ] Chāo at Huáyīn, to the west settling Guānyòu. Appointed Jì as Jīngzhào Intendant, gathering and caring for refugees, raising and restoring counties and towns, the common people cherished this.


Wèi state was established [213], he became Secretariat Documenter, sent out as Yōng Province Inspector. Tàizǔ said to Jì: “Returning you to your home province, could be called wearing embroidery in daytime and walking.” He followed the campaign against Zhāng Lǔ, separately from Sàn pass entering to suppress rebelling Dī, collecting their grain to give as military provisions. [Zhāng] Lǔ surrendered, [Zhāng] Jì persuaded Tàizǔ to evacuate Hànzhōng’s people of several tens of thousand households to fill Cháng’ān and the Three Adjuncts. Afteward he with Cáo Hóng defeated Wú Lán at Xiàbiàn, again with Xiàhóu Yuān suppressed Sòng Jiàn, separately attacked Líntáo, Dídào, pacifying them. At the time, Tàizǔ moved people to fill the Hé’s north, Lǒngxī, Tiānshuǐ, and Nán’ān’s people were mutually afraid of moving, disturbed and not at ease, Jì temporarily had the Three Adjunct’s people serving as officers and officials pause taxation, sending them to repair houses and residences, make water pestles, and the people’s hearts were therefore calmed. Tàizǔ was about to evacuate Hānzhōng’s defenders, feared Liú Bèi would go north to capture Wǔdū’s Dī to threaten Guānzhōng, asked Jì, Jì said: “Can encourage them to go north to receive grain to avoid bandits, the first to arrive generously favored and rewarded, then the front will know benefits, and the rear will certainly admire it.” Tàizǔ followed this plan, and personally arrived at Hànzhōng to lead out the various armies, ordering Jì to Wǔdū, to relocate Dī of over fifty thousand tribes to go out and reside at Fúfēng and Tiānshǔi’s border. (2)


  • (2) Sānfǔ Juélù zhù states: Jì was a child, the Merit officer Yóu Yīn observed and was impressed with him, invited Jì to visit his house, and Jì respectfully agreed. Yīn first returned, and ordered his house to prepare and set guest food. When Jì arrived, Yīn’s wife laughed and said: “Are you daft? Zhāng Déróng is a little child, how is he a special guest?” Yīn said: “If he is not special, then he is Fāngbó’s vessel.” Yīn therefore with Jì discussed the strategies of hegemony. The reception finished, he entrusted his son Chǔ to him, Jì modestly did not accept, Yīn firmly entrusted him, and Jì because Yīn was the country’s old hope and it was difficult to oppose his intentions, therefore accepted it. Yīn formerly with Colonel Director of Retainers Hú Zhěn had discord, Zhěn falsely accused and killed Yīn, Yīn was dead for over a moon, Zhěn obtained a severe illness, and to himself only said: “[I] admit guilt, admit guilt, Merit Officer Yóu’s ghost is coming.” Therefore he then died. At the time Guānzhōng appraised saying: “Living having enlightenment to know men, dead having the spirit of honored divinity.” His son Chǔ appellation Zhòngyǔn, became Púbǎn Magistrate. When Tàizǔ settled Guānzhōng, Hànxīng prefecture was vacant, Tàizǔ about this asked Jì, Jì praised Chǔ as talented in both civil and martial, and therefore he was appointed Hànxīng Administrator. Later transferred to Lǒngxī.
  • Wèilüè states: [Yóu] Chǔ as a man was generous, successively ranked as Administrator, whereever he was he used kindnes and virtue for governance, did not enjoy punishing and killing. During Tàihé, Zhūgě Liàng set out Lǒngyòu, the officials and people were disturbed, the Tiānshuǐ and Nán’ān Administrators each abandoned their prefectures to go east downstream, Chǔ alone occupied Lǒngxī, summoned and gathered officials and people, saying to them: “[I the] Administrator am without kindness and virtue. Now Shǔ troops arrive, the various prefectures’ officials and people all already answer them, this also is your autumn [opportunity] for riches and honor. [I the] Administrator fundamentally for the country defend the prefecture, righteousness is in certainly dying, you sirs may take the Administrator’s [my] head and carry it to go [surrender].” The officials and people all shed tears, saying: “Dying and living is with your enlightened official the same, [we] are without second heart.” Chǔ again said: “If you are not willing, I will for you sirs draw up a plan. Now the east two prefectures have already left, and certainly bandits will come, but [we] can together firmly defend. If the state’s rescue arrives, the bandits will certainly leave, this would be [our] one prefecture holding to righteousness, and everyone would obtain nobility and favor. If the government rescue does not arrive, Shǔ will attack for days oppressively, you then can take the Administrator’s [my] head to surrender, and it would not be too late.” The officials and people therefore fortified and defended. But Nán’ān indeed led Shǔ troops to attack Lǒngxī. Chǔ heard the rebels arrived, and then sent Chief Clerk Mǎ Yóng out the gates to set up battle lines, and personally atop the city walls spoke to inform the Shǔ forces, saying: “If you are able to cutoff Lǒng, to have the eastern troops be unable to come upstream, within one moon, then Lǒngxī’s officials and people without being attacked will themselves submit; if you are not able, then you weary yourselves in vain and that is all.” He sent Yóng to trumpet and drum and strike them, the Shǔ men then left. After over ten days, the various armies went upstream to Lǒng, Zhūgě Liàng was defeated and fled. Nán’ān and Tiānshǔi all in connection to answering Liàng were destroyed, the two prefecture Administrators each received heavy punishments, but Chǔ for his achievements was enfeoffed as a Ranked Lord, his Chief clerk and officials and associates all were bestowed honors. The Emperor praised his governance, Imperial Order specially summoned him to Court, drawing him to ascend the Palace Hall. Chǔ as a man was short and small but had loud voice, as he was a [minor] official, he previously had not attended Court, was given Imperial Order to ascend the steps, and did not know the ceremonies. The Emperor ordered the Attendant Internals to call him, shouting: “Lǒngxī Administrator advance.” Chǔ should have said “Wěi (yes)” but instead loudly answered saying “Nuò (yes).” The Emperor looked at him and laughed, and therefore consoled and encouraged him. After the meeting, he personally memorialized to beg to remain in the Night Guard, was appointed Side Horse Commandant. Chǔ was not learned, but by nature enjoyed traveling and music. Therefore he raised musicians, lutes and zithers and pipes, in every travel he had them personally accompany. Wherever he was he had board games and darts to amuse himself. After several years, he was again sent out as Běidì Administrator, aged over seventy years he died.

  〔二〕 三輔決錄注曰:既為兒童,(為)郡功曹游殷察異之,引既過家,既敬諾。殷先歸,敕家具設賓饌。及既至,殷妻笑曰:「君其悖乎!張德容童昏小兒,何異客哉!」殷曰:「卿勿怪,乃方伯之器也。」殷遂與既論霸王之略。饗訖,以子楚託之;既謙不受,殷固託之,既以殷邦之宿望,難違其旨,乃許之。殷先與司隸校尉胡軫有隙,軫誣搆殺殷。殷死月餘,軫得疾患,自說但言「伏罪,伏罪,游功曹將鬼來」。於是遂死。于時關中稱曰:「生有知人之明,死有貴神之靈。」子楚字仲允,為蒲阪令。太祖定關中時,漢興郡缺,太祖以問既,既稱楚才兼文武,遂以為漢興太守。後轉隴西。魏略曰:楚為人慷慨,歷位宰守,所在以恩德為治,不好刑殺。太和中,諸葛亮出隴右,吏民騷動。天水、南安太守各棄郡東下,楚獨據隴西,召會吏民,謂之曰:「太守無恩德。今蜀兵至,諸郡吏民皆已應之,此亦諸卿富貴之秋也。太守本為國家守郡,義在必死,卿諸人便可取太守頭持往。」吏民皆涕淚,言「死生當與明府同,無有二心」。楚復言:「卿曹若不願,我為卿畫一計。今東二郡已去,必將寇來,但可共堅守。若國家救到,寇必去,是為一郡守義,人人獲爵寵也。若官救不到,蜀攻日急,爾乃取太守以降,未為晚也。」吏民遂城守。而南安果將蜀兵,就攻隴西。楚聞賊到,乃遣長史馬顒出門設陳,而自於城上曉謂蜀帥,言:「卿能斷隴,使東兵不上,一月之中,則隴西吏人不攻自服;卿若不能,虛自疲弊耳。」使顒鳴鼓擊之,蜀人乃去。後十餘日,諸軍上隴,諸葛亮破走。南安、天水皆坐應亮破滅,兩郡守各獲重刑,而楚以功封列侯,長史掾屬皆賜拜。帝嘉其治,詔特聽朝,引上殿。楚為人短小而大聲,自為吏,初不朝覲,被詔登階,不知儀式。帝令侍中贊引,呼「隴西太守前」,楚當言「唯」,而大應稱「諾」。帝顧之而笑,遂勞勉之。罷會,自表乞留宿衛,拜駙馬都尉。楚不學問,而性好遊遨音樂。乃畜歌者,琵琶、箏、簫,每行來將以自隨。所在樗蒲、投壺,歡欣自娛。數歲,復出為北地太守,年七十餘卒。

At that time, Wǔwēi’s Yán Jùn, Zhāngyè’s Hé Luán, Jiǔquán’s Huáng Huá, Xīpíng’s Qū Yǎn and others together raised prefectures to rebel, declaring themselves Generals, then mutually attackinga nd striking. [Yán] Jùn sent envoy to escort his mother and sons to visit Tàizǔ as pledges, to request help. Tàizǔ asked Jì, Jì said: “[Yán] Jùn and the rest outside claim the state’s authority, inside become arrogant and rebellious, [if their] plans are settled and power sufficient, later they will at once rebel and that is all. Now [we] are about to work on settling Shǔ, it is for now appropriate to keep both sides and have them fight, like Biàn Zhuāngzǐ’s stabbing tiger, sitting to collect their dead.” Tàizǔ said: “Excellent.” After over a year, [Hé] Luán then killed [Yán] Jùn, Wǔwēi’s Wáng Mì also killed [Hé] Luán. At the time there was no installed Liáng province, from the Three Adjuncts to the Western Regions, all were part of Yōng province. When Emperor Wén succeeded the King’s throne, he first installed Liáng province, appointing Āndìng Administrator Zōu Qí as its Inspector. Zhāngyè’s Zhāng Jìn seized the prefectural administrator to raise troops to oppose [Zōu] Qí, Huáng Huá, Qū Yǎn each pursued the former Administrator, raised troops to answer him. Jì advanced troops to for Protecting the Qiāng Colonel Sū Zé give support, and therefore [Sū] Zé was able to have achievement. Jì advanced in noble rank to a capital village Marquis. Liáng province’s Lúshuǐ Hú Yījiànjìqiè, Zhìyuánduō and others rebelled, the Hé’s west was greatly disturbed. The Emperor worried of this, saying: “If it is not Jì none is able to secure Liáng province.” Then he summoned Zōu Qí, having Jì succeed him. Imperial Order said: “In the past Jiǎ Fù requested to strike Yǎn rebels, Guāng-Wǔ laughed and said: ‘With the Metal Mace Bearer striking Yǎn, again what worries do I have?’ Your planning and strategy surpasses others, now then is its time. By convenience undertake affairs, do not first request [permission].” Sent Protector of the Army Xiàhóu Rú, General Fèi Yào and others successively to his rear. Jì arrived at Jīnchéng, wished to cross the Hé, the various officers and defenders believed: “Troops are few and roads are rugged, [we] cannot deeply penetrate.” Jì said: “Though the road is rugged, it is not as narrow as Jǐngxíng, the Yí and Dí like crows gather, without Zuǒ Chē’s planning. Now Wǔwēi is critically endangered, going there must be fast.” Therefore he crossed the Hé. The rebels of over seven thousand cavalry opposed the army at Zhānyīn’s mouth, Jì spread sound the army was following Zhānyīn, and then secretly followed the Qiěcì to set out to reach Wǔwēi. The Hú thought it like spirits, and withdrew to Xiǎnměi. Jì already occupied Wǔwēi, [Fèi] Yào then arrived, [Xiàhóu] Rú and the rest had not yet arrived. Jì rewarded the officers and soldiers, wishing to advance the army to strike the Hú. The various officers all said: “The troops are tired, the caitiff masses’ morale is sharp, difficult to with them contest.” Jì said: “Now the army is without provisions, and must from the enemy take resources. If the caitiffs see troops gather, they will withdraw to depend on deep mountains, if pursuing them then the roads are rugged and [we will] be exhausted and hungry, the troops returning then can only wait for the enemy to plunder. If it is like this, the fighting cannot be resolved, what is called: ‘one day releasing the enemy, the troubles are for several generations.'” Therefore he advanced the army to Xiǎnměi. The Hú cavalry of several thousand because of large wind wished to set fire to burn the camps, and the officers and soldiers were all afraid. Jì in the night hid elite soldiers of three thousand men as ambush, sending Advisor to the Army Chénggōng Yīng to command over a thousand cavalry to challenge battle, ordered to feign retreat. The Hú indeed fought and pursued them, and therefore set out the ambush to cut off their reader, head and tail advancing to strike, greatly defeating them, beheading and capturing alive in the tens of thousands. (1) The Emperor was extremely pleased, Imperial Order said: “You crossed the Hé and passed rough terrain, with the tired struck the rested, with few overcame many, achievements surpassing Nán Zhòng, diligence exceeding Jí Fǔ. This merit is not only in defeating the Hú, but in ever pacifying the Hé’s right, allowing me to ever be without worry looking to the west.” Moved enfeoffment to Xī village Marquis, increased fief by 200, adding to the rpevious to 400 households.


  • (1) Wèilüè states: Chénggōng Yīng, Jīnchéng man. At Zhōngpíng’s end, he followed Hán Yuē as belly and heart [internal officer]. During Jiàn’ān, [Hán] Yuē from Huáyīn was defeated and fled, returning to Huángzhōng, his associates scattered and left, only Yīng alone followed.
  • Diǎnlüè states: Hán Suì was at Huángzhōng, his son-in-law Yán Xíng wished to kill Suì to surrender, in the night attacking Suì, did not succeed. Suì sighed and said: “I am in critical danger, and disaster rises from a marriage!” He said to Yīng: “Now relatives leave and rebel, men and forces become few, [I] should from among the Qiāng go southwest to Shǔ.” Yīng said: “[You] raised army for several tens of years, now though defeated, how can [you] abandon this gate and depend on another?” Suì said: “I am old, what do you wish [me] to do?” Yīng said: “Excellency Cáo cannot from afar come, only Xiàhóu [Yuān]. Xiàhóu’s forces are not sufficient to pursue us, and also cannot for a long time stay. For now rest among the Qiāng, to wait for them to leave. Calling out for former friends, pacifying and gathering Qiāng and Hú, yet can be done.” Suì followed this plan, at the time those accompanying men and women were yet several thousand people. Suì previously gave kindness to the Qiāng, the Qiāng guarded and protected him. When Xiàhóu Yuān returned, he had Yán Xíng remain behind. Then gathering Qiāng and Hú of several tens of thousands to attack [Yán] Xíng, Xíng wished to flee, it happened that Suì died, and Yīng surrendered to Tàizǔ. Tàizǔ met Yīng and was extremely pleased, appointed him a Master of the Army, enfeoffed as a Ranked Marquis. He accompanied in going out hunting, there were three deer running past ahead, the Excellency ordered Yīng to shoot them, three shots three hits, all in answer to the string they fell. The Excellency patted hands and said to him: “Only for Hán Wényuē can you be utmost in service, and for me alone you cannot?” Yīng then dismounted horse and knelt saying: “[I] will not deceive your enlightened excellency. If I Yīng’s original master was here, truly I would not have come to this.” Then he shed tears and sobbed. The Excellency praised his old devotion, and therefore closely respected him. Between Yánkāng and Huángchū, the Hé’s west had rebellious plots. Imperial Order sent Yīng to assist Liáng Province in pacifying Lǒngyòu, he of illness died.
  • Wèilüè states: Yán Xíng, Jīnchéng man, later named Yàn, appellation Yànmíng. When young he had reputation for strength, began as a minor officer, following Hán Yuē. At Jiàn’ān’s beginning, Yuē with Mǎ Téng mutually attacked and struck. Téng’s son Chāo also was known for strength. Xíng once stabbed Chāo, the lance broke, and so he with the broken lance struck Chāo’s back neck, almost killing him. Reaching the Fourteenth Year [209], he was by Yuē sent to visit Tàizǔ, Tàizǔ generously treated him, memorializing to appoint him Qiánwèi Administrator. Xíng therefore requested to have his father enter the Night Guard, to the west returned to meet Yuē, and announced Tàizǔ’s instructions saying: “Apologies Wényuē: when you first raised troops, you were forced, and I understood. You should early come, to together rectify and assist the state and court.” Xíng therefore said to Yuē: “I Xíng also am a General, from raising army onward for over thirty years, the people and soldiers are weary, wherever we are is also limited, and should early ourselves submit. Therefore previously at Yè, I personally had my aged father visit the capital, and I sincerely say you General also should send one son, to show your red [loyalty].” Yuē said: “For now I can watch for a few years.” Later Suì sent his son, with Xíng’s father and mother all going east. It happened that Yuē to the west suppressed Zhāng Měng, leaving Xíng to defend the old camp, and Mǎ Chāo and others joined to plan rebellion, elected Yuē as their commander. When Yuē returned, Chāo said to Yuē: “Formerly Director of Retainers Zhōng [Yáo] appointed me Chāo to capture you General, the people east of the passes cannot be trusted. Now I Chāo abandon father, and take you General as father, you General also should abandon son, and take me Chāo as a son.” Xíng remonstrated Yuē, not wishing to with Chāo join. Yuē said to Xíng: “Now the various officers without planning are in agreement, as if it is Heaven’s calculations.” Therefore he went east to Huáyīn. When Tàizǔ with Yuē met horses to talk, Xíng was at the rear, Tàizǔ looked out and said to Xíng: “You should remember to be a filial son.” When Chāo and the rest were defeated and fled, Xíng accompanied Yuē back to Jīnchéng. Tàizǔ heard Xíng’s former intentions,a nd therefore only executed Yuē’s descendants in the capital. Then he hand wrote letter to Xíng saying: “Observing Wényuē’s conduct, it makes people laugh. I beginning to end with him sent letter, with nothing not spoken, with thingsl like this how can it again be tolerated! Your father remonstrates and discusses, and his himself safe. However a prison is not the place to care for parents, and moreover also government officials also cannot for a long time for another care for elders.” Yuē heard Xíng’s father alone survived, and wished to have him also come to harm, to unify their hearts, and so forced his youngest daughter to be wife to Xíng, and Xíng could not act for himself. Tàizǔ indeed suspected Xíng. It happened that Yuē sent Xíng to separately command Xīpíng prefecture. Therefore he gathered his divisions and with Yuē mutually attacked and struck. Xíng was unsuccessful, and so led his family east to visit Tàizǔ. Tàizǔ memorialized to appoint him a Ranked Marquis.

〔一〕 魏略曰:成公英,金城人也。中平末,隨韓約為腹心。建安中,約從華陰破走,還湟中,部黨散去,唯英獨從。典略曰:韓遂在湟中,其婿閻行欲殺遂以降,夜攻遂,不下。遂歎息曰:「丈夫困厄,禍起婚姻乎!」謂英曰:「今親戚離叛,人眾轉少,當從羌中西南詣蜀耳。」英曰:「興軍數十年,今雖罷敗,何有棄其門而依於人乎!」遂曰:「吾年老矣,子欲何施?」英曰:「曹公不能遠來,獨夏侯爾。夏侯之眾,不足以追我,又不能久留;且息肩於羌中,以須其去。招呼故人,綏會羌、胡,猶可以有為也。」遂從其計,時隨從者男女尚數千人。遂宿有恩於羌,羌衛護之。及夏侯淵還,使閻行留後。乃合羌、胡數萬將攻行,行欲走,會遂死,英降太祖。太祖見英甚喜,以為軍師,封列侯。從行出獵,有三鹿走過前,公命英射之,三發三中,皆應弦而倒。公抵掌謂之曰:「但韓文約可為盡節,而孤獨不可乎?」英乃下馬而跪曰:「不欺明公。假使英本主人在,實不來此也。」遂流涕哽咽。公嘉其敦舊,遂親敬之。延康、黃初之際,河西有逆謀。詔遣英佐涼州平隴右,病卒。魏略曰:閻行,金城人也,後名豔,字彥明。少有健名,始為小將,隨韓約。建安初,約與馬騰相攻擊。騰子超亦號為健。行嘗刺超,矛折,因以折矛撾超項,幾殺之。至十四年,為約所使詣太祖,太祖厚遇之,表拜犍為太守。行因請令其父入宿衛,西還見約,宣太祖教云:「謝文約:卿始起兵時,自有所逼,我所具明也。當早來,共匡輔國朝。」行因謂約曰:「行亦為將軍,興軍以來三十餘年,民兵疲瘁,所處又狹,宜早自附。是以前在鄴,自啟當令老父詣京師,誠謂將軍亦宜遣一子,以示丹赤。」約曰:「且可復觀望數歲中!」後遂遣其子,與行父母俱東。會約西討張猛,留行守舊營,而馬超等結反謀,舉約為都督。及約還,超謂約曰:「前鍾司隸任超使取將軍,關東人不可復信也。今超棄父,以將軍為父,將軍亦當棄子,以超為子。」行諫約,不欲令與超合。約謂行曰:「今諸將不謀而同,似有天數。」乃東詣華陰。及太祖與約交馬語,行在其後,太祖望謂行曰:「當念作孝子。」及超等破走,行隨約還金城。太祖聞行前意,故但誅約子孫在京師者。乃手書與行曰:「觀文約所為,使人笑來。吾前後與之書,無所不說,如此何可復忍!卿父諫議,自平安也。雖然,牢獄之中,非養親之處,且又官家亦不能久為人養老也。」約聞行父獨在,欲使并遇害,以一其心,乃強以少女妻行,行不獲已。太祖果疑行。會約使行別領西平郡。遂勒其部曲,與約相攻擊。行不勝,乃將家人東詣太祖。太祖表拜列侯。

Jiǔquán’s Sū Héng rebelled, with Qiāng leaders Líndài and Dīnglíng’s Hú of over ten thousand cavalry attacked borer counties. Jì with Xiàhóu Rú struck and defeated them, [Sū] Héng and Líndài and the rest all surrendered. Therefore he sent up memorial requesting to with [Xiàhóu] Rú govern at Zuǒchéng, building Zhāngsāi, installing beacon watchers and watch pavilions to prepare against the Hú. (1) The Western Qiāng were afraid, and led their masses of over twenty thousand tribes to surrender. Afterward Xīpíng’s Qū Guāng and others killed their prefecture administrator, the various officers wished to strike them. Jì said: “Only [Qū] Guāng and the rest create rebellion, the prefecture people are not necessarily all in agreement. If [we] casually with the army overlook them, the officials and people and Qiāng and Hú will certainly say the country does not distinguish right from wrong, and further cause all to lock together, this is to give a tiger wings. [Qū] Guāng and the rest wish to have the Qiāng and Hú be their support, now first send Qiāng and Hú to plunder and strike, increase their rewards and recruitment, and have the captured all conferred on them. Outside it will stop their power, inside it will separate their connections, and certainly without battle it will be settled.” Then he sent orders to inform the various Qiāng, that those who were by [Qū] Guāng and the rest deceived were pardoned, and those able to behead rebel leaders and send the heads would be given fief and reward. Therefore [Qū] Guāng’s division associates beheaded and sent [Qū] Guāng’s head, the rest all calmed and settled as before.


  • (1) Wèilüè states: Rú appellation Jùnlín, Xiàhóu Shàng’s younger cousin. He began as Yānlíng marquis [Cáo] Zhāng’s Valiant Cavalry Major, [two missing characters] became Campaigning South General, Regional Commander of Jīng and Yù provinces. Zhèngshǐ [242] second year, Zhū Rán besieged Fánchéng, inside the city the defending officer Yǐ Xiū and the rest asked for rescue with extreme urgency. Rú advanced to garrison Dèngsāi, as his troops were few he did not dare advance, but made drums and horns, arranged on the way, from [Zhū] Rán by six to seven lǐ, agitating and returning, causing [Yǐ] Xiū and the rest to from afar see them, and it was repeatedly like this. After over a month, when the Grand Tutor arrived, then they together advanced, [Zhū] Rán and the rest fled. At the time it was said Rú was cowardly, some believed he used a few to confuse many, obtaining sound to rescue them was appropriate. Rú yet because of this was summoned back, becoming Minister Charioteer.

〔一〕 魏略曰:儒字俊林,夏侯尚從弟。初為鄢陵侯彰驍騎司馬,(宣王)〔囗囗〕為征南將軍、都督荊、豫州。正始二年,朱然圍樊城,城中守將乙修等求救甚急。儒進屯鄧塞,以兵少不敢進,但作鼓吹,設導從,去然六七里,翱翔而還,使修等遙見之,數數如是。月餘,及太傅到,乃俱進,然等走。時謂儒為怯,或以為曉以少疑眾,得聲救之宜。儒猶以此召還,為太僕。

Jì oversaw two provinces for over ten years, his governance and kindness known and famed, those that he with courtesy recruited were Fúfēng’s Páng Yán, Tiānshuǐ’s Yáng Fù, Āndìng’s Hú Zūn, Jiǔquán’s Páng Yù, Dūnhuáng’s Zhāng Gōng, Zhōu Shēngliè and others, and in the end all had reputation and rank. (1) Huángchū Fourth Year [223] he died. Imperial Order said: “In the past Xún Huánzǐ established achievement at Dítǔ, Jìn’s lord rewarded him with a thousand household fief; Féng Yì gave strength to the Hàn Court, Guāng-Wǔ enfeoffed his two sons. Therefore Liáng Province Inspector Zhāng Jì, able to care for the people and raise the masses, causing the various Qiāng to submit lands, can be said to be the state’s excellent minister. By misfortune he died and perished, We deeply pity this, and bestow on his youngest son Wēngguī noble rank as Marquis within the Passes.” Emperor Míng succeeded the throne, posthumously titled him Sù-hóu “Solemn Marquis,” his son Qī succeeded.


  • (1) Wèilüè states: Previously, Jì was the prefecture’s small official, Merit Officer Xú Yīng once personally flogged Jì thirty strokes. Yīng appellation Bójì, was of a Féngyì prominent surname, at Jiàn’ān’s beginning became Púbǎn Magistrate. Yīng by nature was stubborn and frank, himself saw that his clan was greater than Jì’s, in the hometown’s name lists was at the front, and moreover previously had disgraced Jì, so though he knew Jì was noble and prominent, to the end he would not agree to make requests from Jì. Though Jì had obtained his wishes, he also did not care for calculating origins, and yet wished to with Yīng make peace. Once because of intoxication he wished to closely act intimate with Yīng, Yīng therefore opposed his intentions and would not accept. Yīng because of this therefore no longer advanced in use. Therefore at the time people praised Jì not holding onto old grievances, and yet praised Yīng for not yielding.

〔一〕 魏略曰:初,既為郡小吏,功曹徐英嘗自鞭既三十。英字伯濟,馮翊著姓,建安初為蒲阪令。英性剛爽,自見族氏勝既,於鄉里名行在前,加以前辱既,雖知既貴顯,終不肯求於既。既雖得志,亦不顧計本原,猶欲與英和。嘗因醉欲親狎英,英故抗意不納。英由此遂不復進用。故時人善既不挾舊怨,而壯英之不撓。

Qī as Internal Documents Cadet was gradually promoted to Dōngguǎn Administrator. During Jiāpíng, his daughter became Empress, and he was summoned and appointed Merit Grandee, ranked Specially Advanced, enfeoffed his wife Xiàng as Ānchéng village Lady. Qī with Internal Documents Director Lǐ Fēng together plotted, executed. The story is in Xiàhóu Xuán’s biography [SGZ 9]. (1)


  • (1) Wèilüè states: Qī appellation Jìngzhòng, during Tàihé was Wēn Magistrate, with reputation for governance and ability. It happened that Zhūgě Liàng set out, Qī sent up expedient suggestions, Imperial Order about this asked Internal Documents Director Sūn Zī, [Sūn] Zī believed he had resourceful strategy, and therefore he was summoned and appointed Cavalry Commandant, sent as Advisor to the Campaigning against Shǔ Army. The Army was dismissed, he entered as Secretariat Documents Cadet, for his competence was by Emperor Míng noted. The Emperor believed Qī’s talent and ability could be used for many appointments, and asked a physiognomy expert to appraise him. The physiognomy expert said: “Do not exceed 2000 dàn [level of appointment].” The Emperor said: “How can talent like this yet have rank stop at 2000 dàn?” Reaching to when he was at Dōngguǎn, he managed troops of several thousand men. Qī by nature was stingy with wealth and boastful of power, in one morning because his daughter was summoned left the prefecture, and returned and sat at home, anxious and worried and impatient and disturbed. Repeatedly he for the state explained circumstances to strike Wú and Shǔ, and also once replied to General-in-Chief Sīmǎ [Shī] guessing that although Zhūgě Kè obtained victory on the border territories, he would meet with execution not long after. The General-in-Chief asked the reason, Qī said: “Authority shaking his ruler, achievements dominating the whole state, [though he should] desire to not die can he obtain that?” When [Zhūgě] Kè from Héféi returned, Wú indeed killed him. The General-in-Chief heard [Zhūgě] Kè had died, and said to everyone: “Zhūgě Kè is of common sort and that is all! Recently Zhāng Jìngzhòng discussed [Zhūgě] Kè, believing he would certainly meet with killing. Now indeed it is like this. Jìngzhòng’s wisdom is superior to [Zhūgě] Kè’s.” Qī with Lǐ Fēng joined families, and also resided mutually close together. [Lǐ] Fēng at the time of being called to urgently go out, [Zhāng Qī’s] son [Zhāng] Miǎo had gone to meet him, to consult on the situation. [Lǐ] Fēng was arrested, the matter with Qī was connected, and therefore he was arrested and sent to the Minister of Justice, bestowed with death [ordered suicide] inside the prison. His various sons were all together executed. Qī’s grandson Yīn, during Jìn’s Yǒngxīng became Liáng Province Inspector, see Jìn shū.

〔一〕 魏略曰:緝字敬仲,太和中為溫令,名有治能。會諸葛亮出,緝上便宜,詔以問中書令孫資,資以為有籌略,遂召拜騎都尉,遣參征蜀軍。軍罷,入為尚書郎,以稱職為明帝所識。帝以為緝之材能,多所堪任,試呼相者相之。相者云:「不過二千石。」帝曰:「何材如是而位止二千石乎?」及在東莞,領兵數千人。緝性吝於財而矜於勢,一旦以女徵去郡,還坐里舍,悒悒躁擾。數為國家陳擊吳、蜀形勢,又嘗對司馬大將軍料諸葛恪雖得勝於邊土,見誅不久。大將軍問其故,緝云:「威震其主,功蓋一國,欲不死可得乎?」及恪從合肥還,吳果殺之。大將軍聞恪死,謂眾人曰:「諸葛恪多輩耳!近張敬仲縣論恪,以為必見殺,今果然如此。敬仲之智為勝恪也。」緝與李豐通家,又居相側近。豐時取急出,子藐往見之,有所咨道。豐被收,事與緝連,遂收送廷尉,賜死獄中,其諸子皆并誅。緝孫殷,晉永興中為梁州刺史,見晉書。

1 thought on “(15.4) Zhāng Jì 張既 [Déróng 德容]

  1. Pingback: (13.1) Zhōng Yáo 鍾繇 [Yuáncháng 元常] | Three States Records

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s