(55.2) Huáng Gài 黃蓋 [Gōngfù 公覆]

Huáng Gài appellation Gōngfù was a Línglíng Quánlíng man. (1) He began as a prefecture official, was nominated as a Filial and Incorruptible candidate, recruited to the Offices of the Excellencies. Sūn Jiān raised righteous troops, and Gài followed him. [Sūn] Jiān to the south defeated mountain bandits, to the north drove away Dǒng Zhuó, and appointed Gài as Separate Division Major. [Sūn] Jiān died, Gài followed [Sūn] Cè and [Sūn] Quán, wore armor traveling about, treading blades and slaughtering cities.

黃蓋字公覆,零陵泉陵人也。〔一〕初為郡吏,察孝廉,辟公府。孫堅舉義兵,蓋從之。堅南破山賊,北走董卓,拜蓋別部司馬。堅薨,蓋隨策及權,擐甲周旋,蹈刃屠城。

  • (1) Wúshū states: He was former Nányáng Administrator Huáng Zǐlián’s descendant. Branch and leaf [of the Huáng clan] separated, from his grandfather they moved to Línglíng, and therefore resided there. Gài when young was orphaned, in infancy and childhood suffered difficulties, and experienced bitter hardships, however he had strong will, and though he was poor and lowly, he would not be mediocre, and always used spare time between carrying firewood to study books and learn military affairs.

〔一〕 吳書曰:故南陽太守黃子廉之後也,枝葉分離,自祖遷于零陵,遂家焉。蓋少孤,嬰丁凶難,辛苦備嘗,然有壯志,雖處貧賤,不自同於凡庸,常以負薪餘閒,學書疏,講兵事。


The various Shānyuè would not submit, there were bandit troubles in the counties, so they employed Gài as a defending [county] chief. Shíchéng county officials, specially had difficulty in managing, Gài therefore installed two Officials, dividing management of the various departments.

諸山越不賓,有寇難之縣,輒用蓋為守長。石城縣吏,特難檢御,蓋乃署兩掾,分主諸曹。

The instructions said: “I your Chief am not virtuous, relying on martial achievements became an official, and not as a civil official am praised. Now the bandits are not yet pacified, [I] have army affairs, and all written documents are entrusted to the two Officials, to inspect and take over the various departments, and investigate and expose errors and wrongs. What the two Officials arrange, matters entering and orders going out, if there is treachery and deception, in the end there will not be application of whip or cane, it is appropriate for each to devote their hearts, to not for the masses be [bad] example.”

教曰:「令長不德,徒以武功為官,不以文吏為稱。今賊寇未平,有軍旅之務,一以文書委付兩掾,當檢攝諸曹,糾擿謬誤。兩掾所署,事入諾出,若有姦欺,終不加以鞭杖,宜各盡心,無為眾先。」

At first all feared his authority, morning and night respectful and dutiful; after a while, the officials because Gài did not inspect written documents, gradually tolerated personal affairs. Gài also suspected estrangement and slackness, at the time there was investigation, and for each he found the two Officials’ not observing law several incidents.

初皆佈威,夙夜恭職;久之,吏以蓋不視文書,漸容人事。蓋亦嫌外懈怠,時有所省,各得兩掾不奉法數事。

Then he all invited the various officials, bestowed liquor and food, and therefore he presented the incidents and interrogated. The two Officials had no reply, and all knocked head [on the ground] to apologize for crimes. Gài said: “Previously there were already orders, that in the end it would not be whip and cane applied, this was not deception.” Therefore he killed them. Inside the county was shaken and afraid.

乃悉請諸掾吏,賜酒食,因出事詰問。兩掾辭屈,皆叩頭謝罪。蓋曰:「前已相敕,終不以鞭杖相加,非相欺也。」遂殺之。縣中震慄。

Later he was transferred to Chūngǔ Chief, Xúnyáng Magistrate. Altogether he managed nine counties, wherever he was was pacified and settled. He was promoted to Dānyáng Commandant, he restrained the strong and helped the weak, and the Shānyuè submitted and attached.

後轉春穀長,尋陽令。凡守九縣,所在平定。遷丹楊都尉,抑彊扶弱,山越懷附。


Gài’s looks and appearance were stern and resolute, he was good at caring for the army, every time he campaigned, the soldiers all fought to be the front. During Jiàn’ān, he accompanied Zhōu Yú in resisting Excellency Cáo at Chìbì, established plan for fire attack, the story is in [Zhōu] Yú’s biography. (1)

蓋姿貌嚴毅,善於養眾,每所征討,士卒皆爭為先。建安中,隨周瑜拒曹公於赤壁,建策火攻,語在瑜傳。〔一〕

He was appointed Martial Vanguard Internal Cadet General. Wǔlíng’s Mán and Yí rebelled, attacking and holding cities, and therefore Gài was designated Administrator. At the time the prefecture’s soldiers were only five hundred men, since they were no match, he therefore opened the city gates, when the bandits were half entered, then he struck them, beheading several hundred, the rest all fled, and he completely recovered all the cities and tribes. He executed the leaders, the followers he pardoned them. From spring ending to summer, the bandit chaos was completely pacified, and the various isolated and remote Bā, Lǐ, Yóu, Dàn lords and tribal leaders, all changed conduct and integrity, observing courtesy and requesting audience, and the prefecture borders were then purified. Later Chángshā’s Yìyáng county was by mountain bandits attacked, Gài again pacified and suppressed. He was added Supporting General, and of illness died in office.

拜武鋒中郎將。武陵蠻夷反亂,攻守城邑,乃以蓋領太守。時郡兵才五百人,自以不敵,因開城門,賊半入,乃擊之,斬首數百,餘皆奔走,盡歸邑落。誅討魁帥,附從者赦之。自春訖夏,寇亂盡平,諸幽邃巴、醴、由、誕邑侯君長,皆改操易節,奉禮請見,郡境遂清。後長沙益陽縣為山賊所攻,蓋又平討。加偏將軍,病卒于官。

  • (1) Wúshū states: At the Chìbì campaign, Gài was by a stray arrow hit, at the time was cold and he fell into the water, was by a Wú army man found, who did not know it was Gaì, and placed him on a lavatory seat. Gài used his strength to in one cry shout for Hán Dāng, [Hán] Dāng heard it, and said: “It is Gōngfù’s voice.” Facing him shedding tears, he released and changed his clothes, and so he survived.

〔一〕 吳書曰:赤壁之役,蓋為流矢所中,時寒墮水,為吳軍人所得,不知其蓋也,置廁床中。蓋自彊以一聲呼韓當,當聞之,曰:「此公覆聲也。」向之垂涕,解易其衣,遂以得生。


Gài as an official was decisive, in matters he was without sluggishness, and the state’s people thought of him. (1) When [Sūn] Quán ascended, they discussed his achievements, and bestowed on his son Bǐng noble rank as Marquis Within the Passes.

蓋當官決斷,事無留滯,國人思之。〔一〕及權踐阼,追論其功,賜子柄爵關內侯。

  • (1) Wúshū states: Also they drew Gài’s appearance, and in [all] four seasons sacrificed to it.

〔一〕 吳書曰:又圖畫蓋形,四時祠祭。

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