(22.7) Lú Yù 盧毓 [Zǐjiā 子家]

Lú Yù appellation Zǐjiā was a Zhuō prefecture Zhuō man. His father Zhí had fame in the world. (2) Yù at ten years was fatherless, it happened his home province was in chaos, and his two older brothers died in the troubles. Right as Yuán Shào and Gōngsūn Zàn engaged troops, Yōu and Jì were in famine, he cared for his widowed older brother’s wives and fatherless older brother’s sons, for learning and conduct met with praise. When Emperor Wén [Cáo Pī] was Five Offices General, he summoned Yù and installed him in the Below Gate Bandit Department. Cuī Yǎn nominated him as Jì Province Registrar. At the time Heaven’s Under was roughly starting [to settle], many had fled, and therefore heavy were the laws on deserting soldiers, punishment reaching to wives and children. A deserted soldier’s wife Bái Děng, her husband had been at home several days, and she had not with her husband met each other, the Minister Judge memorialized to discard [execute] in market. Yù contested this saying: “A woman’s feelings, is by meeting and afterward relationship is formed, completing marriage and relationship is heavy. Therefore the Shī says: ‘Not yet meeting gentleman, my heart is pained and grieved; also just seeing step, my heart then is calmed.’ Also the Lǐ ‘A woman not yet in the shrine meeting and dying, returns to be buried as the woman’s clan’s group, because she has not yet become a wife.’ Now Bái Děng has the grief of not yet meeting, in dying has the pain of not being a wife, but the officials discuss wishing to wantonly use capital punishment, then it is like being the same as after sharing marriage cup, what punishment is to be applied? Moreover the states: “Attached follows lenience,’ saying that the punishment of an attached person, uses lenience as comparison. Also the Shū says ‘Rather than kill those without crime, better to fail to not be thorough.’ One fears it is too heavy. If Báiděng had all received betrothal gift, and already entered gate hall, punishing her would be possible, killing her is heavy.” Tàizǔ said: “Yù’s argument is correct. Also his citing of classic canon with intention, causes me to sigh.” Because of this he became Chancellor’s Law Department Consultant Director Scribe, transferred to Left Department Consultant Director Scribe.

  盧毓字子家,涿郡涿人也。父植,有名於世。〔二〕毓十歲而孤,遇本州亂,二兄死難。當袁紹、公孫瓚交兵,幽冀饑荒,養寡嫂孤兄子,以學行見稱。文帝為五官將,召毓署門下賊曹。崔琰舉為冀州主簿。時天下草創,多逋逃,故重士亡法,罪及妻子。亡士妻白等,始適夫家數日,未與夫相見,大理奏棄巿。毓駁之曰:「夫女子之情,以接見而恩生,成婦而義重。故詩云『未見君子,我心傷悲;亦既見止,我心則夷』。又禮『未廟見之婦而死,歸葬女氏之黨,以未成婦也』。今白等生有未見之悲,死有非婦之痛,而吏議欲肆之大辟,則若同牢合卺之後,罪何所加?且記曰『附從輕』,言附人之罪,以輕者為比也。又書云『與其殺不辜,寧失不經』,恐過重也。苟以白等皆受禮聘,已入門庭,刑之為可,殺之為重。」太祖曰:「毓執之是也。又引經典有意,使孤歎息。」由是為丞相法曹議令史,轉西曹議令史。

  • (1) Xù Hàn shū states: Zhí appellation Zǐgàn. When young he served Mǎ Róng, with Zhèng Xuán sharing gate as mutual friends. Zhí was resolute and had great integrity, always sighing with ambition to save the world, he did not improperly cater to appearances, and did not answer the province’s and prefecture’s summons. During Jiànníng [168 – 172] summoned as Academic Scholar, sent out to fill vacancy as Jiǔjiāng Administrator, due to illness left office. Composed Shàng shū Zhāngjù and Lǐjì Jiěgǔ. Gradually promoted to Attendant Internal, Secretariat Documenter. When Zhāng Jué rose up, appointed Zhí as North Internal Cadet General to campaign against [Zhāng] Jué, was not successful and was punished. Shortly afterward, again became Secretariat Documenter. Zhāng Ràng seized the young Emperor and fled to Xiǎopíng jīn, Zhí hand wielded sword to repeatedly rebuke [Zhāng] Ràng and the rest, [Zhāng] Ràng and the rest all put down weapons, shed tears and apologized for guilt, and therefore killed themselves. Dǒng Zhuó discussed intention to depose the Emperor, of the masses none dared reply, Zhí alone uprightly spoke, the story is in Zhuó’s biography. Zhí due to old age and illness left position, lived in seclusion at Shànggǔ’s Jūndū mountain, Chūpíng Third Year [192] died. Tàizǔ campaigned north against Liǔchéng, passed Zhuō prefecture, Order announced to the Administrator stating: “Former North Internal Cadet General Lú Zhí,’s fame was known Within the Seas, in scholarship he was a classicist exemplar, a model for scholars, and so was the state’s evergreen shield. In the past King Wǔ entered Yīn, enfeoffed Shāngróng’s village, Zhèng mourned for Zǐchǎn and Zhòngní shed tears. I arrive at this province, and commend this remaining air. In the Chūnqiū‘s principles, the posterity of a worthy, is different from other men. Respectfully send deputy official to repair the grave tomb, and also deliver meager libations, to make manifest his virtue.” Zhí had four sons, Yù was the youngest.

  〔一〕 續漢書曰:植字子幹。少事馬融,與鄭玄同門相友。植剛毅有大節,常喟然有濟世之志,不苟合取容,不應州郡命召。建寧中,徵博士,出補九江太守,以病去官。作尚書章句、禮記解詁。稍遷侍中、尚書。張角起,以植為北中郎將征角,失利抵罪。頃之,復以為尚書。張讓劫少帝奔小平津,植手劍責數讓等,讓等皆放兵,垂泣謝罪,遂自殺。董卓議欲廢帝,眾莫敢對,植獨正言,語在卓傳。植以老病去位,隱居上谷軍都山,初平三年卒。太祖北征柳城,過涿郡,令告太守曰:「故北中郎將盧植,名著海內,學為儒宗,士之楷模,乃國之楨幹也。昔武王入殷,封商容之閭,鄭喪子產而仲尼隕涕。孤到此州,嘉其餘風。春秋之義,賢者之後,有異於人。敬遣丞掾脩墳墓,并致薄醊,以彰厥德。」植有四子,毓最小。


When Wèi state was established, became Appointment Division Cadet. When Emperor Wén ascended, transferred to Yellow Gate Attendant Cadet, sent out as Jǐyīn Chancellor, Liáng and Qiáo two prefectures’ Administrator. The Emperor because Qiáo was his old hometown, therefore greatly relocated people to populate it, forming garrison-farms. But Qiáo’s lands were stony and barren, the hundred surnames were destitute, Yù mourned for this, and sent up memorial to relocate people to Liáng state where it was rich and fertile, disappointing the Emperor’s intentions. Though he listened to what Yù memorialized, his heart yet hated him, and therefore demoted Yù, sending him to lead the transferred people as Suīyáng Managing Agriculture Colonel. Yù’s heart was in profiting the people, he personally oversaw them, choosing to occupy them in beautiful farms, the hundred surnames depended on this. Promoted to Ānpíng and Guǎngpíng Administrator, wherever he was he had kind influence.

  魏國既建,為吏部郎。文帝踐阼,徙黃門侍郎,出為濟陰相,梁、譙二郡太守。帝以譙舊鄉,故大徙民充之,以為屯田。而譙土地墝瘠,百姓窮困,毓愍之,上表徙民於梁國就沃衍,失帝意。雖聽毓所表,心猶恨之,遂左遷毓,使將徙民為睢陽典農校尉。毓心在利民,躬自臨視,擇居美田,百姓賴之。遷安平、廣平太守,所在有惠化。


Qīnglóng Second Year [234], entered as Attendant Internal. Before this, Cavalier Regular Attendant Liú Shào received Imperial Order to settle the law, and had not yet finished. Yù sent up discussion of the meanings of ancient to present law systems, believing law should be unified and standard, and should not have two ends, to cause treacherous officials to be able to indulge feelings. When Attendant Internal Gāotáng Lóng repeatedly about Palace Resident affairs sternly remonstrated, the Emperor was not pleased, Yù advanced saying: “Your servant has heard that when the lord is enlightened then ministers are upright, the ancient sage kings feared not hearing of their mistakes, and therefore there was encouragement of daring to remonstrate. The close ministers exhaustively admonishing, in this then we your servants do not match [Gāotáng] Lóng. [Gāotáng] Lóng this scholar, is to be called as wildly upright, Your Majesty should tolerate him.” He was in office for three years, and had many varied arguments. Imperial Order said: “Government officials ordered by talent, is what the sagely emperor finds difficult, there must be good assistants, to advance the possible and replace the bad. Attendant Internal Yù in natural character is chaste and assured, heart just and body upright, can be said to clearly tested as having achievement, and is one untiring in his position. Thus appoint Yù as Appointment Division Secretariat Documenter.” Had Yù himself choose his successor, saying: “If it is one like you it can be.” Yù nominated Regular Attendant Zhèng Chōng, the Emperor said: “Wénhé, I personally know him, again nominate someone I have not yet heard of.” Therefore nominated Ruǎn Wǔ, Sūn Yōng, the Emperor therefore employed [Sūn] Yōng.

  青龍二年,入為侍中。先是,散騎常侍劉劭受詔定律,未就。毓上論古今科律之意,以為法宜一正,不宜有兩端,使姦吏得容情。及侍中高堂隆數以宮室事切諫,帝不悅,毓進曰:「臣聞君明則臣直,古之聖王恐不聞其過,故有敢諫之鼓。近臣盡規,此乃臣等所以不及隆。隆諸生,名為狂直,陛下宜容之。」在職三年,多所駁爭。詔曰:「官人秩才,聖帝所難,必須良佐,進可替否。侍中毓稟性貞固,心平體正,可謂明試有功,不懈于位者也。其以毓為吏部尚書。」使毓自選代,曰:「得如卿者乃可。」毓舉常侍鄭沖,帝曰:「文和,吾自知之,更舉吾所未聞者。」乃舉阮武、孫邕,帝於是用邕。


Before this Zhūgě Dàn, Dēng Yáng and others had fame and acclaim, there was complaint of the Four Intelligent and Eight Comprehensive, the Emperor hated them. At the time of nominating an Internal Documents Cadet, Imperial Order said: “Obtaining the person or not is up to Sir Lú. The selection is not to take one with reputation, reputation is like drawing on the ground to create a pastry, it cannot be eaten.” Yù replied saying: “Reputation is not sufficient to deliver exceptional people, but it can be used to obtain ordinary servicemen. Ordinary servicemen fear teachings and admire excellence, and afterward have reputation, it should not be hated. I your foolish servant am not sufficient to recognize exceptional people, and also the manager exactly by following reputation case standards serves their duty, it only should be after an examination. Therefore the ancients applied memorials as speech, enlightened testing as achievement. Now the methods of investigating merits are deposed, and by defamation and acclaim they mutually advance and withdraw, therefore the true and false are mixed together, the empty and real mutually immersed.” The Emperor accepted this speech, and at once Imperial Ordered to create examination methods. It happened the Excellency over the Masses was vacant, Yù recommended resident scholar Guǎn Níng, the Emperor was not able to employ him. Again asking for another, Yù replied saying: “Honest sincerity utmost in conduct, then is Grand Internal Grandee Hán Jì; bright uprightness and pure straightness, then is Colonel Director of Retainers Cuī Lín; chaste firmness pure and complete, then is Minister of Ceremonies Cháng Lín.” The Emperor then employed [Hán] Jì. Yù in electing people, first nominated by character and conduct, and afterward speech and talent. Yellow Gate Lǐ Fēng once about this asked Yù, Yù said: “Talent is how to be excellent, and therefore great talent achieves great excellence, small talent achieves small excellence. Now to praise them as having talent but not able to be excellent, is talent not matching function.” [Lǐ] Fēng and the rest accepted this speech.

  前此諸葛誕、鄧颺等馳名譽,有四(窗)〔聰〕八達之誚,帝疾之。時舉中書郎,詔曰:「得其人與否,在盧生耳。選舉莫取有名,名如畫地作餅,不可啖也。」毓對曰:「名不足以致異人,而可以得常士。常士畏教慕善,然後有名,非所當疾也。愚臣既不足以識異人,又主者正以循名案常為職,但當有以驗其後。故古者敷奏以言,明試以功。今考績之法廢,而以毀譽相進退,故真偽渾雜,虛實相蒙。」帝納其言,即詔作考課法。會司徒缺,毓舉處士管寧,帝不能用。更問其次,毓對曰:「敦篤至行,則太中大夫韓暨;亮直清方,則司隸校尉崔林;貞固純粹,則太常常林。」帝乃用暨。毓於人及選舉,先舉性行,而後言才。黃門李豐嘗以問毓,毓曰:「才所以為善也,故大才成大善,小才成小善。今稱之有才而不能為善,是才不中器也。」豐等服其言。


The King of Qí succeeded the throne, bestowed noble rank as Marquis Within the Passes. At the time Cáo Shuǎng held power and was about to set up his faction, relocated Yù to Deputy-Director, having Attendant Internal Hé Yàn succeed Yù. Shortly after this, sent out Yù as Minister of Justice, Director of Retainers Bì Guǐ also unjustly memorialized to dismiss him from office, the masses discussed and many contested it, and so appointed Yù as Minister of Merits. [Cáo] Shuǎng and the rest were arrested, Grand Tutor Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng sent Yù to act as Colonel Director of Retainers, managing their imprisonment. Again became Appointments Department Secretariat Documenter, added Serving Chariots Commandant, enfeoffed Gāolào precinct marquis, transferred to Deputy-Director, therefore managing selections and promotions, added Merit Grandee. When the Duke of Gāoguì village ascended the throne, advanced fief to Dàliáng village marquis. Enfeoffed one son as a precinct marquis. Guànqiū Jiǎn made chaos, General-in-Chief Sīmǎ [Shī] Jǐng-wáng went out on campaign, Yù controlled the rear affairs, added Attendant Internal. Zhèngyuán Third Year [256], he was ill, and resigned position. Promoted to Excellency of Works, he firmly deferred to Elite Cavalry General Wáng Chǎng, Merit Grandee Wáng Guàn, Colonel Director of Retainers Wáng Xiáng. Imperial Order sent envoy to at once award seal and ribbon, advance noble rank fief to Róngchéng marquis, fief of two thousand three hundred households. Gānlù Second Year [257] he died, posthumous name Chéng-hóu “Accomplished Marquis.” His grandson Fān succeeded. Yù’s sons were Qīn and Tǐng. During Xiánxī Qīn became Secretariat Documenter, Tíng became Tàishān Administrator. (1)

  齊王即位,賜爵關內侯。時曹爽秉權,將樹其黨,徙毓僕射,以侍中何晏代毓。頃之,出毓為廷尉,司隸畢軌又枉奏免官,眾論多訟之,乃以毓為光祿勳。爽等見收,太傅司馬宣王使毓行司隸校尉,治其獄。復為吏部尚書,加奉車都尉,封高樂亭侯,轉為僕射,故典選舉,加光祿大夫。高貴鄉公即位,進封大梁鄉侯。封一子(高)亭侯。毌丘儉作亂,大將軍司馬景王出征,毓綱紀後事,加侍中。正元三年,疾病,遜位。遷為司空,固推驃騎將軍王昶、光祿大夫王觀、司隸校尉王祥。詔使使者即授印綬,進爵封容城侯,邑二千三百戶。甘露二年薨,諡曰成侯。孫藩嗣。毓子欽、珽,咸熙中欽為尚書,珽泰山太守。〔一〕

  • (1) Shìyǔ states: Qīn appellation Zǐruò, Tǐng appellation Zǐhù. Qīn during Tàishǐ [265-274] became Secretariat Documents Deputy Director, managing selections, Xiánníng Fourth Year [278] died, posthumously titled Guard General, Opening Office.
  • Yú Yù’s Jìnshū states: Qīn when young occupied famed position, did not look after wealth and profit, was pure and humble and lived simply, moving and cultivating by ritual standards. His same prefecture’s Zhāng Huà lived alone and as a youth was orphaned, was not known in the village, only Qīn honored and was impressed with him.
  • Qīn’s son Fú appellation Zǐyún.
  • Jìn Zhūgōng zàn states: Zhāng Huà was widely learned with nothing he did not know. Fú was high and bright and studied extensively, and was pleasing to [Zhāng] Huà, began his career as Heir-Apparent Resident, suffered gangrene, cut off a hand, and therefore was dismissed. The Court was impressed with and valued him, appointing as Guózǐ Academic Scholar, promoted Libationer. During Yǒngpíng [291] became Confidential Documents Supervisor.
  • Tǐng and his sons Hào and Zhì all reached Secretariat Documenter. Zhì’s son Chén, appellation Zǐliàng. Wēn Jiào’s memorial appraised Chén as pure in going out and having literary thinking.
  • Chén Biézhuàn states: Chén was good at writing essays. When Luòyáng was overturned, he to the north took refuge with Liú Kūn, Kūn appointed him Excellency of Work’s Attending Official Internal Cadet. [Liú] Kūn was defeated, Chén returned to Duànmòbō. At Emperor Yuán’s beginning, repeatedly summoned him to be Cavalier Internal Documents Attendant Cadet, but he was not able to go south. Yǒnghé Sixth Year [350], died among the Hú, his descendants crossed the Jiāng. Witch bandit leader Lú Xún was Chén’s great-grandson.

  〔一〕 世語曰:欽字子若,珽字子笏。欽泰始中為尚書僕射,領選,咸寧四年卒,追贈衛將軍,開府。虞預晉書曰:欽少居名位,不顧財利,清虛淡泊,動脩禮典。同郡張華,家單少孤,不為鄉邑所知,惟欽貴異焉。欽子浮,字子雲。晉諸公贊曰:張華博識多聞,無物不知。浮高朗經博,有美於華,起家太子舍人,病疽,截手,遂廢。朝廷器重之,就家以為國子博士,遷祭酒。永平中為祕書監。珽及子皓、志並至尚書。志子諶,字子諒。溫嶠表稱諶清出有文思。諶別傳曰:諶善著文章。洛陽傾覆,北投劉琨,琨以為司空從事中郎。琨敗,諶歸段末波。元帝之初,累召為散騎中書侍郎,不得南赴。永和六年,卒於胡(胡)中,子孫過江。妖賊帥盧循,諶之曾孫。

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