(53.5) Xuē Zōng 薛綜 [Jìngwén 敬文]

son Yíng 瑩 [Dàoyán 道言]


Xuē Zōng appellation Jìngwén was a Pèi prefecture Zhúyì man. (1) When young he joined his clansmen in fleeing to Jiāo province, following Liú Xī in study. When Shì Xiè attached to Sūn Quán, Zōng was summoned to be Five Office Internal Cadet General, sent out as Hépǔ and Jiāozhǐ Administrator. At the time Jiāo’s lands were newly opened, Inspector Lǚ Dài led forces to suppress, Zōng with him together went, cross the sea on southern campaign, reaching to arrive at Jiǔzhēn. When the matter finished he returned to the capital, acting as Visitors Deputy Director. Western envoy Zhāng Fèng in front of [Sūn] Quán itemized Secretariat Documenter Kàn Zé’s surname and personal name to mock [Kàn] Zé, [Kàn] Zé was unable to reply. Zōng passed down liquor, and took advantage of urging drinking to say: “What is Shǔ? With a dog 犬 it is independent 獨, without a dog it is Shǔ 蜀, horizontal eye 目 on relaxed body, a worm 虫 entering its belly. (2) [Zhāng] Fèng said: “Can you not also itemize Wú?” Zōng answered saying: “Without a mouth 口 it is Heaven 天, with a mouth it is Wú 吳, its lord overlooking all nations, Heaven’s Son’s capital.” Therefore the crowd of seated laughed, and [Zhāng] Fèng was without an answer. His opportune quickness was all of this sort. (3)

薛綜字敬文,沛郡竹邑人也。〔一〕少依族人避地交州,從劉熙學。士燮既附孫權,召綜為五官中郎〔將〕,除合浦、交阯太守。時交土始開,刺吏呂岱率師討伐,綜與俱行,越海南征,及到九真。事畢還都,守謁者僕射。西使張奉於權前列尚書闞澤姓名以嘲澤,澤不能答。綜下行酒,因勸酒曰:「蜀者何也?有犬為獨,無犬為蜀,橫目苟身,虫入其腹。」〔二〕奉曰:「不當復列君吳邪?」綜應聲曰:「無口為天,有口為吳,君臨萬邦,天子之都。」於是眾坐喜笑,而奉無以對。其樞機敏捷,皆此類也。〔三〕

(1) Wúlù states: His ancestor Mèngchángjūn was enfeoffed with Xuē. Qín destroyed the Six States, and they lost their sacrifices, the descendants scattering. Hàn Founder settled Heaven’s Under, passed Qí, and sought Mèngcháng’s posterity, found his descendants Líng and Guó two people, wishing to restore their fief. The brothers Líng and Guó deferred to one another, neither accepting, and so they left to Zhúyì, and therefore resided there, and therefore made their clan name Xuē. From Guó to Zōng, for generations they managed provinces and prefectures, becoming a great clan. Zōng when young understood classics, was good at writing prose, and had exceptional talent.

〔一〕 吳錄曰:其先齊孟嘗君封於薛。秦滅六國,而失其祀,子孫分散。漢祖定天下,過齊,求孟嘗後,得其孫陵、國二人,欲復其封。陵、國兄弟相推,莫適受,乃去之竹邑,因家焉,故遂氏薛。自國至綜,世典州郡,為著姓。綜少明經,善屬文,有秀才。

  • Your Servant Sōngzhī has seen in various books “relaxed body” is sometimes “bent body,” and believes that as it says “horizontal eye,” then it should be “bent body.”

  〔二〕 臣松之見諸書本「苟身」或作「句身」,以為既云「橫目」,則宜曰:「句身」。

  • Jiāngbiǎo zhuàn states: Fèi Yī visited Wú, at the steps met, the excellencies and ministers and attendant subjects were all seated. When intoxicated, [Fèi] Yī with Zhūgě Kè faced one another in ridicule and debate, the talk reached to Wú and Shǔ. [Fèi] Yī asked: “What is the word Shǔ?” [Zhūgě] Kè said: “With water it is muddy, without water it is Shǔ. Horizontal eye on relaxed body, worm entering its belly.” [Fèi] Yī again asked: “What is the word Wú?” [Zhūgě] Kè said: “Without a mouth it is Heaven, with a mouth it is Wú, below overlooking the azure sea, Heaven’s Son’s Imperial capital.”
  • It is with the base biography not the same.

  〔三〕 江表傳曰:費禕聘于吳,陛見,公卿待臣皆在坐。酒酣,禕與諸葛恪相對嘲難,言及吳、蜀。禕問曰:「蜀字云何?」恪曰:「有水者濁,無水者蜀。橫目苟身,虫入其腹。」禕復問:「吳字云何?」恪曰:「無口者天,有口者吳,下臨滄海,天子帝都。」與本傳不同。


Lǚ Dài from Jiāo province was summoned out, Zōng feared there was no such person to succeed [Lǚ] Dài, and sent up memorial stating:

In the past the Emperor Shùn toured the south, dying at Cāngwú; Qín installed Guìlín, Nánhǎi, Xiàng prefecture. That being the case, these four states being part of the interior, has been since then. Zhào Tuó rose in Pānyú, embracing the hundred Yuè as their ruler, this was at Zhūguān’s south. Hàn Emperor Wǔ executed Lǚ Jiā, opened nine prefectures, establishing Jiāozhǐ Inspector to defend and supervise it. The mountains and streams are far away, the customs are not the same, the languages similarly are different, with repeated translators then there is communication, the people are like birds and beasts, old and young are not distinguished, [hair] bound like a hammer and walking barefooted, pierced head [clothes] and left lapels, and though chief clerks were established it was as if there were none. From this onward, gradually the central state’s convicts were relocated and mixed among them, somewhat having them learn writing, roughly learn language, and enable relayed back and forth, observing and seeing ritual cultivation. Then afterward Xī Guāng became Jiāozhǐ and Rén Yán became Jiǔzhēn Administrator, and then taught them to plow, having them use hat and shoes; for them established matchmaking offices, so they first knew of betrothal and marriage; established schools, to teach them classical meanings. From this on down, it has been over four hundred years, generally resembling this sort. From the time of when I your servant in the past as a guest just arrived, Zhūyá’s Chúzhōu county marriages, all waited to the eighth moon to enter the doors, at the time when the people gathered, males and females could match with one another, and then become husband and wife, and fathers and mothers could not stop it. Jiāozhǐ’s Mílíng and Jiǔzhēn’s Dūpáng two counties, all had when the older brother died the younger brother taking as wife the sister-in-law, for generations it was custom, the chief clerks only listened, and could not prohibit it. Rìnán prefecture’s males and females bared their bodies, not thinking it shameful. From this speaking of them, they can be called insect creatures, only having modest appearances. However the lands are wide and the people are many, the rugged terrain is harmful, and it is easy to be rebellious, difficult to make them obey governance. The county officials to restrain and bind then, showed orders to awe them to submission, the field and household taxes, reduced requests and supply management, importantly delivering distant treasures of famed pearls, fragrant drugs, elephant tusks, rhinoceros horns, tortoise shells, coral, colored glass, parrots, kingfishers, peacocks, strange things to fill and prepare treasured trifles, it is not necessary to raise their taxation income to benefit the central states. However outside the nine regions, in the selection of chief clerks, they were not thoroughly investigated. In Hàn’s time the law was lenient, many indulged themselves without restraint, and therefore repeatedly there was rebellion and violation of law. Zhūyá was abolished, arising from the chief clerk observing that they had good hair, and shaved them to make wigs. What your servant has seen, Nánhǎi’s Huáng Gài became Rìnán Administrator, dismounting carriage, because the provided arrangements were not wealthy, he beat to death the Registrar, and so met with being driven out. Jiǔzhēn Administrator Dān Méng for his wife’s father Zhōu Jīng was a host, completely invited the chief clerks, drinking liquor and making merry, Merit Officer Pān Xīn rose and dancing invited [Zhōu] Jīng, [Zhōu] Jīng would not agree to rise, [Pān] Xīn still forced him, [Dān] Méng was furious and beat [Pān] Xīn, who died within the prefecture. [Pān] Xīn’s younger brother Miáo led forces to attack the office, with poison arrow shot [Dān] Méng, and [Dān] Méng reached death. Jiāozhǐ Administrator Shì Xiè sent troops to arrive to suppress, in the end not able to overcome them. Also former Inspector Kuàijī’s Zhū Fú, often used his townsmen Yú Bāo and Liú Yàn’s sort to be chief clerks, encroaching and oppressing the common people, seizing taxes from the people, yellow fish of one collected for rice of one hú, the common people complained and rebelled, mountain bandits together went out, attacking provinces and breaking through prefectures. [Zhū] Fú fled into the sea, and in exile died. Next obtaining Nányáng’s Zhāng Jīn, he with Jīng province Governor Liú Biǎo had discord, his troops were weak and the enemy strong, year after year he raised army, the various officers were resentful, leaving and going as they wished. [Zhāng] Jīn had little examination and control [of subordinates], his military authority was insufficient, was by his subordinates ridiculed, and therefore was killed. Later obtaining Línglíng’s Lài Gōng, he was an of elder generation, benevolent and solemn, not understanding the time’s situation. [Liú] Biǎo also sent Chángshā’s Wú Jù to be Cāngwǔ Administrator. [Wú] Jù was a warrior reckless and fierce, [Lài] Gōng would not submit to him, at once they resented one another, and therefore he expelled [Lài] Gōng and requested Bù Zhì. At the time [Zhāng] Jīn’s former officers Yí Liào and Qián Bó’s sort were still many, [Bù] Zhì in succession subdued them, law and order was just settled, when it happened he was yet summoned away. Lǚ Dài then arrived, and there was the Shì clan’s rebellion. Sending out the army on southern campaign, on the day of pacifying and suppression, he changed and installed chief clerks, ordering and enlightening the ruling law, authority applied ten thousand lǐ, large and small following the winds. From this speaking of it, pacifying the borders and comforting the frontiers, truly is in having the person. The appointment of governor seniors, then should be in purity and ability; beyond in the wild flows, disaster and fortune are incredibly extreme. Today although Jiāo province is said to be roughly settled, still there are Gāoliáng’s remaining bandits; their borders with Nánhǎi, Cāngwú, Yùlín, Zhūguān four prefectures are not yet pacified, in accord they become bandits and thieves, and it specially is a marsh for rebels and deserters. If [Lǚ] Dài is no longer in the south, the new Inspector should be extremely refined, to examine and control the eight prefectures, with strategic and wise calculations, one able to somewhat gradually govern Gāoliáng, if their authority and favor accords to the circumstances, accords to effect, perhaps they can fill the vacancy. If it is only a middling person, holding to ordinary law, one without unusual calculation and unique methods, then the crowd of evils will daily grow, and long after from afar achieve harm. Therefore the safety or danger of the state, is in appointments, and it cannot be not investigated. I humbly fear the Court is negligent in its selection, and therefore dare to exhaustively give my foolish opinions, to expand your sagely thinking.”

呂岱從交州召出,綜懼繼岱者非其人,上疏曰:「昔帝舜南巡,卒於蒼梧。秦置桂林、南海、象郡,然則四國之內屬也,有自來矣。趙佗起番禺,懷服百越之君,珠官之南是也。漢武帝誅呂嘉,開九郡,設交阯刺史以鎮監之。山川長遠,習俗不齊,言語同異,重譯乃通,民如禽獸,長幼無別,椎結徒跣,貫頭左衽,長吏之設,雖有若無。自斯以來,頗徙中國罪人雜居其間,稍使學書,粗知言語,使驛往來,觀見禮化。及後錫光為交阯,任延為九真太守,乃教其耕犁,使之冠履;為設媒官,始知聘娶;建立學校,導之經義。由此已降,四百餘年,頗有似類。自臣昔客始至之時,珠崖除州縣嫁娶,皆須八月引戶,人民集會之時,男女自相可適,乃為夫妻,父母不能止。交阯糜泠、九真都龐二縣,皆兄死弟妻其嫂,世以此為俗,長吏恣聽,不能禁制。日南郡男女倮體,不以為羞。由此言之,可謂蟲豸,有靦面目耳。然而土廣人眾,阻險毒害,易以為亂,難使從治。縣官羈縻,示令威服,田戶之租賦,裁取供辦,貴致遠珍名珠、香藥、象牙、犀角、玳瑁、珊瑚、琉璃、鸚鵡、翡翠、孔雀、奇物、充備寶玩,不必仰其賦入,以益中國也。然在九甸之外,長吏之選,類不精覈。漢時法寬,多自放恣,故數反違法。珠崖之廢,起於長吏睹其好髮,髡取為髲。及臣所見,南海黃蓋為日南太守,下車以供設不豐,撾殺主簿,仍見驅逐。九真太守儋萌為妻父周京作主人,并請大吏,酒酣作樂,功曹番歆起舞屬京,京不肯起,歆猶迫彊,萌忿杖歆,亡於郡內。歆弟苗帥眾攻府,毒矢射萌,萌至物故。交阯太守士燮遣兵致討,卒不能克。又故刺史會稽朱符,多以鄉人虞褒、劉彥之徒分作長吏,侵虐百姓,彊賦於民,黃魚一枚收稻一斛,百姓怨叛,山賊並出,攻州突郡。符走入海,流離喪亡。次得南陽張津,與荊州牧劉表為隙,兵弱敵彊,歲歲興軍,諸將厭患,去留自在。津小檢攝,威武不足,為所陵侮,遂至殺沒。後得零陵賴恭,先輩仁謹,不曉時事。表又遣長沙吳巨為蒼梧太守。巨武夫輕悍,不為恭〔所〕服,(所取)〔輒〕相怨恨,逐出恭,求步騭。是時津故將夷廖、錢博之徒尚多,騭以次鉏治,綱紀適定,會仍召出。呂岱既至,有士氏之變。越軍南征,平討之日,改置長吏,章明王綱,威加萬里,大小承風。由此言之,綏邊撫裔,實有其人。牧伯之任,既宜清能,荒流之表,禍福尤甚。今日交州雖名粗定,尚有高涼宿賊;其南海、蒼梧、鬱林、珠官四郡界未綏,依作寇盜,專為亡叛逋逃之藪。若岱不復南,新刺史宜得精密,檢攝八郡,方略智計,能稍稍以漸(能)治高涼者,假其威寵,借之形勢,責其成效,庶幾可補復。如但中人,近守常法,無奇數異術者,則群惡日滋,久遠成害。故國之安危,在於所任,不可不察也。竊懼朝廷忽輕其選,故敢竭愚情,以廣聖思。」


Huánglóng Third Year [231], Jiànchāng Marquis [Sūn] Lǚ became Defending the Army General-in-Chief, garrisoning Bànzhōu, with Zōng as his Chief Clerk, outside handling the mass of affairs, inside managing documents and registers. When [Sūn] Lǜ died, entered as observing Bandit Department Secretariat Documenter, promoted to Secretariat Documents Deputy Director. At the time Gōngsūn Yuān surrendered and again rebelled, [Sūn] Quán was overwhelmingly furious, wishing to himself personally campaign. Zōng sent up memorial remonstrating stating:

“Emperors and Kings are the foremost head of all states, how Heaven’s Under connects to fate. Therefore in residing then there are heavy doors and striking of alarms to guard against the unexpected, in walking then there is clearing of streets and holding of staff to cultivate authoritative appearance, overall how to preserve the fortunes of total security and defend the hearts of the Four Seas. In the past Kǒng-zǐ hated the times and spoke of taking a boat to sea, Jì Yóu for this was pleased, but was refused as there was no way to get timber. Hàn Emperor Yuán wished to ride tower ship, Xuē Guángdé requested to cut his throat to with his blood paint the chariot. Why was this? Water and fire are the most dangerous terrain, not what Emperors and Kings should cross. Proverb states: ‘A man with a thousand gold does not sit in hanging halls.’ All the more for the honor of the thousand chariots. Now Liáodōng is a Róngmò small state, without the firmness of city walls and moats or techniques of preparing defenses, tools and weapons blunt, dogs and sheep without government, in going we are certain to capture and overcome, truly as in the enlightened Imperial Order. However their regional land is cold and barren, grain does not grow, the people are trained in riding horses, moving residences without constancy. On suddenly hearing of the main army arriving, they will judge themselves as no match, as birds alarmed and beasts startled, quickly flee away, one man per horse, and cannot be found, and though empty ground is captured, holding it is of no benefit, this is the first reason it cannot be. Moreover also there are powerful currents and vast ripples, becoming like the troubles of a mountain, sea journeys are without constancy, wind and waves difficult to avoid, in an instant, men and boat are separated. Even with the virtues of Yáo and Shùn, wisdom has no way to be used, with the valors of Bēn and Yù, strength cannot be deployed, this is the second reason it cannot be. Moreover with dense fog darkening the above, salt water steaming the below, it is good for producing swelling, turning into stagnant disease, generally those crossing the sea, rarely are without these misfortunes, this is the third reason it cannot be. Natural divine sages are made known by corresponding signs, and follows in pacifying tragic chaos, prospering the people and things; auspicious signs daily gather, within the seas is almost settled, and the rebellious caitiffs and vicious oppressors, their destruction is near. When the central states are all pacified, Liáodōng will on its own fall, only holding hands to wait for it. Now to go against the certain plan, to seek the utmost dangerous obstructions, neglect the firmness of the Nine Provinces, to indulge one morning’s anger, is not the State Altar’s serious plan, and also opens they way for the never had, this truly is why the various officials turn body and sigh, eating without tasting, lying down without rest. May Your Majesty restrain your thundering authority, endure this awe-inspiring fury, honor the security of crossing bridges, and avoid the danger of treading ice, then your servants will have one to depend on, and Under Heaven will be extremely fortunate.”

At the time of the various ministers many remonstrated, [Sūn] Quán therefore did not go.

黃龍三年,建昌侯慮為鎮軍大將軍,屯半州,以綜為長史,外掌眾事,內授書籍。慮卒,入守賊曹尚書,遷尚書僕射。時公孫淵降而復叛,權盛怒,欲自親征。綜上疏諫曰:「夫帝王者,萬國之元首,天下之所繫命也。是以居則重門擊柝以戒不虞,行則清道案節以養威嚴,蓋所以存萬安之福,鎮四海之心。昔孔子疾時,託乘桴浮海之語,季由斯喜,拒以無所取才。漢元帝欲御樓船,薛廣德請刎頸以血染車。何則?水火之險至危,非帝王所宜涉也。諺曰:『千金之子,坐不垂堂。』況萬乘之尊乎?今遼東戎貊小國,無城池之固,備禦之術,器械銖鈍,犬羊無政,往必禽克,誠如明詔。然其方土寒埆,穀稼不殖,民習鞍馬,轉徙無常。卒聞大軍之至,自度不敵,鳥驚獸駭,長驅奔竄,一人匹馬,不可得見,雖獲空地,守之無益,此不可一也。加又洪流滉瀁,有成山之難,海行無常,風波難免,倏忽之間,人船異勢。雖有堯舜之德,智無所施,賁育之勇,力不得設,此不可二也。加以鬱霧冥其上,鹹水蒸其下,善生流腫,轉相洿染,凡行海者,稀無斯患,此不可三也。天生神聖,顯以符瑞,當乘平喪亂,康此民物;嘉祥日集,海內垂定,逆虜凶虐,滅亡在近。中國一平,遼東自斃,但當拱手以待耳。今乃違必然之圖,尋至危之阻,忽九州之固,肆一朝之忿,既非社稷之重計,又開闢以來所未嘗有,斯誠群僚所以傾身側息,食不甘味,寢不安席者也。惟陛下抑雷霆之威,忍赫斯之怒,遵乘橋之安,遠履冰之險,則臣子賴祉,天下幸甚。」時群臣多諫,權遂不行。


Standard Moon Yǐwèi [231 March 14], [Sūn] Quán ordered Zōng in writing the prayers to the ancestors should not use ordinary writing, Zōng followed the Imperial Order, quickly composed the written meaning, the words splendid and flowery. [Sūn] Quán  said: “Again make two stanzas, to make it three.” Zōng again twice wrote prayers, the words were all new, and of the masses all declared it excellent.

Chìwū Third Year [240] transferred to Selections Department Secretariat Documenter. Fifth Year [242] became Heir-Apparent’s Junior Tutor, managing selection duties as before. (1) Sixth Year [243] Spring, died. Altogether his written poems and rhapsodies and criticisms and discussions were several tens of thousands of words, named as Sīzài “Private Recordings,” and also he determined the Wǔ Zōng Tú Shù “Five Clans Chart Narration” and Èr Jīng Jiě “Explanation of the Two Capitals,” both transmitted through the ages.

正月乙未,權敕綜祝祖不得用常文,綜承詔,卒造文義,信辭粲爛。權曰:「復為兩頭,使滿三也。」綜復再祝,辭令皆新,眾咸稱善。赤烏三年,徙選曹尚書。五年,為太子少傅,領選職如故。〔一〕六年春,卒。凡所著詩賦難論數萬言,名曰私載,又定五宗圖述、二京解,皆傳於世。

  • (1) Wú shū states: Later [Sūn] Quán bestowed on Zōng purple ribbon purse, Zōng explained and declined as purple was not an appropriate color [translator’s note: the color is reserved for higher ranks than what Zōng’s], [Sūn] Quán said: “The Heir-Apparent’s years are few, his days of experiencing the way light, you enrich him with culture, train him with ritual, the enfeoffment of reeds and soil, if not for you then for whom?” At the time Zōng for being a famed classicist occupied the seat of teacher and tutor, and yet simultaneously selected promotions, was extremely and exceptionally valued.

〔一〕 吳書曰:後權賜綜紫綬囊,綜陳讓紫色非所宜服,權曰:「太子年少,涉道日淺,君當博之以文,約之以禮,茅土之封,非君而誰?」是時綜以名儒居師傅之位,仍兼選舉,甚為優重。


His son Xǔ, rank reached Awing the South General, campaigned against Jiāozhǐ and returned, on the road fell ill and died. (1) Xǔ’s younger brother Yíng, appellation Dàoyán, began as Confidential Office Internal Cadet General, when Sūn Xiū succeeded the throne, became Cavalier Regular Attendant. After several years, due to illness left office. At Sūn Hào’s beginning, became Left Law Enforcer, promoted to Selections Department Secretariat Documenter, reaching to the enthronement of the Heir-Apparent, also designated [Heir-Apparent’s] Junior Tutor. Jiànhéng Third Year [272], Hào in memorial sighed of Yíng’s father Zōng’s legacy writings, and further ordered Yíng to continue writing. Yíng proffered poem that said:

“Thinking of your servant’s ancestors, in the past served in Hàn, abundant ages continuously, often wading the terrace towers. Reaching to your servant’s father Zōng, encountering the time’s troubles, early metal losing governance, country and family destroyed and disordered. Arriving in this happy land, numerous preserved survivors, Heaven awakens their hearts, the southeast is home. Earliest beginning as a refugee scribe, destitute among the Mán borders. Dà Huáng [Sūn Quán] opened the foundations, grace and virtue distantly bestowed. Specially immersed in recruitment mandate, raised and selected out of mud and dirt, taking off headscarf and hemp, receiving office and divided talisman. Administering Hépǔ, in the sea’s corner, moving to enter the capital, then ascending to the pivots. The worn out again thriving, the cut off strands again ordered, from the minute becoming prominent, it was not the original wish. Also by favorable treatment, heart preserved in sufficient stop. Again reaching Wén Huáng [Sūn Hé], established title in the East Palace, then becoming Junior Tutor, radiant magnificence increasing in splendor. Brilliant enlightened sagely successor, utmost virtue modest and lofty, courtesy and treatment together applied, pondering enrichment and pondering abundance. Tragic sorrow the former minister, attending to exhausting his loyalty, vast grace not yet repaid, leaving the world in the end. Sighing your servant lowly and small, thinking of elder brother and younger brother, intimately born and intimately raised, entrusted with Zōng’s remaining form. Passing the hall and then teaching, obstinate screens are difficult to open. The clan compositions are not completed, ambition preserved as a pair plowing. How can one comprehend the Sagely Court, benevolent favor flowing full. Posthumously recording the former minister, pitying his incomplete, in relieving and in selecting out, given special glory. Xǔ passed a thousand lǐ, received mandate to campaign south, banners and flags and prepared materials, metal and leather raised sound. Reaching to your servant this lowly one, truly muddled and truly small, already prominent former course, pivot of men and things; again Tutor to the East Palace, continuing the age’s burden of splendor, talent not reaching the former, thus shamed thus disobedient. Ruling virtue extensive favor, cultured elegance thus noble, mourning for the deceased minister, hopes preserved in remaining sorts. What foolish posterity, there has never been such! Gazing to that old favor, looking after this obstinate hollowness, who can endure the same, your servant truly resides in it. Morning to evening tossing and turning, devoting heart to self discussing, father and sons and elder brothers and younger brothers, successive generations immersed in favor, in death only joining grass, living swearing to serve to the death, even though dejected and fallen, it is nothing to repay even a ten thousandth part.”

子珝,宮至威南將軍,征交阯還,道病死。〔一〕珝弟瑩,字道言,初為祕府中書郎,孫休即位,為散騎中常侍。數年,以病去官。孫皓初,為左執法,遷選曹尚書,及立太子,又領少傅。建衡三年,皓追歎瑩父綜遺文,且命瑩繼作。瑩獻詩曰:「惟臣之先,昔仕于漢,奕世綿綿,頗涉臺觀。暨臣父綜,遭時之難,卯金失御,邦家毀亂。適茲樂土,庶存孑遺,天啟其心,東南是歸。厥初流隸,困于蠻垂。大皇開基,恩德遠施。特蒙招命。拯擢泥汙,釋放巾褐,受職剖符。作守合浦,在海之隅,遷入京輦,遂升機樞。枯瘁更榮,絕統復紀,自微而顯,非願之始。亦惟寵遇,心存足止。重值文皇,建號東宮,乃作少傅,光華益隆。明明聖嗣,至德謙崇,禮遇兼加,惟渥惟豐。哀哀先臣,念竭其忠,洪恩未報,委世以終。嗟臣蔑賤,惟昆及弟,幸生幸育,託綜遺體。過庭既訓,頑蔽難啟。堂構弗克,志存耦耕。豈悟聖朝,仁澤流盈。追錄先臣,愍其無成,是濟是拔,被以殊榮。珝忝千里,受命南征,旌旗備物,金革楊聲。及臣斯陋,實闇實微,既顯前軌,人物之機;復傅東宮,繼世荷輝,才不逮先,是忝是違。乾德博好,文雅是貴,追悼亡臣,冀存遺類。如何愚胤,曾無髣彿!瞻彼舊寵,顧此頑虛,孰能忍媿,臣實與居。夙夜反側,克心自論,父子兄弟,累世蒙恩,死惟結草,生誓殺身,雖則灰隕,無報萬分。」

  • (1) Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: In Sūn Xiū’s time, Xǔ became Five Office Internal Cadet General, sent to reach Shǔ to request horses. When he returned, Xiū asked of the good and bad of Shǔ’s government. Replied stating: “The ruler is muddled and does not know his faults, the minister subordinates keep to themselves to seek to escape punishment, entering their Court one does not hear upright speech, crossing their fields their people all have lean appearances. Your servant has heard of sparrows residing on a hall, the children and mothers both happy, believing themselves secure; suddenly the support beams are burning, but the sparrows are happy and unaware disaster is about to arrive. This is what it it speaks of!”

〔一〕 漢晉春秋曰:孫休時,珝為五宮中郎將,遣至蜀求馬。及還,休問蜀政得失,對曰:「主闇而不知其過,臣下容身以求免罪,入其朝不聞正言,經其野民皆菜色。臣聞燕雀處堂,子母相樂,自以為安也,突決棟焚,而燕雀怡然不知禍之將及,其是之謂乎!」


That year, Hé Dìng proposed digging Shèngxī [canal] to connect the Jiāng and Huái, Hào ordered Yíng to command ten thousand people to go, then as there were many rocks was difficult to achieve, it was stopped and he returned, sent out as Wǔchāng Left Division Commander. Later [Hé] Dìng was executed, Hào in recollection of the Shèngxī matter, sent down Yíng to prison, exiled to Guǎng province. Right State Historian Huà Hé sent up memorial stating:

“Your Servant has heard that the Five Emperors and Three Kings all established historian officials, to narrate and record achievements and beauty, to pass down without limit. In Hàn’s time Sīmǎ Qiān and Bān Gù both were great talents of their lifetimes, what they compiled exquisite and fine, with the Six Classics together passed down. Great Wú receives the Mandate, establishing state in southern lands. In Dà Huángdì’s [Sūn Quán] final years, he ordered Grand Scribe Director Dīng Fú and Cadet Internal Xiàng Jùn to first compile a Wú shū. [Dīng] Fú and [Xiàng] Jùn both were not history talents, what they compiled and made, was not sufficient for records. Reaching to the Young Emperor’s [Sūn Liàng] time, then there was Wéi Yào, Zhōu Zhāo, Xuē Yíng, Liáng Guǎng and your servant of five people, seeking past situations, and what we together compiled and established, provided the beginnings to end. [Zhōu] Zhāo and [Liáng] Guǎng first died, [Wéi] Yào turned back on kindness and committed crime, Yíng was sent out as an officer, and again due to fault was exiled, and the writing therefore is slowed, and until now it is not yet compiled and presented. Your servant is foolish and shallow with inferior talents, and can only be suitable for Yíng and the rest to record notes and nothing more, and if I am sent to compile it together, it certainly will continue after the legacies of [Dīng] Fú and [Xiàng] Jùn, and I fear it will let down Dà Huángdì’s inaugural achievement, and harm the present age’s flourishing beauty. Yíng’s scholarship is broad, his writing exceptionally ingenious, and within the same offices, Yíng is the crowned head. Now observing the clerks, though many have studied, in talent of recording narratives, those like Yíng are few, and therefore I anxiously for the state cherish him. Truly I wish to finish the achievement of the passed down accomplishments, and continue on the end of previous histories. After sending up the memorial, to withdraw to fill a ravine, is no regret.”

Hào therefore summoned Yíng back, to be left Left State Historian. Shortly after this, Selections Department Secretariat Documenter Miào Yī of the same prefecture due to being steadfast in holding to intentions was by the crowd of the petty resented, demoted to Héngyáng Administrator. At the appointment, also in recollection of his office duties he met with investigation and reproach, and presented memorial to explain his apologies. Because of the visit to Yíng, he was again by someone reported, saying [Miào] Yī did not fear punishment, many officers and retainers gathered together to plead for Yíng. Therefore arrested Yī and sent down to prison, exiled to Guìyáng, Yíng returned to Guǎng province. He had not yet arrived, when Yíng was summoned back and restored to office. At the time law and government had many errors, actions were complex and exacting, Yíng every time sent up explanations to reduce punishment and simplify conscription, to relieve and care for the common people, of the matters some were enacted. Promoted to Minister of Merits.

Tiānjì Fourth Year [280], the Jìn army campaigned against Hào, Hào presented letter to Sīmǎ Zhòu, Wáng Hún, Wáng Jùn to request to surrender; its writing was by Yíng composed. Yíng then reached Luòyáng, and specially first met with ranking, becoming Cavalier Regular Attendant, his answering of questions and occupying positions, all were with orderly arrangement. (1) Tàikāng Third Year [282] died. His written works of eight piān were named as Xīnyì “New Comments.”

是歲,何定建議鑿聖谿以通江淮,皓令瑩督萬人往,遂以多盤石難施功,罷還,出為武昌左部督。後定被誅,皓追聖谿事,下瑩獄,徙廣州。右國史華覈上疏曰:「臣聞五帝三王皆立史官,敘錄功美,垂之無窮。漢時司馬遷、班固,咸命世大才,所撰精妙,與六經俱傳。大吳受命,建國南土。大皇帝末年,命太史令丁孚、郎中項峻始撰吳書。孚、峻俱非史才,其所撰作,不足紀錄。至少帝時,更差韋曜、周昭、薛瑩、梁廣及臣五人,訪求往事,所共撰立,備有本末。昭、廣先亡,曜負恩蹈罪,瑩出為將,復以過徙,其書遂委滯,迄今未撰奏。臣愚淺才劣,適可為瑩等記注而已,若使撰合,必襲孚、峻之跡,懼墜大皇帝之元功,損當世之盛美。瑩涉學既博,文章尤妙,同寮之中,瑩為冠首。今者見吏,雖多經學,記述之才,如瑩者少,是以慺慺為國惜之。實欲使卒垂成之功,編於前史之末。奏上之後,退填溝壑,無所復恨。」皓遂召瑩還,為左國史。頃之,選曹尚書同郡繆禕以執意不移,為群小所疾,左遷衡陽太守。既拜,又追以職事見詰責,拜表陳謝。因過詣瑩,復為人所白,云禕不懼罪,多將賓客會聚瑩許。乃收禕下獄,徙桂陽,瑩還廣州。未至,召瑩還,復職。是時法政多謬,舉措煩苛,瑩每上便宜,陳緩刑簡役,以濟育百姓,事或施行。遷光祿勳。天紀四年,晉軍征皓,皓奉書於司馬伷、王渾、王濬請降,其文,瑩所造也。瑩既至洛陽,特先見敘,為散騎常侍,答問處當,皆有條理。〔一〕太康三年卒。著書八篇,名曰新議〔二〕。

  • (1) Gān Bǎo’s Jìn jì states: Emperor Wǔ [Sīmǎ Yán] casually asked Yíng: “What were the reasons that Sūn Hào lost?” Yíng replied stating: “When the Marquis of Guīmìng your servant Hào was ruler of Wú, he was close with petty men, punishments were rashly applied, of the great ministers and great officers none were closely trusted, person after person was anxious and afraid, each unable to protect themselves, the dangerous rifts, truly were because of this.” The Emperor therefore asked of the worthy and foolish of Wú’s scholars that survived or perished, and Yíng replied with with their situations.

〔一〕 干寶晉紀曰:武帝從容問瑩曰:「孫皓之所以亡者何也?」瑩對曰:「歸命侯臣皓之君吳也,昵近小人,刑罰妄加,大臣大將,無所親信,人人憂恐,各不自保,危亡之釁,實由於此。」帝遂問吳士存亡者之賢愚,瑩各以狀對。

  • (2) Wáng Yǐn’s Jìn shū states: Yíng’s son Jiān appellation Lìngcháng, was pure and unadorned and had magnanimity, his seniority and prestige was like of the upper state, not resembling Wú people. Successively held rank in the Two Palaces as Chancellor’s Chief Clerk. When Emperor Yuán [Sīmǎ Ruì] ascended, continuously promoted to Dānyáng Intendant, Secretariat Documenter, also became Heir-Apparent’s Junior Tutor. From Zōng reaching to Jiān, three generations were Tutor to the East Palace.

〔二〕 王隱晉書曰:瑩子兼,字令長,清素有器宇,資望故如上國,不似吳人。歷位二宮丞相長史。元帝踐阼,累遷丹楊尹、尚書,又為太子少傅。自綜至兼,三世傅東宮。

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