(9.2) Xiàhóu Yuān 夏侯淵 [Miàocái 妙才]

Xiàhóu Yuān, appellation Miàocái, was [Xiàhóu] Dūn’s younger third cousin. When Tàizǔ [Cáo Cāo] was residing at home, there was an incident with the county government, and Yuān took the blame on his behalf, but Tàizǔ rescued him, and so they escaped. (1)

夏侯淵字妙才,惇族弟也。太祖居家,曾有縣官事,淵代引重罪,太祖營救之,得免。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèilüè states: At the time Yǎn and Yù [provinces] were in great disorder. Yuān because of famine and [food] shortages, abandoned his young son to save the life of his deceased younger brother’s daughter.

〔一〕 魏略曰:時兗、豫大亂,淵以饑乏,棄其幼子,而活亡弟孤女。

When Tàizǔ raised troops, he followed as Separate Command Major and Cavalry Commandant, transferred to Administrator of Chénliú and Yǐngchuān.

太祖起兵,以別部司馬、騎都尉從,遷陳留、潁川太守。

When they battled with Yuán Shào at Guāndù, he was Acting Commandant Supervising the Army. When Shào was defeated, he was sent to manage Yǎn, Yù, and Xúzhōu’s military provisions. At the time the army’s food was sparse, and Yuān sent food in quick succession, and the army because of this was again strengthened.

及與袁紹戰于官渡,行督軍校尉。紹破,使督兗、豫、徐州軍糧;時軍食少,淵傳饋相繼,軍以復振。

Chāng Xǐ rebelled. Yú Jīn was sent to attack him, but was not yet successful, so Yuān was also sent to reinforce Jīn, and so they attacked Xǐ, receiving the surrender of over ten of his camps, and Xǐ went to Jīn to surrender. Yuān returned, and was appointed Colonel Managing the Army. (2)

昌狶反,遣于禁擊之,未拔,復遣淵與禁并力,遂擊狶,降其十餘屯,狶詣禁降。淵還,拜典軍校尉。〔二〕

  • (2) Wèishū states: When Yuān became an officer, he moved incredibly quickly, often going out and catching the enemy by surprise, and therefore in the army it was said: “ Colonel Managing the Army Xiàhóu Yuān in three days covers five hundred [leagues], six days one thousand.”

〔二〕 魏書曰:淵為將,赴急疾,常出敵之不意,故軍中為之語曰:「典軍校尉夏侯淵,三日五百,六日一千。」

Jǐnán and Lè’ān Yellow Scarves Xú Hé, Sīmǎ Jù, and others besieged cities, killing the Chief Clerk. Yuān commanded the Tàishān, Qí, and Píngyuán commandery soldiers to attack, greatly defeated them, beheading Hé, pacifying all the counties, capturing their provisions and distributing it to the army soldiers.

濟南、樂安黃巾徐和、司馬俱等攻城,殺長吏,淵將泰山、齊、平原郡兵擊,大破之,斬和,平諸縣,收其糧穀以給軍士。

Fourteenth year [209], Yuān was Acting Military Supervisor. Tàizǔ campaigned against Sūn Quán and returned, and sent Yuān to command the various officers to attack the Lújiāng rebel Léi Xù, and Xù was defeated. He was made Acting Protector of the Army Attacking the West, supervising Xú Huǎng in attacking Tàiyuán bandits, capturing over twenty camps, beheading bandit commander Shāng Yào and slaughtering his city. He followed in the campaign against Hán Suì and the rest, and fought south of the Wèi [river]. He supervised Zhū Líng in pacifying the Yúmí and Qiān Dī [tribes]. He rejoined Tàizǔ at Āndìng, receiving the surrender of Yáng Qiū.

十四年,以淵為行領軍。太祖征孫權還,使淵督諸將擊廬江叛者雷緒,緒破,又行征西護軍,督徐晃擊太原賊,攻下二十餘屯,斬賊帥商曜,屠其城。從征韓遂等,戰於渭南。又督朱靈平隃糜、汧氐。與太祖會安定,降楊秋。


Seventeenth year [212] Tàizǔ then returned to Yè, and Yuān was appointed Acting General Protecting the Army, with command over Zhū Líng, Lù Zhāo, and others to garrison Cháng’an, attack and destroy the Nánshān bandit Liú Xióng and receive the surrender of his army. He besieged Suì’s and Chāo’s remnant ally Liáng Xīng at Hù, dislodged them, beheaded Xīng, and so was given fief as Marquis of Bóchāng precinct.

十七年,太祖乃還鄴,以淵行護軍將軍,督朱靈、路招等屯長安,擊破南山賊劉雄,降其眾。圍遂、超餘黨梁興於鄠,拔之,斬興,封博昌亭侯。

Mǎ Chāo besieged Inspector of Liángzhōu Wéi Kāng at Jì. Yuān went to rescue Kāng, but before he arrived, Kāng was defeated. He was over two hundred lǐ from Jì when Chāo came to oppose and battle, and [Xiàhóu Yuān’s] army was unsuccessful. The Qiān Dī tribes rebelled, and Yuān led the army back.

馬超圍涼州刺史韋康於冀,淵救康,未到,康敗。去冀二百餘里,超來逆戰,軍不利。汧氐反,淵引軍還。

Nineteenth year [214] Zhào Qú, Yǐn Fèng, and others plotted to attack Chāo, and Jiāng Xú raised troops at Lǔchéng to support them. Qú and the others deceitfully persuaded Chāo to go out and attack Xú, and afterward killed all of Chāo’s wives and children. Chāo fled to Hànzhōng, then returned to besiege Qíshān. Xú and the rest urgently requested help. All the officers and commentators believed only Tàizǔ could settle this. Yuān said: “The Excellency is at Yè, four thousand lǐ there and back. By the time this is reported, Xú and the rest will already be defeated. This is not how to deal with an emergency.”

十九年,趙衢、尹奉等謀討超,姜敘起兵鹵城以應之。衢等譎說超,使出擊敘,於後盡殺超妻子。超奔漢中,還圍祁山。敘等急求救,諸將議者欲須太祖節度。淵曰:「公在鄴,反覆四千里,比報,敘等必敗,非攻急也。」

Therefore he went, sending Zhāng Hé to command five thousand infantry and cavalry at the front, following the Chéncāng narrow road, while Yuān personally supervised supplies at the rear. Hé arrived by the Wèi river, and Chāo commanded several thousand Dī and Qiāng to oppose Hé. Before open battle, Chāo fled, and Hé advanced the army and captured Chāo’s military equipment. Yuān arrived, and the various counties had all already surrendered.

遂行,使張郃督步騎五千在前,從陳倉狹道入,淵自督糧在後。郃至渭水上,超將氐羌數千逆郃。未戰,超走,郃進軍收超軍器械。淵到,諸縣皆已降。

Hán Suì was at Xiǎnqīn, and Yuān wished to attack and capture him, but Suì fled. Yuān captured Suì’s army provisions, pursued to Lüèyáng city. When over twenty lǐ away from Suì, the officers wished to attack him, but some said they should first attack the Xīngguó Dī tribes. Yuān believed: “Suì’s troops are elite, and Xīngguó is fortified and defended, so attacking will not be successful. It is better to attack Zhǎnglí’s various Qiāng. Many of the various Qiāng of Zhǎnglí are in Suì’s army, and will certainly desert to rescue their families. If the Qiāng alone defend they will be isolated, and those rescuing Zhǎnglí will battle the government troops and will certainly be captured.”

韓遂在顯親,淵欲襲取之,遂走。淵收遂軍糧,追至略陽城,去遂二十餘里,諸將欲攻之,或言當攻興國氐。淵以為遂兵精,興國城固,攻不可卒拔,不如擊長離諸羌。長離諸羌多在遂軍,必歸救其家。若〔捨〕羌獨守則孤,救長離則官兵得與野戰,可必虜也。

Yuān therefore remained to defend the heavy supply wagons, and sent light infantry and cavalry to Zhǎnglí, attacking and burning the Qiāng camps, beheading and capturing a great many. All the Qiāng in Suì’s army each returned to their tribes. Suì indeed went to rescue Zhǎnglí, and faced Yuān’s army. All the officers saw Suì’s army and was concerned, and wished to return to camp and build defenses and only then battle. Yuān said: “We have already struggled over a thousand lǐ. Now if we return to build fortifications and moats, then our men and army will be exhausted and cannot last. Though the rebels are numerous, they can easily be dealt with and that is all.”

淵乃留督將守輜重,輕兵步騎到長離,攻燒羌屯,斬獲甚眾。諸羌在遂軍者,各還種落。遂果救長離,與淵軍對陳。諸將見遂眾,惡之,欲結營作塹乃與戰。淵曰:「我轉鬥千里,今復作營塹,則士眾罷弊,不可久。賊雖眾,易與耳。」

Therefore he beat the drums, and greatly defeated Suì’s army, capturing their flags and banners, returning to Lüèyáng, and advancing to besiege Xīngguó. The Dī King Qiān Wàn fled to Mǎ Chāo, while his remaining followers surrendered. He turned to attack the Gāopíng Túgè, and all scattered and fled, so capturing their provisions and grain and oxen and horses. Thereupon Yuān received Acting Staff of Authority.

乃鼓之,大破遂軍,得其旌麾,還略陽,進軍圍興國。氐王千萬逃奔馬超,餘眾降。轉擊高平屠各,皆散走,收其糧穀牛馬。乃假淵節。


Previously, Sòng Jiàn of Fūhǎn because Liángzhōu was in chaos proclaimed himself King of the [Yellow] River’s Source Pacifying Hàn. Tàizǔ sent Yuān to command the various officers to attack Jiàn. Yuān arrived, besieged Fūhǎn, and after over a month overcame him, beheading Jiàn and his appointed officials from the Chancellor down. Yuān separately sent Zhāng Hé and others to pacify Héguān, crossing the river to Xiǎohuángzhōng, all the Qiāng west of the [Yellow] River surrendered, and all west of Lǒng [mountain] was pacified.

初,枹罕宋建因涼州亂,自號河首平漢王。太祖使淵帥諸將討建。淵至,圍枹罕,月餘拔之,斬建及所置丞相已下。淵別遣張郃等平河關,渡河入小湟中,河西諸羌盡降,隴右平。

Tàizǔ sent down an order: “Sòng Jiàn created disorder and rebelled for over thirty years. Yuān in one move destroyed him. Like a tiger he crossed west of the Passes, advancing on without match. Zhòngní once said: ‘I am not your equal.’”

太祖下令曰:「宋建造為亂逆三十餘年,淵一舉滅之,虎步關右,所向無前。仲尼有言:『吾與爾不如也。』」

Twenty-first year [216], his fief was increased by 300 households, adding to the previous to a total of 800 households. He returned to attack the Wǔdū Dī and Qiāng and settle their quarrels, capturing from the Dī over ten thousand hú of grain. Tàizǔ led a western campaign against Zhāng Lǔ, and Yuān and the others led all of Liángzhōu’s Generals, Lords, and Kings down to meet with Tàizǔ at Xiūtíng. Every time Tàizǔ met with a Qiāng or Hú, each because of Yuān was terrified of him. When [Zhāng] Lǔ surrendered, Hànzhōng was pacified, and Yuān was appointed Acting General of Regional Defense with command over Zhāng Hé, Xú Huǎng, and others to pacify Bā-jùn. Tàizǔ returned to Yè, leaving Yuān to defend Hànzhōng, and appointed Yuān General Attacking the West.

二十一年,增封三百戶,并前八百戶。還擊武都氐羌下辯,收氐穀十餘萬斛。太祖西征張魯,淵等將涼州諸將侯王已下,與太祖會休亭。太祖每引見羌、胡,以淵畏之。會魯降,漢中平,以淵行都護將軍,督張郃、徐晃等平巴郡。太祖還鄴,留淵守漢中,即拜淵征西將軍。

Twenty-third year [218], Liú Bèi’s army entered Yángpíng pass. Yuān sent the officers to resist him, and they faced one another and defended through the year.

二十三年,劉備軍陽平關,淵率諸將拒之,相守連年。

Twenty-fourth year [219] first moon, Bèi in the night set fire to the camp barricades. Yuān sent Zhāng Hé to defend the eastern side, and personally led light troops to defend the southern side. Bèi advanced and battled Hé, and Hé’s army was unsuccessful. Yuān divided his troops and sent half to assist Hé, but was attacked by Bèi. Yuān therefore died in battle. His posthumous title was Mǐn-hóu “Martyred Marquis.”

二十四年正月,備夜燒圍鹿角。淵使張郃護東圍,自將輕兵護南圍。備挑郃戰,郃軍不利。淵分所將兵半助郃,為備所襲,淵遂戰死。諡曰愍侯。


Previously, though Yuān had won many battles, Tàizǔ once warned him: “As a General there are times when one is weak, and cannot rely on personal courage alone. A General may use valor as a foundation, but must have wisdom and strategy. If one knows only valor, one can be matched by an ordinary fellow and that is all.”

初,淵雖數戰勝,太祖常戒曰:「為將當有怯弱時,不可但恃勇也。將當以勇為本,行之以智計;但知任勇,一匹夫敵耳。」


Yuān’s wife was Tàizǔ‘s wife’s younger sister. His eldest son Héng wed Tàizǔ‘s yougner brother Āi-hóu “Tragic Marquis” of Hǎiyáng’s daughter, and received special favor. Héng inherited title, and was transferred to Marquis of Ānníng precinct.

淵妻,太祖內妹。長子衡,尚太祖弟海陽哀侯女,恩寵特隆。衡襲爵,轉封安寧亭侯。

During Huángchū [220-226], title was bestowed on the second son Bà. During Tàihé [227-238] title was bestowed on Bà’s four younger brother, all as Marquis Within the Passes. Bà during Zhèngshǐ [240-249] was appointed General of the Right Protecting the Army Attacking Shǔ, and was advanced in fief to Marquis of Bóchāng precinct, and always received generous favor from Cáo Shuǎng. When he heard Shuǎng had been executed, he was suspicious of his own position, and fled to Shǔ. Because of Yuān’s former achievements, Bà’s sons were pardoned and moved to Lèlàngjùn. (1)

黃初中,賜中子霸,太和中,賜霸四弟,爵皆關內侯。霸,正始中為討蜀護軍右將軍,進封博昌亭侯,素為曹爽所厚。聞爽誅,自疑,亡入蜀。以淵舊勳赦霸子,徙樂浪郡。〔一〕

  • (1) Wèilüè states: [Xiàhóu] Bà appellation Zhòngquán. Yuān was killed by Shǔ, and so Bà often gnashed his teeth in anger and had thoughts of revenge against Shǔ. During Huángchū [220-226] he became Assistant-General. In the Zǐwǔ campaign, Bà asked to lead the front, advanced to the Xīngshì border, and set camp within the Qū valley. The Shǔ people saw and knew it was Bà and sent down troops to attack him. Bà personally fought at the barricades until reinforcements arrived and then withdrew. Later he became General of the Right, stationed at Lǒngxī, and there gathered soldiers and equipment, and was also pleasing to him. During Zhèngshǐ [240-249] he replaced Xiàhóu Rú as [General] Protecting the Army Attacking Shǔ, under the command of [the General] Attacking the West. At the General Attacking the West Xiàhóu Xuán was Bà’s cousin’s son, and also Cáo Shuǎng’s younger brother-in-law. When Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng executed Cáo Shuǎng, he then summoned Xuán, and Xuán returned east. Bà heard Cáo Shuǎng had been executed and Xuán had been also been summoned, and believed disaster would come next, and in his heart was terrified. Also, Bà had previously been unfriendly with Inspector of Yōngzhōu Guō Huái, and Huái had replaced Xuán as [General] Attacking the West. Bà was exceedingly disturbed, and therefore fled to Shǔ. He hurried south to Yīnpíng but lost the road, entered Qióng valley, exhausted his supplies, killed his horse and traveled on foot. His leg was broken and he lied down beneath a cliff rock. He sent people to find the way, but none knew where it was. Shǔ heard of this, and therefore sent people to welcome Bà. Previously, in Jiàn’ān fifth year [200], at the time Bà’s younger female cousin was aged thirteen to fourteen years, at her home commandery, went out to collect firewood, and was kidnapped by Zhāng Fēi. Fēi knew she was the daughter of a good family, and so made her his wife. She bore a daughter, who became Liú Shàn’s Empress. Previously when Yuān was killed, Fēi’s wife asked to bury him. When Bà entered Shǔ, [Liú] Shàn met with him, and explained to him: “Your father himself came to harm in the past and that is all, not by my father’s own hand and blade.” [Liú Shàn] pointed at his son and presented him, saying: “This is the Xiàhóu family’s maternal side descendant.” Therefore [Xiàhóu Bà] received generous title and favor.

〔一〕 魏略曰:霸字仲權。淵為蜀所害,故霸常切齒,欲有報蜀意。黃初中為偏將軍。子午之役,霸召為前鋒,進至興勢圍,安營在曲谷中。蜀人望知其是霸也,指下兵攻之。霸手戰鹿角間,賴救至,然後解。後為右將軍,屯隴西,其養士和戎,並得其歡心。至正始中,代夏侯儒為征蜀護軍,統屬征西。時征西將軍夏侯玄,於霸為從子,而玄於曹爽為外弟。及司馬宣王誅曹爽,遂召玄,玄來東。霸聞曹爽被誅而玄又徵,以為禍必轉相及,心既內恐;又霸先與雍州刺史郭淮不和,而淮代玄為征西,霸尤不安,故遂奔蜀。南趨陰平而失道,入窮谷中,糧盡,殺馬步行,足破,臥巖石下,使人求道,未知何之。蜀聞之,乃使人迎霸。初,建安五年,時霸從妹年十三四,在本郡,出行樵採,為張飛所得。飛知其良家女,遂以為妻,產息女,為劉禪皇后。故淵之初亡,飛妻請而葬之。及霸入蜀,禪與相見,釋之曰:「卿父自遇害於行閒耳,非我先人之手刃也。」指其兒子以示之曰:「此夏侯氏之甥也。」厚加爵寵。

Bà’s younger brother Wēi reached office as Inspector of Yǎnzhōu. (2)

霸弟威,官至兗州刺史。〔二〕

  • (2) Shìyǔ states: Wēi appellation Jìquán. He was chivalrous, and served as Inspector of Jīng and Yǎn, two provinces. His son Jùn was Inspector of Bìngzhōu. The next [son] Zhuāng was Administrator of Huáinán. Zhuāng’s son Zhàn, appellation Xiàoruò, was talented and extensive in writings, and reached Chancellor of Nányáng and Scattered Cavalry Regular Attendant. Zhuāng was Jìn’s Empress Jǐng-Yáng‘s older sister’s husband. Because of this the whole household received extravagant favor at the time.

〔二〕 世語曰:威字季權,任俠。貴歷荊、兗二州刺史。子駿,并州刺史。次莊,淮南太守。莊子湛,字孝若,以才博文章,至南陽相、散騎常侍。莊,晉景陽皇后姊夫也。由此一門侈盛於時。

Wēi’s younger brother Huì was Administrator of Lè’ān. (3)

威弟惠,樂安太守。〔三〕

  • (3) Wénzhāng Xùlù states: Huì appellation Zhìquán. From a young age for his talent and learning he met praise, and was skilled in presenting memorials and commentary. He served as Scattered Cavalry Yellow Gate Attendant-Gentleman, frequently debated with Zhōng Yù, and in many affairs met supporters. He was transferred to Chancellor of Yān and Administrator of Lè’ān. Aged thirty-seven years he died.

〔三〕 文章敘錄曰:惠字稚權,幼以才學見稱,善屬奏議。歷散騎黃門侍郎,與鍾毓數有辯駮,事多見從。遷燕相、樂安太守。年三十七卒。

Huì’s younger brother Hé was Intendant of Hénán. (4)

惠弟和,河南尹。〔四〕

  • (4) Shìyǔ states: Hé appellation Yìquán. In Pure Debate he had skill and ability. He served as Intendant of Hénán and Minister of Ceremonies.
  • Yuān’s third son was Chēng and fifth son was Róng. Their cousin’s grandson Zhàn wrote of them: “Chēng appellation Shūquán. From a young age he enjoyed gather together other children, became their commander, and played as if leading an army to battle, and if there were disobedient ones they were whipped, so that in the group none dared resist. Yuān was secretly very impressed, and sent him to study the Xiàng Yǔ Zhuàn and military texts, but he refused, saying: ‘Ability is inborn and that is all. How can it be learned from others?’ At age sixteen years, Yuān and he were in a field, and they met a fleeing tiger.  Chēng urged his horse on and pursued it and would not be stopped, and with one arrow shot it down. His reputation reached Tàizǔ, and Tàizǔ took his hand and happily said: “I finally have someone like you!” He befriended Wén-dì [Cáo Pī] in plain clothes [when they were commoners], and at every banquet they sat together, and in debate they could not be surpassed. At the time many people of renown came to follow him. At age eighteen years he died. His younger brother was Róng, appellation Yòuquán. From a young age he was intelligent, and aged seven years could write prose, and read aloud books with several thousand words every day, and all that he saw he memorized. Wén-dì heard of this and invited him. Out of over a hundred guests, each presented a [name] card, each written with their home town, name, and clan. At the time this was what was called the noble card. The guests showed these, and with one glance he could converse with them, never mixing up a single person. The Emperor was deeply impressed with him. At the defeat at Hànzhōng, Róng was aged thirteen years. His attendants tried to carry him away, but he would not agree, saying: “My father is in danger, how can I flee from death!” Therefore he wielded sword and fought, and so died in battle.

〔四〕 世語曰:和字義權,清辯有才論。歷河南尹、太常。淵第三子稱,第五子榮。從孫湛為其序曰:「稱字叔權。自孺子而好合聚童兒,為之渠帥,戲必為軍旅戰陳之事,有違者輒嚴以鞭捶,眾莫敢逆。淵陰奇之,使讀項羽傳及兵書,不肯,曰:『能則自為耳,安能學人?』年十六,淵與之田,見奔虎,稱驅馬逐之,禁之不可,一箭而倒。名聞太祖,太祖把其手喜曰:『我得汝矣!』與文帝為布衣之交,每讌會,氣陵一坐,辯士不能屈。世之高名者多從之游。年十八卒。弟榮,字幼權。幼聰惠,七歲能屬文,誦書日千言,經目輒識之。文帝聞而請焉。賓客百餘人,人一奏刺,悉書其鄉邑名氏,世所謂爵里刺也,客示之,一寓目,使之遍談,不謬一人。帝深奇之。漢中之敗,榮年十三,左右提之走,不肯,曰:『君親在難,焉所逃死!』乃奮劍而戰,遂沒陳。」

Héng died, and his son Jì succeeded, and became Gentleman-General of the Palace Tiger Guard. Jì died, and his son Bāo succeeded.

衡薨,子績嗣,為虎賁中郎將。績薨,子褒嗣。

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