(28.4) Dèng Ài 鄧艾 [Shìzài 士載]

Zhōu Tài 州泰


Dèng Ài appellation Shìzài was a Yìyáng Jíyáng man. When young he was fatherless, Tàizǔ defeated Jīng province [208], relocated to Rǔnán, became a farmer raising calves. Aged twelve years, followed his mother to Yǐngchuān, read former Tàiqiū Chief Chén Shí’s stele inscription: “In culture the world’s model [Fàn], in conduct what servicemen followed [Shìzé].” Aì therefore named himself Fàn appellation Shìzé, later in his clan there was one the same as this, therefore he changed again. Became Commandant Academic Scholar, due to stuttering could not be an assistant. Became Paddy Farm Maintenance Collection Drafting Scribe. The same prefecture’s scribe’s father pitied that his family was poor, and provided for him extremely generously, Ài at first did not express thanks. Every time seeing a high mountain or large pool, at once he would plan and measure and draw out positions for military camps, at the time of people many laughed at this. Later became Managing Agriculture Organizer Upper Calculations Scribe, because of this was sent to meet Excellency Commandant Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng. Xuān-wáng was impressed with him, recruited him as an official, (1) promoted to Secretariat Documents Cadet.

鄧艾字士載,義陽棘陽人也。少孤,太祖破荊州,徙汝南,為農民養犢。年十二,隨母至潁川,讀故太丘長陳寔碑文,言「文為世範,行為士則」,艾遂自名範,字士則。後宗族有與同者,故改焉。為都尉學士,以口吃,不得作幹佐。為稻田守叢草吏。同郡吏父憐其家貧,資給甚厚,艾初不稱謝。每見高山大澤,輒規度指畫軍營處所,時人多笑焉。後為典農綱紀,上計吏,因使見太尉司馬宣王。宣王奇之,辟之為掾,〔一〕遷尚書郎。

  • (1) Shìyǔ states: Dèng Ài when young was Xiāngchéng Managing Agriculture Division’s civilian, with Shí Bāo both were aged twelve to thirteen. Visitor Yángdí’s Guō Xuánxìn was Emperor Wǔ’s [Cáo Cāo] Supervisor of the Army Guō Dànyuán Yì’s son. During Jiàn’ān, Minister Treasure Jí Běn raised troops in Xǔdū, Xuánxìn was connected in punishment at home, from the Managing Agriculture Major requested someone to drive, used Ài and Bāo as drivers, going over ten lǐ, he spoke with and was pleased with them, saying the two men would both distantly reach to becoming assisting ministers. Ài later became Managing Agriculture Merit Officer, served in being sent to visit [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng, from this he met with notice and therefore was selected for promotion.

〔一〕 世語曰:鄧艾少為襄城典農部民,與石苞皆年十二三。謁者陽翟郭玄信,武帝監軍郭誕元奕之子。建安中,少府吉本起兵許都,玄信坐被刑在家,從典農司馬求人御,以艾、苞與御,行十餘里,與語,悅之,謂二人皆當遠至為佐相。艾後為典農功曹,奉使詣宣王,由此見知,遂被拔擢。


At the time wished to expand farms and amass grain, to be supplies for destroying the rebels, sent Ài to travel from Chén and Xiàng on east to Shòuchūn. Ài believed: “The fields are good but the water little, not enough to thoroughly use the land’s benefits. It is appropriate to open canals, to be able to draw water for irrigation, greatly amass military provisions, and also be transport ways.” Then he wrote Jǐ Hé lùn to explain his directions. He also believed: “In the past the defeat of the Yellow Scarves was because of Garrison Farms, amassing grain at Xǔdū to control the Four Quarters. Now three corners are already settled, the affairs are in the Huái’s south, every time the main army rises, the transporting soldiers are over half, the labors and costs enormous, making it a large conscription. Between Chén and Cài below the lands the fields are good, one can abolish Xǔchāng’s left and right various paddy farms, combine the waters to go downstream east. Have the Huái’s north garrison twenty thousand people, the Huái’s north thirty thousand people, [rotating shifts of] out of ten two divided to rest, to always have forty thousand people, both farming and guarding. The water fertility always collects three times that of the west, the calculated elimination of multitudes of expenses, in a year will secure five million hú as military supplies. Within six to seven years, it can amass thirty million hú above the Huái, this then for a force of a hundred thousand is five years of food. By this to press on Wú, there will be no expeditions that are without success.” [Sīmǎ Yì] Xuān-wáng praised this, the matters were all put into effect.

Zhèngshǐ Second Year [241] then opened and expanded canals, every time the southeast had matters, the main army raised multitudes, riding boats and going downstream, reaching to the Jiāng and Huái, the supplies and feed had stores and there was no water damage, established by Ài.

時欲廣田畜穀,為滅賊資,使艾行陳、項已東至壽春。艾以為「田良水少,不足以盡地利,宜開河渠,可以引水澆溉,大積軍糧,又通運漕之道。」乃著濟河論以喻其指。又以為「昔破黃巾,因為屯田,積穀于許都以制四方。今三隅已定,事在淮南,每大軍征舉,運兵過半,功費巨億,以為大役。陳、蔡之間,土下田良,可省許昌左右諸稻田,并水東下。令淮北屯二萬人,淮南三萬人,十二分休,常有四萬人,且田且守。水豐常收三倍於西,計除眾費,歲完五百萬斛以為軍資。六七年間,可積三千萬斛於淮上,此則十萬之眾五年食也。以此乘吳,無往而不克矣。」宣王善之,事皆施行。正始二年,乃開廣漕渠,每東南有事,大軍興眾,汎舟而下,達于江、淮,資食有儲而無水害,艾所建也。


Sent out as Advisor to Campaigning West [General Xiàhóu Xuán] Military affairs, moved to Nán’ān Administrator. Jiāpíng Inaugural Year [249], with Campaigning West General Guō Huái resisted Shǔ’s Assistant-General Jiāng Wéi, [Jiāng] Wéi retreated, [Guō] Huái therefore to the west struck the Qiāng. Ài said: “The rebels in leaving are not yet far away, and perhaps are able to again return. It is appropriate to divide the various armies to prepare for the unexpected.” Therefore left Ài to garrison the Báishuǐ’s north. In three days, [Jiāng] Wéi sent Liào Huà from Báishǔi’s south toward Ài’s joined camps. Ài said to the various officers: “[Jiāng] Wéi now suddenly returns, my army’s men are few, in principle they should come cross yet they do not build bridges. This is [Jiāng] Wéi sending [Liào] Huà to hold me, so that I cannot return. [Jiāng] Wéi certainly himself is to the east attacking and taking Táochéng.” Táochéng was to the river’s north, from Ài’s garrison by sixty lǐ. Ài at once in the night concealed army to directly arrive, [Jiāng] Wéi indeed came to cross, but Ài first arrived to occupy the city, so that it was not a defeat. Bestowed noble rank as Marquis Within the Passes, added Suppressing Bandits General, later moved to Chéngyáng Administrator.

出參征西軍事,遷南安太守。嘉平元年,與征西將軍郭淮拒蜀偏將軍姜維。維退,淮因西擊羌。艾曰:「賊去未遠,或能復還,宜分諸軍以備不虞。」於是留艾屯白水北。三日,維遣廖化自白水南向艾結營。艾謂諸將曰:「維今卒還,吾軍人少,法當來渡而不作橋。此維使化持吾,令不得還。維必自東襲取洮城。」洮城在水北,去艾屯六十里。艾即夜潛軍徑到,維果來渡,而艾先至據城,得以不敗。賜爵關內侯,加討寇將軍,後遷城陽太守。


At the time Bìng province’s Right Worthy King Liú Bào united a single division, Ài sent up word stating: “The Róng and Dí have hearts of beasts, and are not close to righteousness, when strong then they invade and injure, when weak then they inwardly attached, therefore Zhōu Xuān[wáng] had the Xiǎnyǔn’s plunder, Hàn [Gāo]zǔ had the encirclement at Píngchéng. Every time the Xiōngnú united and flourished, it was for previous ages a heavy misfortune. From since the Chányú was outside, none were able to lead and regulate the senior and humble. Entice and attract them, to have them come enter in attendance. By this the Qiāng and Yí will lose coherence, the united scatter without master. With the Chányú inside, ten thousand lǐ will follow course. Now the Chányú’s honor daily weakens, the outer land’s power gradually grows, then the Hú caitiffs cannot be not deeply prepared for. One hears Liú Bào’s division has rebelling Hú, and one can take advantage of the rebellion to cut them into two states, to divide their strength. Qùbēi had prominent achievements to the previous court, but his son did not continue the enterprise, it is appropriate to add to his son prominent title, have him occupy Yànmén, to separate the states and weaken the bandits, recollect and not old accomplishments, this is the long-term plan to defend the borders.” He also explained: “The Qiāng and Hú that with the civilians together reside, should be gradually expelled, to have the resident civilians model and esteem the teachings of honor and shame, and block the roads to treachery and treason.” General-in-Chief Sīmǎ [Shī] Jǐng-wáng newly assisted the government, and often accepted and used these. Moved to Rǔnán Administrator, arriving then he sought after the scribe’s father who had been generous to him in the past, he had long ago already died, sent scribes to sacrifice to him, heavily bequeathed to [the scribe’s] mother, nominating [the scribe’s] son as a calculations scribe. Wherever Ài was, the wilderness was open and developed, the army and civilians both supplied.

是時并州右賢王劉豹并為一部,艾上言曰:「戎狄獸心,不以義親,彊則侵暴,弱則內附,故周宣有玁狁之寇,漢祖有平城之圍。每匈奴一盛,為前代重患。自單于在外,莫能牽制長卑。誘而致之,使來入侍。由是羌夷失統,合散無主。以單于在內,萬里順軌。今單于之尊日疏,外土之威寖重,則胡虜不可不深備也。聞劉豹部有叛胡,可因叛割為二國,以分其勢。去卑功顯前朝,而子不繼業,宜加其子顯號,使居鴈門。離國弱寇,追錄舊勳,此御邊長計也。」又陳:「羌胡與民同處者,宜以漸出之,使居民表崇廉恥之教,塞姦宄之路。」大將軍司馬景王新輔政,多納用焉。遷汝南太守,至則尋求昔所厚己吏父,久已死,遣吏祭之,重遺其母,舉其子與計吏。艾所在,荒野開闢,軍民並豐。


Zhūgě Kè besieged Héféi Xīnchéng, was not successful, and retreated back. Ài said to [Sīmǎ Shī] Jǐng-wáng: “Sūn Quán is already dead, the great ministers not yet attached, Wú’s famed and powerful clans all have [their own] division retainers, amassing troops and wielding power, sufficient to enforce [their own] orders. [Zhūgě] Kè newly holds the state’s government, but inside there is no master, he does not comfort and relieve high and low to establish foundations, contending in outer affairs, oppressively using their people, all the state’s forces was blocked at a firm city, the dead in the ten thousands, carrying disaster and returning, this is the day of Kè suffering punishment. In the past Zǐxū, Wú Qǐ, Shāng Yāng, Yuè Yì all met with appointment by the time’s rulers, their masters died and they were destroyed. All the more for Kè whose talent is not that of those four worthies, but he does not consider the great dangers, his destruction can be waited for.” [Zhūgě] Kè returned, and indeed met with execution.

Moved to Yǎn province Inspector, added Shaking Authority General. Sent up word saying: “What is urgent for the state is only agriculture and battle. When the state is wealthy then troops are strong, when troops are strong then battles are victorious. That being the case agriculture is root of victory. Kǒng-zǐ said: ‘sufficient food, sufficient troops.’ Food is in front of troops. If above there is no encouragement of established noble ranks, then below there are no achievements of wealth accumulation. Now if there are sent rewards in investigation of achievements in accumulation of grain and enriching the people, then the roads of schmoozing are cut off, the sources of the pretentious are blocked.”

諸葛恪圍合肥新城,不克,退歸。艾言景王曰:「孫權已沒,大臣未附,吳名宗大族,皆有部曲,阻兵仗勢,足以建命。恪新秉國政,而內無其主,不念撫恤上下以立根基,競於外事,虐用其民,悉國之眾,頓於堅城,死者萬數,載禍而歸,此恪獲罪之日也。昔子胥、吳起、商鞅、樂毅皆見任時君,主沒而敗。況恪才非四賢,而不慮大患,其亡可待也。」恪歸,果見誅。遷兗州刺史,加振威將軍。上言曰:「國之所急,惟農與戰,國富則兵彊,兵彊則戰勝。然農者,勝之本也。孔子曰『足食足兵』,食在兵前也。上無設爵之勸,則下無財畜之功。今使考績之賞,在於積粟富民,則交游之路絕,浮華之原塞矣。」


When the Duke of Gāoguì village ascended the Honored Throne, advanced in fief to Fāngchéng precinct Marquis. Guànqiū Jiǎn made chaos, sent strong messengers to spread letters, wishing to confuse the great forces, Ài beheaded them, on multiple roads advanced armies, first reaching Yuèjiā city, building pontoon bridges. Sīmǎ [Shī] Jǐng-wáng arrived, and therefore occupied it. Wén Qīn due to being after the main army was defeated below the city, Ài pursued him reaching Qiūtóu. [Wén] Qīn fled to Wú. Wú General-in-Chief Sūn Jùn and others claimed forces of a hundred thousand, about to cross the Jiāng, Defending East General Zhūgě Dàn sent Ài to occupy Féiyáng, Ài believed the rebel strength was far away from it and it was not critical land, and at once moved garrison to Fùtíng, sending Tàishān Administrator Zhūgě Xù and others to at Líjiāng resist and battle, and therefore drove them away. That year summoned and appointed Cháng River Colonel. For the achievement of defeating [Wén] Qīn and the rest, advanced in fief to Fāngchéng village Marquis, Acting Securing West General. Relieved Yōng province Inspector Wáng Jīng’s encirclement at Dídào, Jiāng Wéi retreated and stationed Zhōngdī, thus appointed Ài as Securing West General, Lent Staff, designate Protector of the East Qiāng Colonel. Of the commentators many believed [Jiāng] Wéi’s strength was already exhausted, not able to again set out. Ài said: “The defeat at Táoxī was not a small loss. Broken army and slain officers, granaries empty, the hundred surnames refugees, it is almost danger of destruction. Now using strategy to speak of it, they have the momentum of following up on victory, we have the fact of emptiness and weakness. This is first. They above and below are practiced, the five weapons sharp and penetrating, we are about to change to new troops, the tools and weapons are not yet restored. This is second. They by boats travel, I have a land army, the toils and resting are not the same. This is third. Dídào, Lǒngxī, Nán’ān, Qíshān, each should have defenses. They can concentrate into one, we are divided into four. This is fourth. From Nán’ān, Lǒngxī, they can take advantage to eat Qiāng grain, if hurrying to Qíshān, the ripe wheat are a thousand qǐng, form them it is hanging food. This is fifth. The rebels have numerous tricks, their coming is certain.” Shortly after this, [Jiāng] Wéi indeed headed toward Qíshān, heard Ài already had preparations, and then returned back from Dǒngtíng to hurry to Nán’ān. Ài occupied Wǔchéng mountain to lock together, [Jiāng] Wéi with Ài contested the rugged terrain, was not successful, that night crossed the Wèi going east, following the mountains to hurry to Shàngguī, Ài with them battled at Duàngǔ, greatly defeating them. Gānlù Inaugural Year [256] Imperial Order said: “Rebel bandit Jiāng Wéi for successive years was treacherous, the people and foreign disturbed, the western lands not at peace. Ài in planning is correct, loyalty and bravery roused, beheading officers in the tens, severing heads in the thousands. The state’s authority shakes Bā and Shǔ, martial sound raised in the Jiāng and Mín. Now appoint Ài as Defending West General, Regional Commander of Lǒngyòu’s various military affairs, advanced in fief to Marquis of Dèng. Divide five hundred households to enfeoff his son Zhōng as a precinct marquis.”

Second Year [257], resisted Jiāng Wéi at Chángchéng, [Jiāng] Wéi retreated back. Promoted to Campaigning West General, beginning to end the increases to his fief altogether to 6600 households.

Jǐngyuán Third Year [262] again defeated [Jiāng] Wéi at Hóuhé, [Jiāng] Wéi withdrew to defend Tàzhōng. Fourth Year [263] Autumn, Imperial Order on the various armies to campaign against Shǔ, General-in-Chief Sīmǎ [Zhāo] Wén-wáng all giving out directives, sending Ài to with [Jiāng] Wéi bind together, Yōng province Inspector Zhūgě Xù to intercept [Jiāng] Wéi to have him be unable to return. Ài sent Tiānshuǐ Administrator Wáng Qí and others to directly attack [Jiāng] Wéi’s camp, Lǒngxī Administrator Qiān Hóng and others to intercept their front, Jīnchéng Administrator Yáng Xīn and others to go to Gānsōng. [Jiāng] Wéi heard Zhōng Huì’s various armies had already entered Hànzhōng, and led his forces to retreat back. [Yáng] Xīn and the rest pursued to Qiángchuān’s mouth, greatly battled, [Jiāng] Wéi was defeated and fled. Heard the Yōng province [army] had already blocked the roads garrisoning Qiáotóu, from Kǒnghán valley entered the north road, wishing to set out against Yōng province’s rear. Zhūgě Xù heard this, and withdrew back thirty lǐ. [Jiāng] Wéi entered the north road over thirty lǐ, heard [Zhūgě] Xù’s army had withdrew, and went back, from Qiáotóu passing, [Zhūgě] Xù hurried to intercept [Jiāng] Wéi, by one day not reaching. [Jiāng] Wéi therefore pulled to the east, returning to defend Jiàngé. Zhōng Huì attacked [Jiāng] Wéi and could not overcome him. Ài sent up word: “Now the rebels are broken, it is appropriate to therefore follow up on them, from Yīnpíng by other roads pass through Hàndéyáng precinct to hurry to Fú, setting out to Jiàngé’s west by a hundred lǐ, from Chéngdū by over three hundred lǐ, with surprise troops charging their belly and heart. Jiàngé’s defenders will certainly return to go to Fú, then [Zhōng] Huì will follow course and advance; if Jiàngé’s army does not return, then in answer Fú’s troops will be few. Military treatises have it to say: ‘Attack where they are not prepared, set out where they do not expect.’ Now surprising where they are empty, defeating them is certain.”

高貴鄉公即尊位,進封方城亭侯。毌丘儉作亂,遣健步齎書,欲疑惑大眾,艾斬之,兼道進軍,先趣樂嘉城,作浮橋。司馬景王至,遂據之。文欽以後大軍破敗於城下,艾追之至丘頭。欽奔吳。吳大將軍孫峻等號十萬眾,將渡江,鎮東將軍諸葛誕遣艾據肥陽,艾以與賊勢相遠,非要害之地,輒移屯附亭,遣泰山太守諸葛緒等于黎漿拒戰,遂走之。其年徵拜長水校尉。以破欽等功,進封方城鄉侯,行安西將軍。解雍州刺史王經圍於狄道,姜維退駐鍾提,乃以艾為安西將軍,假節、領護東羌校尉。議者多以為維力已竭,未能更出。艾曰:「洮西之敗,非小失也;破軍殺將,倉廩空虛,百姓流離,幾於危亡。今以策言之,彼有乘勝之勢,我有虛弱之實,一也。彼上下相習,五兵犀利,我將易兵新,器杖未復,二也。彼以船行,吾以陸軍,勞逸不同,三也。狄道、隴西、南安、祁山,各當有守,彼專為一,我分為四,四也。從南安、隴西,因食羌穀,若趣祁山,熟麥千頃,為之縣餌,五也。賊有黠數,其來必矣。」頃之,維果向祁山,聞艾已有備,乃回從董亭趣南安,艾據武城山以相持。維與艾爭險,不克,其夜,渡渭東行,緣山趣上邽,艾與戰於段谷,大破之。甘露元年詔曰:「逆賊姜維連年狡黠,民夷騷動,西土不寧。艾籌畫有方,忠勇奮發,斬將十數,馘首千計;國威震於巴、蜀,武聲揚於江、岷。今以艾為鎮西將軍、都督隴右諸軍事,進封鄧侯。分五百戶封子忠為亭侯。」二年,拒姜維于長城,維退還。遷征西將軍,前後增邑凡六千六百戶。景元三年,又破維于侯和,維卻保沓中。四年秋,詔諸軍征蜀,大將軍司馬文王皆指授節度,使艾與維相綴連;雍州刺史諸葛緒要維,令不得歸。艾遣天水太守王頎等直攻維營,隴西太守牽弘等邀其前,金城太守楊欣等詣甘松。維聞鍾會諸軍已入漢中,引退還。欣等追躡於彊川口,大戰,維敗走。聞雍州已塞道屯橋頭,從孔函谷入北道,欲出雍州後。諸葛緒聞之,卻還三十里。維入北道三十餘里,聞緒軍卻,尋還,從橋頭過,緒趣截維,較一日不及。維遂東引,還守劍閣。鍾會攻維未能克。艾上言:「今賊摧折,宜遂乘之,從陰平由邪徑經漢德陽亭趣涪,出劍閣西百里,去成都三百餘里,奇兵衝其腹心。劍閣之守必還赴涪,則會方軌而進;劍閣之軍不還,則應涪之兵寡矣。軍志有之曰:『攻其無備,出其不意。』今掩其空虛,破之必矣。」


Winter Tenth Moon, Ài from Yīnpíng road walked on uninhabited lands of over seven hundred lǐ, boring through mountains to connect roads, building bridges and planks. The mountains were high and valleys deep, the utmost of difficult and rugged, and also the provision transports were almost exhausted, frequently they were in grave danger. Ài with a rug bundled himself, pushed and turned and descended. The officers and soldiers all climbed wood along the cliffs, in a fish string [single file] advancing. First ascended to reach Jiāngyóu, Shǔ defending officer Mǎ Miǎo surrendered. Shǔ Guard General Zhūgě Zhān from Fú returned to Miánzhú, arranging battle lines to wait for Ài. Ài sent his son Huìtáng precinct marquis [Dèng] Zhōng and others to set out against their right, Major Shī Zuǎn and others set out against their left. [Dèng] Zhōng and [Shī] Zuǎn battled and were not successful, both retreating back, saying: “The rebels cannot be struck.” Ài angrily said: “The divide between survival and destruction is in this one action, what ‘cannot’ is there?” Then he shouted at [Dèng] Zhōng and [Shī] Zuǎn and the rest, about to behead them. [Dèng] Zhōng and [Shī] Zuǎn hurried back and again battled, greatly defeating them, cutting [Zhūgě] Zhān and Secretariat Documenter Zhāng Zūn and other’s heads, advancing army to arrive at Luò. Liú Shàn sent envoy to offer his Imperial Emperor’s seal and ribbon, with letter to visit Ài to request to surrender.

冬十月,艾自陰平道行無人之地七百餘里,鑿山通道,造作橋閣。山高谷深,至為艱險,又糧運將匱,頻於危殆。艾以氊自裹,推轉而下。將士皆攀木緣崖,魚貫而進。先登至江由,蜀守將馬邈降。蜀衛將軍諸葛瞻自涪還綿竹,列陳待艾。艾遣子惠唐亭侯忠等出其右,司馬師纂等出其左。忠、纂戰不利,並退還,曰:「賊未可擊。」艾怒曰:「存亡之分,在此一舉,何不可之有?」乃叱忠、纂等,將斬之。忠、纂馳還更戰,大破之,斬瞻及尚書張遵等首,進軍到雒。劉禪遣使奉皇帝璽綬,為箋詣艾請降。


Ài reached Chéngdū, [Liú] Shàn led his Heir-Apparent and various kings and mass of ministers of over sixty people facing ahead bound and carrying coffins to visit the army gates, Ài wielding staff undid the bindings and burned the coffins, receiving and pardoning them. Restrained the officers and soldiers, so there was no plundering, pacified and accepted the surrendering and attaching, sending them back to their old enterprises, the Shǔ people praised him. At once in accordance to the precedent of Dèng Yǔ, took charge to appoint [Liú] Shàn as Acting Elite Cavalry General, Heir-Apparent as Presenting Chariots, various kings as Attached Horse Commandants. The Shǔ various managers each in accordance to their high and low were appointed to the ruling government bureaucracy or designated as associates in Ài’s bureaucracy. Appointed Shī Zuǎn as designate Yì province Inspector, Lǒngxī Administrator Qiān Hóng and others designated in the various prefectures in Shǔ. Sent to have Miánzhú build a terrace into a Mound Tower [out of the bodies of enemy slain], used to make manifest the battle achievements, the soldiers that died in service all with the Shǔ troops were together buried [to build the Mound Tower]. Ài extremely was self-boastful, saying to the Shǔ scholar officials: “You sirs were fortunate to encounter me, and therefore were able to have a today and that is all. If you had encountered Wú Hàn’s sort, you would already be exterminated.” He also said: “Jiāng Wéi surely was the whole era’s imposing boy, but he happened to face me, and therefore failed and that is all.” The knowledgeable laughed at this.

艾至成都,禪率太子諸王及群臣六十餘人面縛輿櫬詣軍門,艾執節解縛焚櫬,受而宥之。檢御將士,無所虜略,綏納降附,使復舊業,蜀人稱焉。輒依鄧禹故事,承制拜禪行驃騎將軍,太子奉車、諸王駙馬都尉。蜀群司各隨高下拜為王官,或領艾官屬。以師纂領益州刺史,隴西太守牽弘等領蜀中諸郡。使於綿竹築臺以為京觀,用彰戰功。士卒死事者,皆與蜀兵同共埋藏。艾深自矜伐,謂蜀士大夫曰:「諸君賴遭某,故得有今日耳。若遇吳漢之徒,已殄滅矣。」又曰:「姜維自一時雄兒也,與某相值,故窮耳。」有識者笑之。


Twelfth Moon, Imperial Order said: “Ài’s glory and power exerts warfare, deeply penetrating the caitiff halls, beheading officers and pulling down flags, taking their vicious, causing their usurping title ruler to bow head and tie neck, for generations escaping punishment, in one morning was pacified. Troops not delayed in time, battles not lasting to end of day, clouds penetrating to roll up, cleansing and settling Bā and Shǔ. Though Bái Qǐ defeated a strong Chǔ, Hán Xìn overcame a sturdy Zhào, Wú Hàn took [Gōngsūn Shù] Zǐyáng, [Zhōu] Yàfū exterminated seven states, in calculating achievements and discussing beauty, it is not enough to compare to this achievement. Thus appoint Ài as Excellency Commandant, increase fief twenty thousand households, enfeoff his sons of two men as precinct marquis, each a fief of a thousand households.” (1)

Ài said to Sīmǎ [Zhāo] Wén-wáng: “Troops have things that are first sounded and afterward made true, now taking advantage of the momentum of pacifying Shǔ to follow up on Wú, the Wú people are shaken and afraid, it is the time to roll up. However after a great raising, the officers and soldiers are fatigued, and cannot be easily used. For the time being rest them, leaving in Lǒngyòu troops of twenty thousand people, in Shǔ troops of twenty thousand people, boil for salt and raise smelting, to for the army and agriculture be imortant use, and also build boats, to prepare for the matter of following the river flow, afterward send messengers to report the benefits and harms, and Wú will certainly return to cultivation, and they can without campaigning be settled. Now it is appropriate to generously treat Liú Shàn to entice Sūn Xiū, secure the servicemen and civilians to attract distant people. If one immediately sends [Liú] Shàn to the capital, Wú will believe it an exile, then it will not encourage the heart to turn toward cultivation. It is appropriate for expedience to station and stay, and wait for the coming year’s autumn or winter, by then Wú also will be sufficient to be pacified. One believes [Liú] Shàn can be enfeoffed as King of Fúfēng, bestowed with resources and wealth, provided for his left and right. The prefecture has Dǒng Zhuó’s fortress, it can be his Palace Residence. Give noble rank on his sons as Dukes and Marquis, fief of the prefecture’s inner counties, to make clear the favor giving to submitting to the mandate. Open Guǎnglíng and Chéngyáng to wait for Wú people, then fearing authority and embracing virtue, they will watch the winds and come.”

[Sīmǎ Zhāo] Wén-wáng sent Supervisor of the Army Wèi Guàn to explain to Ài: “Matters must wait for reply, it is not appropriate to at once enact.”

Ài again said: “Carrying mandate to go on campaign, serving talley of instructions, the foremost evil is already submitted; as for taking charge to appoint temporarily, it is to secure the newly attached, said to be in accordance to expedience. Now Shǔ raises its masses to submit to the mandate, its lands reach to the south sea, east connecting to Wú and Kuài, it is appropriate to early settle. If one waits for the state’s commands, going back and forth on the roads, it will delay by days and moons. By the principles of the Chūnqiū, grandees sent out to the borders, if it can secure the State Altars and benefit the country, taking authority is permissible. Now Wú is not yet a guest, their power is with Shǔ connected, one cannot adhere to the standard to lose opportunity. In military methods, advancing is not to seek fame, retreating is not to flee punishment, I Ài though am without the integrity of the ancients, to the end will not for my own reputation harm the state.”

Zhōng Huì, Hú Liè, Shī Zuǎn and the rest all reported all the disobedience done by Ài as indications of rebellion. Imperial Order letter sent prisoner cart to summon Ài. (2)

十二月,詔曰:「艾曜威奮武,深入虜庭,斬將搴旗,梟其鯨鯢,使僭號之主,稽首係頸,歷世逋誅,一朝而平。兵不踰時,戰不終日,雲徹席卷,蕩定巴蜀。雖白起破彊楚,韓信克勁趙,吳漢禽子陽,亞夫滅七國,計功論美,不足比勳也。其以艾為太尉,增邑二萬戶,封子二人亭侯,各食邑千戶。」〔一〕艾言司馬文王曰:「兵有先聲而後實者,今因平蜀之勢以乘吳,吳人震恐,席卷之時也。然大舉之後,將士疲勞,不可便用,且徐緩之;留隴右兵二萬人,蜀兵二萬人,煮鹽興冶,為軍農要用,並作舟船,豫順流之事,然後發使告以利害,吳必歸化,可不征而定也。今宜厚劉禪以致孫休,安士民以來遠人,若便送禪於京都,吳以為流徙,則於向化之心不勸。宜權停留,須來年秋冬,比爾吳亦足平。以為可封禪為扶風王,錫其資財,供其左右。郡有董卓塢,為之宮舍。爵其子為公侯,食郡內縣,以顯歸命之寵。開廣陵、城陽以待吳人,則畏威懷德,望風而從矣。」文王使監軍衛瓘喻艾:「事當須報,不宜輒行。」艾重言曰:「銜命征行,奉指授之策,元惡既服;至于承制拜假,以安初附,謂合權宜。今蜀舉眾歸命,地盡南海,東接吳會,宜早鎮定。若待國命,往復道途,延引日月。春秋之義,大夫出疆,有可以安社稷,利國家,專之可也。今吳未賓;勢與蜀連,不可拘常以失事機。兵法,進不求名,退不避罪,艾雖無古人之節,終不自嫌以損于國也。」鍾會、胡烈、師纂等皆白艾所作悖逆,變釁以結。詔書檻車徵艾。〔二〕

  • (1) Yuán-zǐ states: Zhūgě Liàng was a restrained man, but readily used Shǔ’s troops; this was from knowing that a small state and weak people are difficult to last long. Now the country in one action exterminated Shǔ, in the achievements of campaign attacks, never once was there one like this in speed. Just when Dèng Ài with ten thousand men entered Jiāngyóu’s dangerous and rugged terrain, Zhōng Huì with forces of two hundred thousand remained at Jiàngé and could not advance, the soldiers of the three armies were almost in hunger, Ài though in battle was victorious and overcame officers, if Liú Shàn for several days did not surrender, then the armies of the two Generals would have difficulty in returning. Therefore, achievement in enterprise is like this in difficulty. The country formerly had the campaign of Shòuchūn, later had the labors of exterminating Shǔ, the hundred surnames were poor and the granaries empty, therefore the considerations of a small state, are in timely establishing achievement to preserve self, the considerations of a large state, are in quick victory and yet strength is exhausted, after achievement is the time for wariness.

〔一〕 袁子曰:諸葛亮,重人也,而驟用蜀兵,此知小國弱民難以久存也。今國家一舉而滅蜀,自征伐之功,未有如此之速者也。方鄧艾以萬人入江由之危險,鍾會以二十萬眾留劍閣而不得進,三軍之士已飢,艾雖戰勝克將,使劉禪數日不降,則二將之軍難以反矣。故功業如此之難也。國家前有壽春之役,後有滅蜀之勞,百姓貧而倉稟虛,故小國之慮,在於時立功以自存,大國之慮,在於既勝而力竭,成功之後,戒懼之時也。

  • (2) Wèishì Chūnqiū states: Ài looked up to the sky and sighed saying: “I Ài am a loyal subject, all coming to this! The injustice of Bái Qǐ is again seen today!”

  〔二〕 魏氏春秋曰:艾仰天歎曰:「艾忠臣也,一至此乎!白起之酷,復見於今日矣。」


Ài father and son were imprisoned, Zhōng Huì arrived at Chéngdū, first sent Ài, afterward made chaos. Huì had already died, Ài’s base camp officers and soldiers chased and let out Ài from prisoner carriage, welcoming him back. [Wèi] Guàn sent Tián Xù and others to suppress Ài, encountering them at Miánzhú’s west, beheading him. His son [Dèng] Zhōng with Ài together died, the remaining sons in Luòyáng were all executed, exiled Ài’s wife and grandsons to the Western Regions. (1)

艾父子既囚,鍾會至成都,先送艾,然後作亂。會已死,艾本營將士追出艾檻車,迎還。瓘遣田續等討艾,遇於綿竹西,斬之。子忠與艾俱死,餘子在洛陽者悉誅,徙艾妻子及孫於西域。〔一〕

  • (1) Hàn Jìn Chūnqiū states: Previously when Ài went down Jiāngyóu, because [Tián] Xù did not advance, wished to behead him but soon after pardoned him. When [Wèi] Guàn sent [Tián] Xù, he said: “You can avenge the disgrace of Jiāngyóu.” Dù Yù said to the masses: “Bóyù [Wèi Guàn] will not escape! He is a famed servicemen, his rank and prestige already high, yet he is without virtuous sound, and also does not manage subordinates by the upright, he is a petty man but uses a gentleman’s vessels, how can he endure his responsibilities?” Guàn heard this, and hurriedly [lit. ‘without waiting for a carriage’] apologized.
  • Shìyǔ states: Shī Zuǎn also with Ài together died. [Shī] Zuǎn by nature was impatient with little kindness, on the day of his death his body was without intact skin.

〔一〕 漢晉春秋曰:初艾之下江由也,以續不進,欲斬,既而捨之。及瓘遣續,謂曰:「可以報江由之辱矣。」杜預言於眾曰:「伯玉其不免乎!身為名士,位望已高,既無德音,又不御下以正,是小人而乘君子之器,將何以堪其責乎?」瓘聞之,不俟駕而謝。世語曰:師纂亦與艾俱死。纂性急少恩,死之日體無完皮。


Previously, Ài was about to attack Shǔ, dreamed of sitting atop a mountain and there was flowing water, and about it asked Exterminating Caitiffs Protector of the Army Yuán Shào. [Yuán] Shào said: “According to the Yì hexagrams, mountain top with water is called Jiǎn, Jiǎn’s statement states: ‘Jiǎn benefits west and south, not benefits east and north.’ Kong-zǐ states: ‘Jiǎn benefits west and south is going having achievements. Not benefits east and north, is its way exhausted.’ In going you will certainly overcome Shǔ, but probably will not return!” Ài was disappointed and not happy. (1)

初,艾當伐蜀,夢坐山上而有流水,以問殄虜護軍爰邵。邵曰:「按易卦,山上有水曰蹇。蹇繇曰:『蹇利西南,不利東北。』孔子曰:『蹇利西南,往有功也;不利東北,其道窮也。』往必克蜀,殆不還乎!」艾憮然不樂。〔一〕

  • (1) Xún Chuò’s Jìzhōu jì states: Shào rose up from worker scribe, rank reaching Minister of the Guard. Eldest son Hàn was Hédōng Administrator, middle son Chǎng was Minister of Agriculture, youngest son Qiàn appellation Jūnyòu was b road and generous and had skill in office, diligent in the era, successively ranked Jì province Inspector, Heir-Apparent’s Right Guard Leader. Hàn’s son Yú appellation Shìdū was pure and chaste with noble essence, debated in discussion, selected Gōngsūn Lóng’s words to converse on subtle reasonings. When young he had ability and fame, recruited to the Excellency Commandant’s Office, gradually serving in prominent positions, reached Attendant Internal Internal Documents Director, promoted to Supervisor.
  • Your Servant Sōngzhī notes: Jiǎn’s Tuàn statement says ‘Jiǎn benefits west and south, is going obtaining target,’ it does not say ‘having achievement.’ Below it says ‘beneficial to meet great man, is going having achievement.’

〔一〕 荀綽冀州記曰:邵起自幹吏,位至衛尉。長子翰,河東太守。中子敞,大司農。少子倩,字君幼,寬厚有器局,勤於當世,歷位冀州刺史、太子右衛率。翰子俞,字世都,清貞貴素,辯於論議,採公孫龍之辭以談微理。少有能名,辟太尉府,稍歷顯位,至侍中中書令,遷為監。臣松之按:蹇彖辭云「蹇利西南,往得中也」,不云「有功」;下云「利見大人,往有功也」。


Tàishǐ Inaugural Year [265], the Jìn House ascended, Imperial Order said: “In the past Excellency Commandant Wáng Líng plotted to depose the King of Qí, and the King indeed was not enough to maintain the throne. Campaigning West General Dèng Ài boasted of achievements and lost integrity, truly welcoming great punishment. However on the day of receiving letter, he dismissed and sent his men and forces, tying hands and accepted punishment, comparing to those who in seeking life therefore become evil, it truly is not the same. Now greatly pardon and allow returning, if there are those without descendants listen to allow establishment of posterity, to have sacrifices not be cut off.”

Third Year [267], Consultant Cadet Duàn Zhuó sent up memorial defending Ài that said: “Ài’s heart harbored utmost loyalty but carries rebellious reputation, pacified and settled Bā and Shǔ but received exterminating execution, I your servant humbly lament this. A pity, to say Ài rebelled! Ài by nature was stubborn and impatient, recklessly violated elegant custom, not able to harmonize with friends and others, and therefore none agreed to defend him. I your servant dare say Ài did not rebel. In the past Jiāng Wéi had ambition to cut off Lǒngyòu, Ài repaired and managed preparations and defenses, accumulated grain and strengthened troops. It happened that year had fierce drought, Ài for the region planted, his body wearing crow’s clothes, his hand wielding the plow, to lead the officers and soldiers. High and low were mutually moved, and none did not exhaust their strength. Ài Wielded Staff to defend the borders, those he gathered were in the tens of thousands, but he did not refuse the servant’s or slave’s toils, the soldier’s and people’s labor, if not one holding to integrity and of loyal diligence, who would be able to be like this? Therefore, at Luòmén’s and Duàngǔ’s battles, with few he struck many, destroying and breaking powerful rebels. The Former Emperor [Sīmǎ Zhāo] knew he could be appointed, entrusted Ài with Temple [planned] victory, awarding him with senior tally. Ài in receiving command forgot himself, binding horse and hanging chariot, throwing himself onto death ground, his courageous air a mountainous cloud, the soldiers and masses rode the force, to cause Liú Shàn ruler and ministers to face bound, crossing hands and bending knees. Ài’s achievement and fame was thus completed, and should be written on bamboo and silk, to be passed on for ten thousand ages. An old man of seventy, a rebellion would be for what desire? Ài truly relied on the kindness of [the state’s] nurture, his heart did not doubt himself, his feigning command to carry on regulations, was for expedience to calm the State Altars; though it violated standard rules, it had accordance with ancient principles; pardoning heart in deciding crime, originally could be discussed. Zhōng Huì feared Ài’s prestigious fame, and framed and completed the matter. Loyal but receiving punishment, faithful but meeting with suspicion, head hanging from horse market, his various sons all beheaded, those watching it shed tears, those hearing it sighed out. Your Majesty is a dragon rising, spreading vast magnanimity, resolving various suspicions and houses that received punishment, not confined by narrated use. In the past the Qín people pitied Bái Qǐ who was without guilt, Wú men grieved for Zǐxū who was unjustly harmed, all for them established shrines. Now Under Heaven the people for Ài mourn and hearts are pained by regret, and it also is like that. I your servant believe that as Ài’s body and head were separated, and abandoned in grass and soil, it is appropriate to collect the corpse for burial, and return his fields and houses. For the achievement of pacifying Shǔ, continue the fief on his grandson, have the coffin closed and settle posthumous name, for the dead to be without remaining regrets. Pardon the wronged spirit in the yellow springs, collect faith and righteousness for later generations, inter one man and Heaven’s Under will admire this conduct, bury one spirt and Heaven’s Under will submit to this righteousness, so that with actions of a few it pleases the many.”

Ninth Year [273] Imperial Order said: “Ài had achievements, accepted punishments and did not flee from penalties, but his descendants are commoner scribes, We have always pitied this. Thus appoint his successor grandson [Dèng] Lǎng as Cadet Internal.”

泰始元年,晉室踐阼,詔曰:「昔太尉王淩謀廢齊王,而王竟不足以守位。征西將軍鄧艾,矜功失節,實應大辟。然被書之日,罷遣人眾,束手受罪,比于求生遂為惡者,誠復不同。今大赦得還,若無子孫者聽使立後,令祭祀不絕。」三年,議郎段灼上疏理艾曰:「艾心懷至忠而荷反逆之名,平定巴蜀而受夷滅之誅,臣竊悼之。惜哉,言艾之反也!艾性剛急,輕犯雅俗,不能協同朋類,故莫肯理之。臣敢言艾不反之狀。昔姜維有斷隴右之志,艾脩治備守,積穀彊兵。值歲凶旱,艾為區種,身被烏衣,手執耒耜,以率將士。上下相感,莫不盡力。艾持節守邊,所統萬數,而不難僕虜之勞,士民之役,非執節忠勤,孰能若此?故落門、段谷之戰,以少擊多,摧破彊賊。先帝知其可任,委艾廟勝,授以長策。艾受命忘身,束馬縣車,自投死地,勇氣陵雲,士眾乘勢,使劉禪君臣面縛,叉手屈膝。艾功名以成,當書之竹帛,傳祚萬世。七十老公,反欲何求!艾誠恃養育之恩,心不自疑,矯命承制,權安社稷;雖違常科,有合古義,原心定罪,本在可論。鍾會忌艾威名,搆成其事。忠而受誅,信而見疑,頭縣馬巿,諸子并斬,見之者垂泣,聞之者歎息。陛下龍興,闡弘大度,釋諸嫌忌,受誅之家,不拘敘用。昔秦民憐白起之無罪,吳人傷子胥之冤酷,皆為立祠。今天下民人為艾悼心痛恨,亦猶是也。臣以為艾身首分離,捐棄草土,宜收尸喪,還其田宅。以平蜀之功,紹封其孫,使闔棺定諡,死無餘恨。赦冤魂于黃泉,收信義于後世,葬一人而天下慕其行,埋一魂而天下歸其義,所為者寡而悅者眾矣。」九年,詔曰:「艾有功勳,受罪不逃刑,而子孫為民隸,朕常愍之。其以嫡孫朗為郎中。」


When Ài was in the west, he repaired the passes, building and raising city walls and forts. During Tàishǐ, the Qiāng caitiffs greatly rebelled, continuously killing Inspectors, Liáng province’s roads were cut off. The officials and people that were safe were all protected by the forts built by Ài. (1)

艾在西時,修治障塞,築起城塢。泰始中,羌虜大叛,頻殺刺史,涼州道斷。吏民安全者,皆保艾所築塢焉。〔一〕

  • (1) Shìyǔ states: During Xiánníng, Amassed Arrows General Fán Zhèn became Xīróng Ivory Gate, was able to meet and speak. Emperor Wǔ [Sīmǎ Yán] asked Zhèn how he advanced, Zhèn himself explained he once in the time when Dèng Ài attacked Shǔ was a bannermen officer, the Emperor therefore asked about Ài, Zhèn testified to Ài’s loyalty, speaking with flowing tears. Before this Ài’s grandson [Dèng] Lǎng was Dānshuǐ Magistrate, from this moved to Dìnglíng Magistrate. The next grandson [Dèng] Qiānqiū had the time’s prestige, Merit Grandee Wáng Róng recruited him as an official. During Yǒngjiā, [Dèng] Lǎng became Xīndū Administrator, had not yet gone to office, in Xiāngyáng there was a fire, [Dèng] Lǎng and his mother and wife and children all burned to death, only his son Tāo and his son Xíng were able to escape. [Dèng] Qiānqiū had earlier died, his two sons also burned to death.

〔一〕 世語曰:咸寧中,積射將軍樊震為西戎牙門,得見辭,武帝問震所由進,震自陳曾為鄧艾伐蜀時帳下將,帝遂尋問艾,震具申艾之忠,言之流涕。先是以艾孫朗為丹水令,由此遷為定陵令。次孫千秋有時望,光祿大夫王戎辟為掾。永嘉中,朗為新都太守,未之官,在襄陽失火,朗及母妻子舉室燒死,惟子韜子行得免。千秋先卒,二子亦燒死。


Ài’s hometown of the same time had Nányáng’s Zhōu Tài, also enjoyed establishing achievements and enterprise, skilled in using troops, office reached Campaigning against Caitiffs General, Lent Staff as Regional Commander over Jiāngnán’s various military affairs. Jǐngyuán Second Year [261] died, posthumously titled Guard General, posthumous name Zhuāng-hóu “Robust Marquis.” (1)

艾州里時輩南陽州泰,亦好立功業,善用兵,官至征虜將軍、假節都督江南諸軍事。景元二年薨,追贈衛將軍,諡曰壯侯。〔一〕

  • (1) Shìyǔ states: Previously, Jīng province Inspector Péi Qián appointed Tài as an Attending Official, Sīmǎ [Yì] Xuān-wáng defended Wǎn, [Péi] Qián repeatedly sent him to visit Xuān-wáng, because of this he was known by Xuān-wáng. Reaching to the campaign against Mèng Dá, Tài also guided the army, and therefore recruited Tài. Tài successively was in mourning for his father, mother, grandfather, for nine years observing mourning. Xuān-wáng kept an opening to wait for him. Reaching to thirty-six days, he was selected as Xīnchéng Administrator. Xuān-wáng with Tài met, sending Secretariat Documenter Zhōng Yáo [probably mistake for Zhōng Yù] to tease Tài: “You left behind hemp clothing to ascend to the excellency’s offices, in thirty six days given flags and canopies, maintaining troop and horses in the prefecture. A begger riding a small carriage, why the hurry?” Tài said: “Truly it is thus. You are a famed Excellency’s son, from youth had literary talent, and therefore held scribal duties. A monkey riding a dirt ox, why so slow?” The mass of guests was all pleased. Later successively was Yǎn and Yù provincial Inspector, wherever he was he had measured achievements.

〔一〕 世語曰:初,荊州刺史裴潛以泰為從事,司馬宣王鎮宛,潛數遣詣宣王,由此為宣王所知。及征孟達,泰又導軍,遂辟泰。泰頻喪考、妣、祖,九年居喪,宣王留缺待之,至三十六日,擢為新城太守。宣王為泰會,使尚書鍾繇調泰:「君釋褐登宰府,三十六日擁麾蓋,守兵馬郡;乞兒乘小車,一何駛乎?」泰曰:「誠有此。君,名公之子,少有文采,故守吏職;獼猴騎土牛,又何遲也!」眾賓咸悅。後歷兗、豫州刺史,所在有籌算績效。

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